Contents of Proceedings of the Zoological Institute

Volume 322 (4), 2018

Date of publication — December 25, 2018

New Genus and new species of the family Issidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorryncha: Fulgoroidea) from Southern Spain

A new genus, Dozierana gen. nov., is erected for Thionia gibbicollis Dozier, 1931 which is transferred from the family Issidae Spinola, 1839 to the family Nogodinidae Melichar 1898, subfamily Colpopterinae Gnezdilov, 2003. This new combination increases the fauna of Colpopterinae of Haiti Island up to 3 genera with 5 species. Accordingly, the family Issidae is no longer formally known from the island. Dozierana gen. nov. is characterized by wide metope, with distinct median carina and very weak sublateral carinae, upper margin of metope concave; coryphe 3 times as wide as long medially; large ocelli present; pronotum short, with 4 lateral carinae, its anterior margin strongly convex and posterior margin strongly concave; mesonotum 7 times as long as pronotum along midline, greatly elevated along median carina, with two lateral carinae joined with median one in shape of inverted “V”; fore wings wide, with wide hypocostal plate and rich cross-venation through whole wing, except subcostal area; basal cell large oblong-oval; costal vein with distinct upper keel appearing as a separate vein; clavus as long as whole wing, open; hind tibiae with single lateral spine subapically.

Systematics of the American Katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Communication 8

The genera Rhammatopoda Redtenbacher, 1892 (Mecopodinae), Gnathoclita Hagenbach, 1841 (Pleminiinae), Theia Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1891, Viadana Walker, 1869, Tomeophera Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1878, Abrodiaeta Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1878, Aganacris Walker, 1871, Theudoria Stål, 1874, Ligocatinus Rehn, 1901, gen. resurr. (it is restored from synonym to Homotoicha Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1891), Ceraiaella Hebard, 1933, Enthephippion Bruner, 1915, Parableta Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1878, Chloroscirtus Saussure et Pictet, 1897 and Euthyrrachis Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1878 (Phaneropterinae), as well as Phlugiola Karny, 1907 (Meconematinae) are considered. The following new taxa are described from Peru, Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia, Surinam, Paraguay and Colombia: Rhammatopoda calabaza sp. nov. from Peru; Rh. oxapampa sp. nov. from Peru; Gnathoclita (Gnathoclita) izerskyi sp. nov. from Peru; Theia (Oxyprorella) hetairomima sp. nov. from Peru; Viadana (Paraviadana) ashaninka sp. nov. from Peru; V. (Viadana) rostrata sp. nov. from Peru; V. (V.) parobliqua sp. nov. from Ecuador; Tomeophera cellulata sp. nov. from Peru; T. para­llela sp. nov. from Peru; Abrodiaeta (Abrodiaeta) macricula sp. nov. from Peru; A. (Sclerodiaeta) propinqua subgen. et sp. nov. from Brazil; A. (S.) fruhstorferi sp. nov. from Brazil; A. (Barodiaeta) minasgerais subgen. et sp. nov. from Brazil; Rostellula minutissima gen. et sp. nov. from Peru; R. santacruzi sp. nov. from Bolivia; Separatula adunca gen. et sp. nov. from Peru and Ecuador; Theudoria (Ctenophorema stat. nov.)pyrrhopterus surinam subsp. nov. from Surinam; Ligocatinus paraguay sp. nov. from Paraguay; Ceraiaellazebrina pudica subsp. nov. from Peru; Stylibleta subgen. nov. and Oscarbleta subgen. nov. in Parableta s. l.; P. (Parableta)cercata sp. nov. from Ecuador; P. (P.) nikolaii sp. nov. from Peru; P. (?P.) denticulata sp. nov. from Bolivia; Chloroscirtuscolumbianus sp. nov. from Colombia; Euthyrrhachis consobrina elsol subsp. nov. from Bolivia; Phlugiola paratushali sp. nov. from Peru. One former genus is reduced to the subgenus Homotoicha Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1891, stat. nov. of the genus Theudoria. Amaura olivacea Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1891, A. borelli Giglio-Tos, 1897, Ligocatinus sordidus Rehn, 1921, L. minutus Rehn, 1921 and Phaneroptera quadrivittata Piza, 1967, considered previously as belonging to three species of Homotoicha, as well as Phaneropterella infumata Piza, 1977 are transferred to the genus Enthephippion with establishing the following synonymy: Phaneropterella Piza, 1977, syn. nov. = Enthephippion; E. olivaceum comb. nov. = Ph. quadrivittata; E. borelli sp. resurr. et comb. nov. (it is restored from synonymy to E. olivaceum) = L. sordidus syn. nov.; E. minutum comb. nov. and E. infumatum comb. nov. are possible synonyms of each other. Homotoicha amazoniensis Cadena-Castañeda, 2015 is here included in the genus Euthyrrhachis (as E. amazoniensis comb. nov.). Some other new data on the above-mentioned genera are also given.

