Contents of Proceedings of the Zoological Institute

Volume 321 (2), 2017

Date of publication — June 26, 2017

Review of the genera Smicroplectrus Thomson, 1883 and Exyston Schiodte, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae) of South Korea.

Two closely related genera, Smicroplectrus Thomson and Exyston Schiodte of the tribe Exenterini (Ichneumonidae, Tryphoninae) of South Korea are considered from collection of the Yeungnam University (YNU), Gyeongsan, Two species of Smicroplectrus were recorded before from Korea – Smicroplectrus erosus (Holmgren, 1857), and S. quinquecinctus (Gravenhorst, 1820) (Cha and Lee 1988). This material really includes 5 species of two genera of Exenterini: Smicroplectrus pedicellatus sp. nov., S. melanocerus sp. nov., S. actenon Kasparyan, 1976, Exyston clementi (Kerrich, 1952) and E. sibiricus (Kerrich, 1952). Three latter species are recorded for Korea for the first time. A new species, S. pedicellatus seems to be closely related to S. irroratus Kasparyan, 1990 from South of Russian Far East; both have pterostigma pale (brownish-yellow), and tergite 2 and 3 mainly smooth, with distinct punctures and without extensive scabrous sculpture typical of other species; by combination of two these characters both species can be distinguished from most other congeners. Unlike S. irroratus and S. melanocerus sp nov., in S. pedicellatus pedicel yellow ventrally and areolation of propodeum different. S. melanocerus is related to S. modestus Kasparyan, 1976 from Russia (Kunashir Island), but unlike to S. modestus has red coxae and apical half of antenna entirely blackish. Keys to species for both these genera occurring in South Korea are given. Smicroplectrus erosus (Holmgren, 1857) and S. quinquecinctus (Gravenhorst, 1820) are excluded from the South Korean fauna.

Autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter in trophic chain of lake ecosystems.

This work presents analysis of mass–balance model simulating biotic flows of energy in pelagial of the large lakes of Russia (Ladoga, Onego, and Baikal) and small lake in northern part of the Karelia. The model had been developed on the basis of software package Stella and intended to predict an annual production of phytoplankton, bacterio plankton and consumers (non predatory and predatory zooplankton, planktivorous and piscivorous fishes). The input (independent) abiotic parameters of the model were latitude, mean lake depth, total phosphorus content and water color. The model analyzed an involvement of the autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter in the total energy flow through trophic chain. It was underlined that bacteria are important component of the planktonic community linking the dissolved organic matter (DOM) with organisms of the trophic chain. In high humic and oligotrophic boreal lakes the plankton respiration exceeds the primary production, therefore allochthonous DOM transformed to bacterial production replaces photosynthetic production in consumer feeding. The efficiency of bacterial growth (the ratio of bacterial production to consumed energy) depends on the ratio between autochthonous and allochthonous DOM. It had been shown that efficiency of bacterial growth in lakes with high primary production was higher than in oligotrophic waters with dominated allochthonous DOM. The author discussed different–type organic matter contribution to hydrobiont production depending on total phosphorus and humic matter content. Bacterioplankton consuming allochthonous DOM is additional energy source for zooplankton. For prediction of the total biological productivity it was recommended to take into account also production of heterotrophic bacterioplankton which is involved in utilization of allochthonous DOM.

A new subspecies of the Halys pit viper Gloydius halys (Pallas, 1776) (Viperidae, Crotalinae) from Tuva and western Mongolia

Description of a new subspecies of the Halys pit viper, or Pallas pit viper, occurring on the territory of southern Tuva, western and southern Mongolia, is given in this paper. The Ubsunur pit viper, Gloydius halys ubsunurensis ssp. nov. differs from other taxa of the complex by a combination of the following morphological features: (1) a large number of ventral scales (V+PreV): 171–188; (2) a large number of subcaudal scales: 47–53 in males and 42–46 in females; (3) a large number of light bands around the body: 35–41; (4) a large number of light bands around the body and tail: 47–63; (5) a light background “desert” coloration of the body dorsal surface. Also, the new subspecies differs by its range and preferred bioclimatic habitat conditions. Populations constituting the new subspecies, on the one hand, manifest themselves as a unified totality, but, on the other hand, they are well separated from other valid taxa of the complex, that is well confirmed by the analysis of the morphological data by the methods of multivariate statistics. In the result of modeling and prediction of the potential distribution of the Ubsunur pit viper in Maxent program zones of optimum were revealed, as well as key bioclimatic factors influencing the pattern of the range. Average annual temperature makes the largest percent contribution (72.4%). The second most important index is precipitation of the wettest quarter of the year (11.1%). Average temperature of the driest quarter of the year and precipitation of the warmest quarter of the year are 7.4% and 6.6%, respectively. Identification key for the taxa of the genus Gloydius distributed on the territory of the former USSR are also given in the paper.

