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Subfamily Scarabaeinae: atlas of representatives of the tribes (Scarabaeidae)

© A.V. Frolov

   The subfamily Scarabaeinae (Scarabaeidae) comprises more than 5000 species belonging to 12 tribes and some 234 genera (Cambefort, Y. 1991. Biogeography and evolution // Hanski, I. & Cambefort, Y (Ed.). Dung beetle ecology. 51-67), however the classification of the subfamily is not well established yet. Some smaller tribes (i.e. Gymnopleurini, Eurysterini, Sisyphini) are very distinctive and there is little doubt about their monophyly, while others (i.e. Dichotomiini and Canthonini) are apparently polyphyletic. The classification will definitely be modified in the near future since many workers are currently doing research in the group's phylogeny. However the results published by now are too contradictory to provide the grounds for sound classification.

    Scarabaeinae are especially diverse in tropics where they dominate another large group of dung beetles — Aphodiinae. Africa has the richest fauna of scarabaeines with more than 2000 species of 107 genera of 9 tribes. However, generic rank of some taxa, especially those in the tribes Onthophagini and Onitini, is debatable.

    The photographs below represent some genera of different tribes of the Scarabaeinae. These images were prepared as a part of the Scarabaeinae Phylogeny programme of the University of Pretoria, South Africa, and published on our site with the permission of the programme leader, Prof. Clarke Scholtz.

MRAC — Musee royal de l'Afrique centrale, Tervuren
SANC — National Insect Collection, Pretoria
UPSA — University of Pretoria insect collection, Pretoria

Tribe Dichotomiini

Heliocopris andersoni Hope
Length 45 and 43 mm
South Africa, Itala Game Reserve (UPSA)

Macroderes bias (Olivier)
Length 11 mm
South Africa, Steytlerville (UPSA)

Xinidium dentilabris Harold
Length 11 and 10 mm
South Africa, Carolina (UPSA)

Paraphytus africanus Boucomont
Length 5 mm
Republic of Congo, Arebi (MRAC)

Tribe Coprini

Pseudocopris tubericollis (Felsche)
Length 11 mm
Republic of Congo, Mukana (MRAC)

Catharsius tricornutus De Geer
Length 27 and 25 mm
South Africa, Rustenburg NR (UPSA)

Tribe Onthophagini

Proagoderus pyramidalis KLug
Length 16 and 15 mm

Proagoderus rangifer Klug
Length 11 mm

Tribe Phanaeini

Phanaeus pyrois Bates
Length 18 and 17 mm
Panama, Barro Colorado (UPSA)

Tribe Onitini

Tropidonitis paradoxus (Boheman)
Length 29 mm
Swazilend, Etosha NP (SANC)

Heteronitis castelnaui Harold
Length 33 mm
South Africa, Muzi (SANC)

Tribe Oniticellini

Oniticellus egregius Klug
Length 13 mm
Kenya, Amboseli (SANC)

Liatongus militaris (Castelnau)
Length 9 mm
Kenya, Nakuru (SANC)

Drepanocerus kirbyi Kirby
Length 4.5 and 5 mm
South Africa, Hluhluwe (SANC)

Tribe Canthonini

Anachalcos convexus Boheman
Length 25 mm
South Africa, Tswaing Nature Reserve (UPSA)

Tribe Sisyphini

Neosisyphus mirabilis Arrow
Length Єхыр 11 mm
South Africa, Hluhluwe Game Reserve (SANC)

Tribe Eurysterini

Eurysternus hamaticollis Balthasar
Length 19 mm
Equador, Napo (UPSA)

Tribe Scarabaeini

Pachysoma hippocrates MacLeay
Length 28 mm
South Africa, Kleinsee Sand Kop (UPSA)

Pachylomerus femoralis Kirby
Length 45 mm
South Africa, Richards Bay (UPSA)

Kheper aegyptuorum Latreille
Length 30 mm
Kenya, Sultan Hamid (SANC)

Drepanopodus costatus (Wiedeman)
Length 15 mm
South Africa, Twee Rivieren (SANC)

Tribe Eucraniini

Anomiopsoides heteroclytus Blanch.
Length 15 mm
Argentina, La Riosa (UPSA)

Tribe Gymnopleurini

Gymnopleurus leei Fahraeus
Length 12 mm
South Africa, Zastron (SANC)

Allogymnopleurus chloris (Fahraeus)
Length 14 mm
Zimbabwe, Umtali (SANC)

Garetta azureus (Fahraeus)
Length 22 mm
South Africa, Richards Bay (UPSA)