New Genus for Thionia gibbicollis Dozier, 1931 (Hemiptera: Auchenorryncha: Fulgoroidea: Nogodinidae) from Haiti

A new genus, Dozierana gen. nov., is erected for Thionia gibbicollis Dozier, 1931 which is transferred from the family Issidae Spinola, 1839 to the family Nogodinidae Melichar 1898, subfamily Colpopterinae Gnezdilov, 2003. This new combination increases the fauna of Colpopterinae of Haiti Island up to 3 genera with 5 species. Accordingly, the family Issidae is no longer formally known from the island. Dozierana gen. nov. is characterized by wide metope, with distinct median carina and very weak sublateral carinae, upper margin of metope concave; coryphe 3 times as wide as long medially; large ocelli present; pronotum short, with 4 lateral carinae, its anterior margin strongly convex and posterior margin strongly concave; mesonotum 7 times as long as pronotum along midline, greatly elevated along median carina, with two lateral carinae joined with median one in shape of inverted “V”; fore wings wide, with wide hypocostal plate and rich cross-venation through whole wing, except subcostal area; basal cell large oblong-oval; costal vein with distinct upper keel appearing as a separate vein; clavus as long as whole wing, open; hind tibiae with single lateral spine subapically.

The use of GIS-modeling for the analysis of the distribution of three-lined lizard, Lacerta media Lantz et Cyren, 1920, in the territory of Dagestan (Russia)

The publication presents the results of GIS modelling using the MaxEnt 3.3.3k program for the distribution of the Lacerta media Lantz et Cyrén, 1920 in the past, present time and future. During the analysis, the geographical coordinates of 26 places of finds of the species in the territory of Dagestan were used. The obtained models of past distribution (the Last Glacial Maximum and Middle Holocene) in the northeastern part of the Caucasus demonstrate a stable location of a potentially suitable territory within the boundaries of the known modern range. It was shown no noticeable changes in the range of the species with potential climate warming in the future (2050 and 2070). We can conclude that there are no threats to the species from global warming, in addition, the anthropogenic impact on Dagestan populations is minimal. The most promising areas were identified for the search for new populations: upstream and downstream the Samur, Kurakh, Andy-Koysu and Avar Koysu rivers. In addition, they include the gorges in the middle reaches of the Gamriozen, Halagork, Uluchay and Chiragchay rivers. This territory is poorly studied by herpetologists.

The Benthic Fauna of the Lov Inlet (The Kandalaksha bay, the White Sea): up to Date and Forty Years Old Archival Material

Sea-floor communities of the scoop-type Lov Inlet (the White Sea, the Kandalaksha Bay) were investigated. The comparison with similar data from the beginning of 1970th was carried out. It was found that under the pycnocline the Arctic type fauna with dominating species Portlandia arctica still remains. Above the pycnocline, essential changes have been found in comparison with 40 years old data. Bivalve mollusks had been dominating in 1970-s, while now the Polychaeta species Alitta virens holds a leading position. Also, strong changes were observed within community of the head-inlet threshold. In 1970-s a dense settlement of brown algae Saccharina latissima had been recorded on the most of the area. In 2010-s, only single thalli of this species were encountered. The water-column structure was analyzed in details. Integrated vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen content were investigated. It was found out, that the oxycline was situated almost at the same depth with the pycnocline . The oxygen content increased with the depth. Such situation is possible only when deep-water exchange occurs during winter time. This allows to propose that in winter time cold water enriched by oxygen drains from the surface into scoops near-bottom water-layers. From our observations, it was suggested that the summer stratification of the Lov Inlet waters is a result of winter advective processes. The time of complete water exchange in the inlet was estimated on the base of data on the fresh-water drain and compensative reverse flow, using the model and taking into account mixing processes. This time is equal to approximately 200 years. It allowed to assess the risk managementof the inlet. As a result, we recommend to prohibit any activity which may restrict water-exchange and provoke organic pollution.

Volume 322 (3), 2018

Date of publication — September 26, 2018

To the 100th anniversary of Vadim Evgen’evich Garutt (October 12, 1917 – March 28, 2002)

The article contains a biography of the famous Russian paleontologist V.E. Garutt (1917–2002), the oldest research worker of the Zoological institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, who studied the Pleistocene elephants of Northern Eurasia. He published more than 70 scientific papers on the origin and evolution of elephants of mammoth line, the morphology, changeability and features of the development of ancient proboscides. V.E. Garutt suggested two subfamilies Primelephantinae and Loxodontinae. He is the author of several taxa of fossil elephants of the generic, specific and subspecific levels. On his initiative, the skeleton of the Taimyr mammoth was adopted as the neotype of the woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius. He actively defended the independence of the genus Archidiskodon. A number of famous and important for the science paleontological specimens (skulls and skeletons of southern elephants, trogontherine and woolly mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses and elasmotherium) were restored and mounted by V.E. Garutt. They adorn a number of museums and institutes in Russia (St. Petersburg, Stavropol, Pyatigorsk, Azov, Rostov-on-Don) and abroad (Tbilisi, Vilnius, Edersleben, Sangerhausen). In addition, V.E. Garutt was an active popularizer of paleontological science. He collected a scientific archive on the remains of elephants from many regions of the former Soviet Union and some countries of Western Europe, which is now stored in the Azov museum-reserve (Azov). Several grateful pupils began their way in paleontology under the leader ship of V.E. Garutt. And they continue active work nowadays.