Late Pleistocene horse  Equus (Equus) ferus (Perissodactyla, Equidae) from the Cis-Baikal and Transbaikalia.

The paper presents morphological examination of caballoid horse remains (Equus (Equus)) from the Baikal region. The study area stretches from Angara river basin up to western Transbaikalia. Fossil material was dated to the second half of the Late Pleistocene, from Kargin Interstadial to the Late Glacial. In all 18 upper and lower jaws, 34 isolated teeth, 37 metacarpal and 56 metatarsal bones were measured. Comparative analysis of horse remains from the Cis-Baikal area, Transbaikalia, and contemporaneous material from the south of Eastern Europe, the Ural Mountains, Western and North-Eastern Siberia revealed marked intraspecific variation in the Late Pleistocene horses. Observed size variation in skeletal elements reflects temporal and regional variation in horse body size. Multivariate analysis showed that despite the significant size variation between local populations, fossil horses were homogeneous in their morphology. Relative proportions of metacarpal and metatarsal bones remained constant through the Late Pleistocene. Horse remains from the Cis-Baikal area and Transbaikalia were attributed to Equus ferus – a circumpolar species in the Late Pleistocene. Przewalski’s horse (Equus przewalskii) differs from fossil horses by the relative proportions of the limb bones. Based on morphometric analysis we can conclude that E. przewalskii did not inhabit the Baikal region during the Late Pleistocene.

Craniological variability of sables from Far East.

Sable is a valuable game species with modern area from Urals to Kamchatka Peninsula. There is a hypothesis of the Far East origin of the species and existing of the Pleistocene refugia wherefrom sables dispersed on the territory of Eurasia. We studied the intraspecies diversity of sable populations from different regions of the Far East. Previous studies have found high level of variability for skulls size and fur color of Far East populations of the sable. We analysed 22 non-metric traits of the skull of 826 animals from 14 geographic samples. Mean measure of divergence between 14 samples varied from 0.001 to 0.238. Among studied isolated populations, the sables from Sakhalin Island do not demonstrate differences from the continental sample in small aberrations of the skull, whereas the sample from the Kamchatka Peninsula is somewhat different from other samples in craniological characters. There are some population differences in sexual dimorphism: some samples (Amgun, Kamchatka, V. Kolyma, Pilda, Uda) shows similarity between males and females in frequencies of non-metric characters; other samples (Sakhalin, Zeya, Okhota, Nyukzha) have a population level of phenetic distances between sex groups. Populations of the sables from the Far East demonstrate spatial heterogeneity in variability of non-metric traits of the skull, which is also characteristic of other morphological and genetic characters studied by previous researches.

Behavior of Arvalis and Obscurus chromosomal forms of common vole (Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1779) males in the Partition test.

To compare the social and individual behaviors of common vole (Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1779) chromosomal forms («arvalis» and «obscurus») the Partition test was performed using different compositions of opponents (conspecific or heterospecific). Tests were performed in «arvalis» and «obscurus» males kept in animal facilities of the Zoological Institute (St. Petersburg, Russia). Laboratory populations originate from animals caught in the hybrid zone of these chromosome forms of voles (Vladimir region). Independent groups of animals were used for test with conspecific (N=28 for «arvalis» form; N=32 for «obscurus» form) and/or heterospecific (N=31 for both chromosomal forms) opponent. Test duration – 10 min. The behavior of animals (consequence and duration of behavioral elements) was registered by video films with special computer program «Ethograph» (ver. 2.07, RITEC, Russia). It was established that locomotor activity was greater in «obscurus» males. The level of anxiety estimated by amount of fecal boluses was higher in «arvalis» males. There were no differences in aggressive behavior of vole’s chromosomal forms, though both «arvalis» and «obscurus» were more aggressive towards individuals of heterospecific chromosomal form. The results of the present study confirm our previously published assumption about different behavioral strategies of common vole’s chromosomal forms: active-offensive for «obscurus» and passive avoidance (hiding behavior) for «arvalis».

The role of European smelt Osmerus eperlanus in fish fauna structure of the Imandra Lake Basin (Murmansk Province).