Fascinated by the elephant

The description of childhood and the main stages of life of Vadim Evgenevich Garutt, as well as the fate of his parents, is given. The stages of making up of his personality as a specialist on modern and ancient animals, including elephants, are shown. His fate is closely intertwined with the history of Russia of the 20th century. It was influenced by revolutionary events in Russia and the Great Patriotic War, evacuation and difficult post-war years, suffered contusion and serious illnesses. Beginning from the school age, when he visited a study group of Young Zoologists and worked up at the Leningrad Zoo, the life confronted him with interesting people and situations that allowed Garutt to become an expert in morphology and evolution of mammoths and other Quaternary proboscideans. Such personalities as B.V. Pestinsky, A.P. Bystrov, Yu.A. Orlov, L.V. Oshanin, M.M. Gerasimov, B.E. Bykhovsky and other scientists played an important role in his fate. In addition to studying the teeth and bone remains of ancient elephants, he carried out an active museum work, mounting and restoration of fossil elephants and rhinoceroses’ skeletons. The results of his research are published in a number of important monographs and articles that are important for the systematic of the Eurasian proboscides and biostratigraphy of the Pleistocene.

Problems of the taxon Archidiskodon meridionalis gromovi Garutt et Alexejeva, 1964 validity: diagnosis, stratigraphic spreading and paleoecology

Elephants of the mammoth lineage are important for the biostratigraphy of the Early Pleistocene of Eurasia. For Eastern Europe and adjacent regions, a sequence of subspecies has been distinguished, which replaced each other during the Villafranchian. Archidiskodon meridionalis gromovi is the middle Villafranchian phase of these elephants’ evolution and a characteristic member of the Khapry faunal complex of Eastern Europe. This species was described based on a serial collection of teeth from the Khaprovian layers that are outcropping in the Northeast Sea of Azov Region in several sand pits and coastal cross sections (Khapry, Liventsovka, Morskaya 1 and others). The holotype of this species is a nearly complete skull with significantly worn teeth. Therefore, some of its tooth characteristics (lamellar frequency, enamel thickness) have a relatively progressive level and coincides with those of A. m. meridionalis lectotype. This fact led to attempts to replace the taxon A. m. gromovi to others, based on single finds or mixed small samples. The existing objections to the validity of this taxon are mainly related to the underestimation or reassessment of the range of variability of the samples’s characteristics from different localities. It is shown that the lectotype of A. m. meridionalis was chosen not very well, because the lamellar frequency and the enamel thickness of its teeth significantly differ from the average characteristics of the Late Villafranchian sample from the Upper Valdarno. Some authors, recognizing the existence of a primitive form of southern elephants, refer the Middle Villafranchian meridionaloid elephants to Early Villafranchian Mammuthus (=Archidiskodon) rumanus or to the typical Late Villafranchian M. (=A.) meridionalis. Attempts to abandon the use of Gromov’s elephant taxon leads to confusion in the taxonomy of the genus and the inability to use such definitions for biostratigraphic and paleogeographic structures. The work provides a renewed diagnosis of the subspecies A. m. gromovi. The range of variability and the average sampling rates from the Khaprovian layers of the Sea of Azov Region differ from those of the Late Villafranchian A. m. meridionalis from Upper Valdarno. A. m. gromovi is a valid taxon, and is characterized both by cranial and serial dental stratigraphically attached material.

Early Quaternary history of the genus Archidiskodon (Proboscidea, Elephantidae) in Western Siberia: to the question of intermediate links in mammoth lineage

The paper is concerned with the early representatives of the Archidiskodon–Mammuthus lineage from the sediments of Lower Pleistocene of the South of Western Siberia (Kuznetsk Basin). Several forms were being described within the genus Archidiskodon (A. meridionalis, A. m. tamanensis, A. m. voigtstedtensis, A. aff. wusti) which represent consecutive steps of progressive development of the lineage on the early stage of its evolution. Morphometric features of molars (M3) have been studied using the author’s original method designed for this group, which allowed specifying systematic attribution of the taxa under study and their position in the structure of the mammoth lineage. It was demonstrated that the form previously distinguished as Wust’s elephant and later attributed to the species M. trogontherii significantly differs from the latter in frequency and length of the plates. This form also stands out well statistically and is regarded as a separate and the latest taxon among the Archidiskodon group of elephants. A. wusti occupies a distinct position of an intermediate form (a ‘bridge’ as H. Pohlig put it) between the genera Archidiskodon and Mammuthus in the structure of the mammoth lineage. Thus, the multi-dimensional diagrams used in our method permit to take a step close to revealing of so-called intermediate links in the mammoth lineage. Direction of phyletic development and some adaptations of the group in the second half of Early Pleistocene are also discussed. Account is also given to the accompanying fauna and the existence period of these species on the territory under study.

About cases of pathology of the dental system In Archidiskodon meridionalis meridionalis (Nesti, 1825) from Georgievsk sand pit (Stavropol Territory, Russia)

Two cases of the dental system’s dysfunction in Archidiskodon meridionalis meridionalis found in the Georgievsk sand pit (Stavropol Territory, Russia; Early Pleistocene, Psekups Faunal complex) are described. One of the tusks is missing in one of the elephant’s skull, and its alveolus is overgrown. Probably, the tusk was broken off already in the alveolus at the adult animal, after which its growth process did not renew. On the skull from a skeleton of the second animal on the left upper jaw there is a disturbance of the M2 teeth change on M3 teeth. Tooth M2 is somewhat displaced lingually because of its falling delay. The anterior part of tooth M3 is beveled buccally relatively to the axis of the crown approximately at 104°. At the same time, the medial half of the first six enamel plates were significantly turned out laterally. On the other teeth noticeable changes were not noted. An obvious cause of this anomaly was a disruption of M3 growth rate and slowing of the rate of crown wearing and resorption of two posterior roots of M2. The described pathology was probably not a consequence of genetic predispositions, infection, or trauma. There are signs of osteodystrophy at separate bones of the skeleton.

Remains of Mammuthus intermedius Jourdan, 1861 from the type localities of the Khazar fauna of the Lower Volga Region

The remains of teeth of different generations and jaws of the mammoth Mammuthus intermedius from the type localities of the Khazar faunal complex Cherniy Yar / Nizhnee Zaimische (late Middle Pleistocene – early Late Pleistocene, Lower Volga Region, Astrakhan Province, Russia) are described. The specimens are stored in the collection of the Astrakhan Museum-Reserve. Teeth M3 / m3 of this elephant consist, on average, of 22–24 enamel plates, with a lamellar frequency of 7.5–7.7 per 10 cm, and an enamel thickness of 1.8–1.9 mm. This species, described from the similar age deposits of Western Europe, appeared to be widely distributed in Eurasia during the period of the Saalian and the Eemian periods. The comparative analysis showed a marked difference between the teeth of this taxon from the same of M. trogontherii from Sussenborn (Germany), Tiraspol (Transnistria) and Kagalnik sand pit (Northeast Sea of Azov Region, Russia), the M. trogontherii chosaricus holotype by lamellar frequency, the length of single plate, enamel thickness and the total number of plates. The same differences were also revealed from Late Pleistocene woolly mammoths from Taimyr and Yakutia, including the neotype of M. primigenius primigenius. The similarity of the examined teeth from the collection of the Astrakhan Museum-Reserve to the teeth of M. intermedius from Western and Eastern Europe and Western Siberia was detected. M. intermedius, probably, was the most mass species of elephants of this period and occupied steppe biotopes. Less numerous M. trogontherii chosaricus and Palaeoloxodon antiquus with which it co-existed may have been the inhabitants of more forested landscapes.

Aberrant woolly mammoth remains in the collection of the Ice Age Museum

The largest private natural history museum dedicated to the last stage of the Cenozoic history of northeastern Russia, the Ice Age Museum stores and studies the remains of fossil and modern Arctic mammals. Its funds include skeletons, isolated bones and teeth. A special place in the collection is occupied by the remains of a mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799), with unusual and rarely encountered morphological features. The aberrant specimens are divided into three groups: skeletal remains, bones and teeth. The most expressive of them are characterized. Abnormalities found on the skeleton of a mammoth female from the Taimyr Peninsula (displacement of teeth m2 and m3 transversely to the mandibular bone, lifetime fractures of the ribs and incomplete fusion of the neural arc of the atlas), we attribute to individual characteristics. Growth of thoracic vertebrae tissues due to ligamentos and ostephitos, considerable deformations of cervical and thoracic vertebrae are pathologies that hampered the life of mammoths and led to death. The most frequent of them, according to our materials, is the bend of the posterior part of the crown (varying degrees of intensity) and the development of horizontal furrows parallel to the level of the chewing surface and the lysis of the outer cement as a result of the action of the oral microorganisms. The most frequent deviations in the structure of the buccal teeth, according to our materials, are two: 1) the bend of the posterior part of the crown (varying degrees of intensity); 2) the dissolution lines on the cement of the crown parallel to the chewing surface as a result of the vital activity of microorganisms in the oral cavity. New cases of tusks’ aberrations are described: dentinal clots in the wall of the tusk alveoli and at the base of the tusk, annular constrictions fixing the growth retardation, deviations in the formation of annual cone-shaped increments. The aberrant remains illustrate the life history of a fossil elephant.