The current trends of the fish community transformation processes in the Imandra Lake Basin (Murmansk Province) under processes of climate and hydrological regime changes, intensification of water eutrophication and pollution were studied. The continuing anthropogenic pollution load on the lake together with the uncontrolled fishery and the lack of favorable conditions for fish reproduction led to a decrease of quantity and share of long-cycle stenobiont fall-spawning salmonid and coregonid species in fish fauna structure. At the same time the amount of eurybiont spring-spawning low commercial value species, such as a European smelt Osmerus eperlanus (Linnaeus) was seriously increased. It was found that the smelt population growth is accompanied by an increase in its size and weight parameters. The highest size values of this species now are comparable to smelt of the Onega and Ladoga lakes. It was also mentioned that smelt demonstrates quite an intense self-dispersion within the Imandra Lake Basin. Smelt expands rapidly within the subordinate lake and river system of Bolshaya Imandra Lake. One of the most interesting phenomena now is a process of fish self-dispersion along the Bolshaya Belaya River. It was found that the smelt shows a very active expansion of habitat, despite of the intense impact of apatite-nepheline production and strong eutrophication of water. It is shown that European smelt have good opportunity to naturalize and form an isolated self-reproducing population in a typical mountain reservoir – Bolshoi Voodyavr Lake, influenced by intensive mining industry. The observed expansive strategy of low commercial value species could be consider as invasion of alien species, reducing resistance and resource potential of the freshwater ecosystems of the North.

Volume 321 (1), 2017

Date of publication — March 24, 2017

Late Miocene Indarctos (Carnivora: Ursidae) from Kalmakpai Locality in Kazakhstan

The big bear from the genus Indarctos is studied for the Neogene fauna of Kazakhstan for the first time. Material is represented by the isolated М1 found at the Late Miocene deposits (MN13) of the Karabulak Formation of the Kalmakpai River (Zaisan Depression, Eastern Kazakhstan). Tooth size and its morphology suggest this finding to be referred to I. punjabiensis, which was widely distributed in Eurasia.

The Features of Production Processes in the Lakes of the Valaam Archipelago

The paper reports the characteristics of primary production and destruction processes in small lakes of the Valaam archipelago. The study was carried out on 11 small lakes where the natural regime of functioning is preserved. Studied lakes have different origins, morphometric and hydrochemical parameters. Investigated lakes were characterized by high concentrations of nutrients, especially in the bottom layers. Structure of phytoplankton community differed between lakes. In total, 306 species of phytoplankton had been found in the lakes of the Valaam archipelago. The highest species richness was registered for green algae, diatoms, euglenids and cyanoprokaryota. The lakes of the Valaam archipelago differed in species composition, ratio of taxonomic groups, phytoplankton abundance and biomass. Abundance of phytoplankton and biomass varied from 0.1 to 676.6 million cells/l and from 0.1 to 105.2 mg/ l, accordingly. A wide range of photosynthetic rate (from 0.0 to 4.3 mgO2/ l day and destruction (from 0.0 to 4.2 mgO2/l day) had been shown for all studied lakes. High values of the maximum primary production (Amax) were typical for Igumenskoe, Leschevoe, Krestovoe and Vitalevskoe Lakes, low values were recorded in lakes Simnyahovskoe, Antonievskoe and Nikonovskoe. Mean values Amax (1.14 ± 0.08 mgO2/l day) and maximum destruction Rmax (1.19 ± 0.07 mgO2/l day) were high in all the lakes. In most cases (90%), the maximum photosynthesis rate was registered in the water layer from a surface down to a lower border of the Secchi depth. Data on chlorophyll α content in small lakes of the Valaam archipelago are provided for the first time. It was shown that most of the lakes are mesotrophic with signs of eutrophia (TSI 50–68).

On the taxonomic position of the genera Paralusanda Synave, Paramangola Synave, Chondroptera Bergroth, and Neolollius Muir (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoroidea: Nogodinidae)

Previously treated as members of the family Issidae and currently without clear status, four genera are transferred to the family Nogodinidae: genus Paralusanda Synave, 1956 is transferred to the tribe Mithymnini Fennah, genera Chondroptera Bergroth, 1910 and Neolollius Muir, 1921 – to the tribe Tongini Kirkaldy, and genus Paramangola Synave, 1956 – to the tribe Epacriini Fennah. Male and female genitalia of Paralusanda sinuatipennis Synave, 1956 and fore and hind wings of Paramangola schmitti Synave, 1956 are illustrated for the first time. Notes on ecology of P. sinuatipennis are made.

Clypeosmilus centrodasus gen et sp. nov., a new genus and species of the family Issidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) from Northern Vietnam

Clypeosmilus centrodasus gen. et sp. nov. is described from Northern Vietnam. The genus is closely related to Eusudasina Yang, 1994 and Tapirissus Gnezdilov, 2014 according to fore wing reticulate venation and flattened laterally postclypeus.