Parasitic diseases of woolly mammuth (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach, 1799)

Paleontological studies are basically the studies of skeletal remains of organisms. However, the discovery of frozen mummies of Pleistocene mammals with preserved soft tissues and internal organs makes it possible to identify some features of animal biology that are inaccessible to the study of skeletons. Fossil frozen mummies become a valuable source of information on diet, seasons of death, migration and ecology, diseases, including parasitic diseases. The cases of detection of fossil parasites in the remains of Pleistocene mammals are always rare and random. Until recently there have been no dedicated effort to search for fossil parasites. Parasites of the Indigirka ground squirrel, the Egorov narrow-skull vole, the Pleistocene steppe bison, the Lena horse (Equus lenensis Russanov, 1968), and the woolly mammoth are known at the moment. This paper presents an overview of parasite finds in woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799). For two centuries of studies of this species, a large volume of diverse data have been accumulated. The aim of this work was a making the review of cases of detection of parasites in mammoth. We discuss the specific cases of mammoth mummy studies, namely the Berezovka mammoth, the Shandrin mammoth, the Kirgilyakh mammoth, the Sopochnaya Karga Mammoth. As a result, the presence of following ectoparasites of the order Diptera was established: Cobboldia (Mamontia) russanovi Grunin, 1973, and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. The stomach botfly Cobboldia (Mamontia) russanovi is highly specific ectoparasite of woolly mammoth. Also helminths of classes Nematoda and Cestoda were found in the mammoth mummies. At the present, it is not possible to reliably determine the species-specific endoparasite of woolly mammoth.

Results of latest paleontological, stratigraphic and geoarchaeological research of the Volchia Griva mammoth fauna site

The Volchia Griva is the largest site in Asia where the mammoth fauna remains are buried in situ. It is located in the Baraba forest-steppe (Western Siberia). In the 20th century, remains of at least 70 mammoths, 5 horses, 3 bisons and 1 wolf, as well as 37 stone artifacts were found here. The latest excavations of 2015–2017 on ~30 m2 revealed over 1500 bones and teeth, 95% of which belong to mammoths (at least 14 individuals), and the rest are from horses (3), bison, wolf, red fox, arctic fox, and rodents; associated artifacts – 23 items. With an average thickness of the bonebearing lens ~ 0.3–0.5 m, the local remain concentration exceeded 130/m2. The forty five crossed 14C dates were obtained from these materials, which reveal a burial period of ~20–10 ka BP. Obviously, there was the southernmost and one of the youngest mammoth refugia of Eurasia on this territory. The favorable Ca-Na geochemical landscape of the beast solonetz was the main reason for mammoth to visit the Volchia Griva. During the mineral starvation, the site attracted hundreds of large mammals, the remains of which were buried in mud baths and erosion forms. The main levels of the bone-bearing horizon have been forming for several thousand years, and that matched two waves of the megafauna’s geochemical stress in the Last Glacial Maximum and Late Glacial. Typical bone pathologies, such as exostoses, osteoporosis, erosion of articular surfaces, etc., characterize this process. These facts, together with the lack of strong evidence of hunting and butchering, indicate that the Volchia Griva was the natural mammoth death site, which was well known and used by Palaeolithic humans.

Horses and ancient people: zooarchaeological investigation of Muhkai 2a

The paper presents zooarchaeological analysis of the remains of Stenon horse Equus (Allohippus) stenonis from the site Muhkai 2a (layer 2), Central Dagestan, Russia. They are of special interest because of their large number and can testify to one of the first visits of an ancient man in the North Caucasus – about 1.95 million years ago. As a result of the comparison of the composition and ratio of the Stenon horse bones, their taphonomic features, showed that the site is the result of natural death of the animals. It is assumed that the bulk of the bones were laid in the deposits of a once shallow, periodically drying out and strongly silted reservoir with weakly flowing or standing water. After complete drying of the reservoir, the paleontological material was sealed in a clay mass, which in turn was buried during further geological processes. Based on this, we suggest a possible scenario for the formation of the bone accumulation. Most likely, it was a watering place for various animals, where some of them perished for natural reasons, for example, they got bogged down, drowned, and someone of them became prey for predators. Later, there was a burial of whole corpses, or parts thereof, transported to the pond. Obviously, the bodies of recently dead animals could not help attracting an ancient man, being an easily accessible source of protein food. The presence of artifacts and cut marks on the femur of Stenon horse indicate the presence of an ancient man in Muhkai 2a (layer 2), but the human activity seems to have played a minimal role in the taphocenosis forming.

New Transbaikalian finds of the Muja Valley vole (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Alexandromys mujanensis)

The Muja vole, Alexandromys mujanensis Orlov et Kovalskaya, 1975, was described in the result of the karyological analysis and experimental hybridization. Since the first description the Muja vole has been considered to inhabit only the Muja Valley. Some Far Eastern voles were collected in 2013 and 2014 from the Dzherginsky Nature Reserve of the Barguzin Valley (Dzhirga sample), and the Baunt Lake vicinity (Baunt sample) (Transbaikalia, Buryatia). The species from these geographic localities were identified by use of karyotypic and cytb-gene analyses. On the cytb-gene tree these voles are in the same clade with Muja voles from the type locality (the Muja Valley). The karyotype of the vole from Barguzin Valley corresponds to that previously described for the Muja voles (Meyer et al. 1996). According to the result of the shape analysis of m1 occlusal surface the sample from the Baunt Valley includes two species – A. mujanensis and A. maximowiczii. Unless more detailed analysis of the material from the different parts of the Baunt Valley is carried out, we suppose it to be inhabited by three species – A. maximowiczii, A. mujanensis, and according to the data from literature – A. oeconomus. So far as some molecular-genetic differences between Muja voles from the Dzhirga and Baunt Lake vicinity were found, the experiments on hybridization between them were set. The F1 hybridization between them were fertile. A. mujanensis taxonomic position and terms of its origination are discussed.

Volume 322 (2), 2018

Date of publication — June 25, 2018

Rediscovery of the steppe viper in Georgia

The steppe viper was rediscovered in Georgia after 75 years. A comprehensive analysis of external morphology, altitude gradient in habitats, typology of biotopes and genetic analysis revealed a high degree of similarity of populations of the steppe vipers from Azerbaijan, known as Pelias shemakhensis Tuniyev et al., 2013, and from East Georgia. These data were used for comparative study and description of a new subspecies – P. shemakhensis kakhetiensis ssp. nov. The subspecies name is after historical region of Georgia – Kakheti, where a large part of the range is located. In the pattern of recent distribution of P. shemakhensis, there are common habitat and climatic characteristics in Georgian and Azerbaijan parts of this its range. Its position among the species complex and relations with other taxa of this complex are discussed. Based on the results of the cluster and discriminant analyses, P. eriwanensis and P. lotievi should be given a subspecies rank, whereas P. shemakhensis clearly deserves a species rank. Results of the genetic analysis are opposite: P. shemakhensis and P. eriwanensis are considered as sister species. We continue to share an idea about autochthonous origin for small shield-head vipers of the Caucasus, taking into account their ancient origin in the Caucasian Ecoregion and astonished variety of forms of the “kaznakovi”-complex and “ursinii”-complex both on the Great Caucasus and in the Transcaucasia.

A new subspecies of the black redstart – Phoenicurus ochruros murinus subsp. nov. from the Altai-Sayan Mountainous Country and the current breeding range of the black redstart

On the basis of literature and collection materials, as well as photographs with geo-referencing from various sources, the actual breeding range of the Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros (Gmelin, 1774) was compiled. For the Asian part of the range, a probabilistic model is constructed for the geographic distribution of the species by the maximum entropy method, which is used to refine the range in some of its regions. Based on the collection materials of the Zoological Museum of the Moscow State University (Moscow), Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg) and Institute of Zoology of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Almaty), a comparison of the breeding plumages of adult male Black Redstarts from the Asian part of the range was carried out. The revealed differences made it possible to describe a new subspecies from Altai, Tuva, Northern China and Western Mongolia – Phoenicurus ochruros murinus Fedorenko subsp. nov., which is distinguished from the neighboring Turkestan subspecies Ph. o. phoenicuroides by the absence of any contrast in the colour of the head, nape and back; all of which are concolourous dark grey. From Latin, the subspecies name “murinus” is translated as “mouse grey”, which characterises the colour of the upperparts of the bird. A revision of other subspecies of the Asian Black Redstart group was carried out and a map of their distribution was compiled.

Species-specific attraction call of the blackbird (Turdus merula) in the periods of seasonal migration and breeding

We present the results of the analysis of 346 spectrograms of the species-specific attraction call tsiirr issued during daytime and night migration, at migratory stopovers and during breeding by Blackbirds (Turdus merula). The duration of this type signal varies within the range of 102–359 ms, and its frequency is in the intermediate and high frequency range from 5.1 to 9.9 kHz. In the spectrograms most tsiirr signals have one high-frequency and one lower-frequency modulated band. It is assumed that such a structure of this signal allows the birds to maintain contact at a great distance and to determine each other’s spatial position. Temporary and frequency characteristics of the species-specific attraction calls of Blackbirds during nocturnal and daytime migration did not differ significantly. The species-specific attraction calls during the migration flight had on average a much narrower range of sounding than at stopovers. This difference could have been caused by stronger degradation of the signal structure during propagation in migratory flight than at stopovers. The analysis of the spectrograms of the species-specific attraction calls in two pairs of adult Blackbirds during breeding revealed significant individual variation. Signals of migrating individuals at stopovers were shorter and broader than in adult breeding Blackbirds. Our studies of Blackbird acoustic signals, as well as of signals of two other thrush species, Song Thrushes (T. philomelos) and Redwings (T. iliacus), show that during diurnal and nocturnal migratory flights, they use only one type of signal, the speciesspecific attraction call. This call is also used by the birds for communication during migratory stopovers. No specialized migratory signals are given by thrushes during their seasonal movements.

Contribution of Russian zoologists to the collecting and first descriptions of the World avian fauna