New taxa of the subfamily Meconematinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from Africa and adjacent islands

History of the taxonomic study of Afrotropical and Madagascan Meconematinae is briefly discussed. The subtribe Acilacridina subtrib. nov. is established for a few African genera of Meconematini. Twenty six smaller new taxa of Meconematini [Kamerula korupi gen. et sp. nov., K. kameruni sp. nov., Parakamerula irisovi gen. et sp. nov., Brachyamytta rapidoaestima speculifera subsp. nov., Naskreckia gen. nov., Xiphidiola (Deinodiola) adunca subgen. et sp. nov., X. (D.) lobulata sp. nov., X. (D.) dja sp. nov., X. (D.) quadrimaculata immaculata subsp. nov., X. (Hemidiola) emarginata subgen. et sp. nov., X. (H.) minuta sp. nov., Paracilacris (Neacilacris) latiexcisa subgen. et sp. nov., Anaroegas subgen. nov.] and Phisidini [Afrophisis (Jinkevania) parva subgen. et sp. nov., Mirabiphisis subgen. nov., Longiphisis gracilis gen. et sp. nov., L. media sp. nov., Breviphisis robusta gen. et sp. nov.] are described from Cameroon, South Africa and Madagascar. Amyttosa mutillata bubiana (Bolivar, 1906), stat. nov. and Xiphidiola aliquantula nigrospinosa Bolivar, 1906, stat. nov. are restored from synonymy to A. mutillata (Karsch, 1890) and X. aliquantula (Karsch, 1893) as subspecies of these species; one former genus is considered as the subgenus Paradecolya Jin, 1992, stat. nov. within the genus Brachyphisis Chopard, 1957; several morphological, taxonomical and geographical remarks on A. mutillata and some other taxa are given.

Mexican species of Cylloceria Schiødte (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Cylloceriinae)

Seven species of the genus Cylloceria are found to occur in Mexico. Of them, C. morelia Humala et Khalaim sp. nov. is described as new, and two species, C. alvaradoi Gauld and C. rubrica Dasch, are recorded from Mexico for the first time. New data on distribution of four other species in Mexico are provided. Cylloceria alvaradoi is also recorded for the first time from Panama. An identification key to seven Mexican species of Cylloceria is given.

Long-term Monitoring of Breeding and Transient Bird Populations on the Courish Spit of the Baltic Sea

Since 1957, Biological Station Rybachy performs long-term monitoring of timing of spring and autumn migrations, timing of breeding and postfledging movements, dynamics of numbers of breeding and transient bird populations by standardized trapping in Rybachy-type funnel traps on the Courish Spit on Baltic coast. The results of monitoring strongly suggest that take place the long-term fluctuations of the timing migrations and numbers of local and transient populations. Current climate warming leads to earlier spring arrival not only in species that spend their winter within Europe, but also in long-distance African migrants. Colder weather, conversely, delays spring passage on 15–30 days. There are reasons to believe that climate change has influenced not only the timing of arrival to breeding grounds but also to the time of migratory departure from the winter quarters, both European and African ones. Climate change exerts a much smaller direct influence on the timing of autumn migration; the latter is more dependent on the timing of breeding. Earlier spring arrival usually leads to earlier breeding in the Baltic bird populations, which in its turn enhances breeding performance and leads to production of more young birds and thus to populations growth. Long-term monitoring of bird populations by Rybachy-type stationary traps is a powerful tool of studying the impact of climate on avian phenology and numbers.

Identification Key to the Intracontinental Species of the Genus Diaptonema (Nematoda: Monhysterida: Xyalidae) with a Description of New Species D. borkini sp. nov.

Until recently, the system of the family Xyalidae was extremely complicated. The characters of the genera Theristus, Cylindrotheristus, Mesotheristus, Pseudotheristus, Mongolotheristus, and others were mixed up. Many species changed their generic assignment more than once. The most recent revision (Venekey et al. 2014) resulted in the fact that in intracontinental water bodies two species only preserved their independence: Daptonema and Sacrimarinema. Genera Cylindrotheristus, Mesotheristus, Mongolotheristus, Penzancia were partially reduced to synonyms of Daptonema. The basic character in taxonomy of genera is terminal setae. This cannot be used in some cases as some individuals in some populations lack terminal setae. Development of the system of the family Xyalidae and genus Daptonema, in particular, is possible under consideration of such characteristic as spicule form and presence of tail papillae. The hermaphrodite specimen of D. borkini sp. n. is discussed separately. The article provides an identification key to intracontinental species of the genus Daptonema. The key shows the species to be found in intracontinental water bodies. The species recorded in rivers (as a rule, in estuaries and lower parts of rivers) are not taken into account, as they seem to be the marine species which are capable to survive in significantly desalinated water. The article provides the description of new species D. borkini sp. n., which is similar in morphology to D. salinae Gagarin et Gusacov, 2014 and D. limnobia Wu et Liang, 2000. The key is supplemented with the Table of the main characteristics of all intracontinental species (males) of the genus Daptonema.

From Issidae to Tettigonometridae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoroidea): on the Taxonomic Position of Issuspallipes Lucas, 1853

Originally described and previously treated as member of the family Issidae, Issus pallipes Lucas, 1853, is transferred to the family Tettigometridae, genus Tettigometra Latreille, 1804.

 

 

© Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Last modified: March 29, 2017