A brief overview is given of the formation of museum collections of birds in Russia, collected as a result of academic expeditions around the world and across Russia. The imperishable value of zoological collections, concentrated in zoological museums and institutes, is underlined. The results of expeditions are described in chronology, beginning with 18th century (they were conducted under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Imperial Russian Geographical Society): the First Siberian expedition (D.G. Messershmidt), the First Kamchatka and the Great Northern expeditions (V.I. Bering, А.I. Chirikov, G.F. Muller, G.V. Stoller, I.G. Gmelin, S.P. Krasheninnikov), Great academic expeditions across Russia (P.S. Pallas, S.G. Gmelin, I.A. Guldenstadt, I.I. Lepyokhin, I.P. Falk, I.G. Georgi), round-the-world sea expeditions (I.F. Kruzenshtern and Yu.F. Lisyansky, F.F. Bellingshausen and M.P. Lazarev, F.G. Kittlitz and A.K. Mertens), as well as expeditions to Brazil (G. I. Langsdorf and E.P. Menetries) and expedition of I.G. Voznesensky in Russian America, the Commanders and Kamchatka. Reference is made to the importance of zoological expeditions of K.F. von Baer, A.F. Middendorf, G.I. Radde, N.A. Severtsov, M.N. Bogdanov, G.E. and M.E. Grumm-Grzhimailo. Particular attention is paid to the great Asian campaigns to Central Asia in the late XIX – early XX century of NM. Przevalsky, V.I. Roborovsky, P.K. Kozlov, G.N. Potanin, M.V. Pevtsov, B.L. Grombchevsky, M.A. Pyltsov and N.A. Zarudny. The contribution of the ornithologists of Russia M.N.Bogdanov, M.M. Berezovsky, M.A. Menzbir, V.L. Bianchi, F.D. Pleske, V.I. Dybowski, V.A. Godlewski, M.I. Jankowski, V.K. Taczanowski, P.P. Sushkin and S.A. Buturlin to the bird systematics at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of XX century is described. In conclusion, it is said about the unique value of zoological collections for the study of taxonomy and phylogeny, including on the basis of molecular genetic studies.

Bison bonasus bonasus as a museum exhibit in the 18th – early 20th centuries

The paper discusses the Białowieża bison (Bison bonasus bonasus) as a museum exhibit in the 18th – early 20th centuries, basing on the analysis of archival documents, mainly from St. Petersburg. One of the last remnants of extinct megafauna once roaming through Europe, by the Early Modern time it had been eliminated in the most part of its previous range. In the 16th –18th century, it had the status of a natural curiosity and an exclusively royal game. In the 18th century, the carcasses of the European bison from the imperial menageries went into the cabinets of curiosities where they became the objects of study for naturalists. By the late 18th century, the last population of the European lowland bison had survived in Białowieża Primeval Forest, which became a part of the Russian Empire with the Third partition of Poland. The attention of the Imperial family, which preserved the system of protection of the European bison and the forest where they lived, ensured the survival of the species till WWI. The development of zoology and zoological collections provided a new status to the Białowieża bison – the status of a valuable gift of the Russian Tsar to a scientific community. To receive such a precious gift, a scientific community had to use its diplomatic and bureaucratic channels, to recruit a naturalist willing to travel to Białowieża, to organize a hunt, to process the skin and bones, and finally, to deliver this massive package to a museum. Nevertheless, throughout the second half of the 19th century, most requests made by European and Russian naturalists were granted and the majority of zoological museums received the European bison from Białowieża, either in form of a stuffed animal, a skeleton, or at least a skull. The transformation of the 17–18th century Kunstkammern into research zoological institutions and the development of taxidermy went in parallel with the transformation of the European bison as a museum exhibit. Stuffed animals became anatomically accurate; new expositions included habitat groups, and some institutions amassed extensive collections for comparative study. The presence of the European bison almost in every major European museum made them well known for wider public. In 1919, the last Białowieża bison was killed in the wild, but the popularity of this species helped the restitution of the animal. Nowadays, the “old” specimens are of interest not only from a historical point of view, but also as a source of samples for genetic research.

Variability and its types: the differential approach

One of the key aims of current biology is to describe adequately the tremendous multiplicity of living organisms. This aim requires clear terminological apparatus. However, many terms traditionally used in such descriptions are rather vague and ambiguous. In particular, this relates to ‘variability’ and ‘variation’. In the present review, we carried out a critical analysis of these terms. We demonstrate that the widely accepted tradition to consider them as almost synonymous is incorrect. Moreover, both terms are initially ambiguous and thus are poorly suitable for biologists. To avoid this ambiguity, we clearly delineate three phenomena: 1) biological changeability, 2) certain biological changes, and 3) biological diversity. There is an obvious three-component relation between them: changeability realizes in certain biological changes (metamorphoses, mutations, modifications, etc.) which in turn result in biological diversity. Herein, the first component is entirely dynamic (the ability of living organisms to undergo various changes), the second aggregates both dynamic and static aspects (a certain event leads to a specific state), and the third is represented by some static ‘cadaster’, which describes the state of a given biological unity at some point of time. We classified different types of changeability. To create such classification, autonomous aspects of changeability should be distinguished and each of them should be considered separately. This approach (we name it ‘the differential concept of changeability’) allows successful resolution of multiple terminological problems in current biology.

Volume 322 (1), 2018

Date of publication — March 23, 2018

On taxonomic status of shiled-head vipers from Turkish Lesser Caucasus and East Anatolia

A high morphological specialization is noted for vipers from the isolated populations of the Otlubekli Daglari Ridge, Zekeriya Village, Ardahan pass, Mt. Ilgar-Dag (Turkey), Javakheti Plateau (Armenia, Georgia). New forms of shield-head vipers are described from the Turkish Lesser Caucasus and east Turkey: Pelias sakoi sp. nov. (Otlubekli Daglari Ridge), Pelias darevskii uzumorum ssp. nov. (Southern limestone part of the Yalnizcam Daglari Ridge), Pelias darevskii kumlutasi ssp. nov. (Northern volcanic part of the Yalnizcam Daglari Ridge). Keys to identification of species and subspecies of the Pelias darevskii-olguni complex are given, and ecological differences of its representatives are discussed. The cluster and discriminant analyses on morphological features allow us to consider these vipers as separate taxa, whereas the molecular analysis on cytb does not give significant differences for most populations. This result should not be perceived unambiguously in favor of conspecificity of the considered populations. In addition to the morphological differences of the vipers, we consider such ecological differences as biotope preference, age and size of the puberty, the history of landscapes and habitats, mezoclimatic habitat characteristics, etc. Given the southern location of the Otlubekli Daglari Ridge and no signs of glaciation there, the vipers from the vicinity of Erzincan should be regarded as an ancient relic isolated form. The climate of this area has contributed to the conservation of ancient Eastern Mediterranean relics both among plants and animals.

A new species of the genus Cixius (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae) from Krasnodar Territory

Cixius (Orinocixius) lermontovi sp. nov. is described from Black see coast of Krasnodar Territory of Russia. This is 6th species of the genus Cixius Latreille recorded from this region so far and 27th species for the fauna of Russia. The new species differs from all other species of the subgenus Orinocixius by small size (body length with wings) – 3.0 mm. C. (O.) lermontovi sp. nov. is closely related to C. (O.) cambricus China, 1935 and C. (O.) carniolicus Wagner, 1939 according to arrangement and size of phallotheca teeth and length of male anal tube, but well distinguished by body size and dark brown coloration of the head, pro-, and mesonotum. C. (O.) lermontovi sp. nov. is characterized by wide pygofer, with hind margins strongly convex, male anal tube 4 times as long as wide medially, phallotheca with two lateral areas of weak sclerotization, denticles ventrally and two lobe-shaped combs dorsally – left comb deeply concave proximally and right comb convex, 3 movable teeth are near to the base of the distal segment of penis – upper tooth large, directed upwards and lower tooth small, directed downwards on left side, one large tooth directed upwards on the right side, lower margin of phallotheca with two strong teeth proximally.

Influence of the environmental factors on species diversity and quantitative development of zoobenthos  in the Neva Bay

Hydrochemical characteristics, primary production of plankton, taxonomic composition, species richness, species diversity and quantitative characteristics of the benthic fauna of the Neva Bay had been collected and analyzed at the end of July and the very beginning of August 2003–2012 by the method stepwise regression, calculated equations with a free constant. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the structural and functional characteristics of benthic communities in the Neva Bay were evaluated using multiregression analysis. Research period had been accompanied by revival of industry of Saint-Petersburg, construction of ports, active navigation, development of Sea facade and completion of the construction of the St. Petersburg Flood Prevention Facility Complex and a large-scale hydrotechnical works: building of a Marine Multifunctional Reloading Complex (MMRC) “Bronka” and approach fairway to it. Results of statistical analysis showed that the number of species and species diversity of bottom animals in the Neva Bay declined with increased primary production and chlorophyll a concentration. Analysis of the factors influencing the values of biomass of benthic animal communities shows that these characteristics increased with growing chlorophyll concentration. During the anthropogenic stress of 2006–2007, the existing links between the structural characteristics of the zoobenthos and the functional biotic characteristics of the Neva Bay were completely destroyed. Restoration period 2008–2012 was accompanied by an increase in the species richness and species diversity of zoobenthos to the level observed before anthropogenic stress.

Zooplankton of mountain and lowland waterbodies of Northwestern India

In 2013–2015, 9 waterbodies situated in mountain and lowland regions of Northwestern India were studied. 46 species of zooplankton organisms were revealed, among them 18 Rotifera species, 20 Cladocera, 8 Copepoda, and 1 species of Anostraca. For this part of India, it was the first time detected 8 Rotifera species, 5 Cladocera, and 2 Copepoda. Cosmopolites and Paleotropic species were registered in all waterbodies studied in the Himalayans and lowland India. Palearctic and Holarctic species — in the Himalayans only. Tropic species were found in lowland India only. Species number and zooplankton species diversity index were low. Zooplankton density was relatively high in one from four mountain lakes and in all lowland waterbodies (99–487 thousands ind./m3). Zooplankton biomass was low (0.04–8.00 g/m3) in both mountain and lowland lakes, in exception two lowland lakes with wind onset and overwintering place for large birds. Rotifera dominated by biomass only in mountain region. Cladocera predominated in zooplankton density and biomass in majority of studied waterbodies. This group was represented by coastal and macrophyte forms which are usual for shallow waterbodies. Copepoda were abundant in five studied waterbodies and basically were represented by Cyclopoida. Calanoida group (Diaptomidae) was revealed in only one lowland lake located in a desert. Macrofiltrators represented the main part of zooplankton trophic structure. Microphages and predators subdominated in zooplankton communities.

 

 

 

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