Contents of Proceedings of the Zoological Institute

Volume 312 (1/2), 2008

Date of publication — December 10, 2008

Preface.

This publication represents an ordinary volume of Proceedings of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which, starting with this volu me, will be published as a periodical (journal). Pro ceedings ZIN has been published since 1932 and sprang from the Annual of the Zoological Museum of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, published from 1896 to 1932. During this time Proceedings ZIN was a serial publication. The Zoological Institute RAS is a leading institution in the field of zoology in Russia. It is one of the oldest natural-science institutions in this country, uniting specialists in different branches of zoology. Many similar institutions with a long history publish their own journals, which have authority. The renovated version of the Proceedings ZIN, as a peerreviewed journal publishing high-quality papers, is called upon to reflect the current level of studies in native zoology. We hope that the Proceedings ZIN will, as previously, contribute to the development of zoological science. Editors.

New materials on turtles of the family Nanhsiungchelyidae from the Cretaceous of Uzbekistan and Mongolia, with a review of the nanhsiungchelyid record in Asia.

This paper presents a review of all known records of turtles of the family Nanhsiungchelyidae in Asia, including data from 37 localities. Among new materials described herein are remains of nanhsiungchelyids (Hanbogdemys sp. 1 and 2 and Nanhsiungchelyidae indet. 1–10) from 12 Early and Late Cretaceous localities of Mongolia and Uzbekistan. Nanhsiungchelyidae from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian–Albian) of Mongolia are reported for the first time. Reassessment of the published data on Asian nanhsiungchelyids allows us to change taxonomic status of many previous findings from Basilemys sp. or Zangerlia sp. to Nanhsiungchelyidae indet. In addition, we refer Bulganemys jaganchobili to Hanbogdemys. The latter genus thus has the widest temporal distribution (from Cenomanian to Campanian) among nanhsiungchelyids in Asia. Our analysis of the nanhsiungchelyid record in Asia shows that the record is richest in the Cenomanian–Campanian of Mongolia, whereas the Maastrichtian record from Mongolia should be considered questionable. These facts emphasize the particular importance of the Mongolian record of nanhsiungchelyids for understanding the diversification and evolution of this group.

New and little known katydids of the tribe Meconematini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae) from South-East Asia.

Three new genera, one new subgenus, and 21 new species from Sumatra, Borneo, and Vietnam are described: Breviratura gen. n., Odonturisca gen. n., Borneratura gen. n., Subtilotura subgen. n., Xiphidiopsis jambi sp. n., X. padangi sp. n., X. sabahi sp. n., X. trusmadi sp. n., Pseudoteratura bella sp. n., P. subtilissima sp. n., Leptoteratura pulchra sp. n., L. uniformis sp. n., L. raoani sp. n., L. gialai sp. n., L. cemande sp. n., Alloteratura longa sp. n., A. media sp. n., A. curta sp. n., A. carinata sp. n., Breviratura brevis sp. n., Odonturisca grigoriji sp. n., ?O. epiproctalis sp. n., Borneratura modesta sp. n., B. sinuata sp. n., and B. lobata sp. n. Status of the former subgenera Bhuxiphidiopsis Ingrisch, Exoteratura Gorochov, Indoteratura Ingrisch et Shishodia, and Nefateratura Ingrisch et Shishodia are changed for generic one. Leptoteratura lamellatus Mao et Shi is transferred to the genus Alloteratura Hebard. Systematic position of some other taxa are clarified also.

About ovoviviparity in mealybugs (Homoptera: Coccinea: Pseudococcidae).

Ovoviviparity in the large family Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) is analysed for the first time. A preliminary list of 500 ovoviviparous species of 54 genera is given with figures for some species. A correlation between external morphology of mealybugs and mode of oviposition is discussed.

New observations on phylogeny of cheyletoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea).

The mite superfamily Cheyletoidea (Acari: Prostigmata) includes 5 families: Cheyletidae, Syringophilidae, Harpirhynchidae (including Ophioptinae), Psorergatidae, and Demodicidae. A new hypothesis of cheyletoid phylogeny was carried out with maximum parsimony approach. Raphignathus collegiatus (Raphignathidae) and Storchia robusta (Stigmaeidae) were selected as outgroups. Cheyletoid ingroup species are represented by Eucheyletia asiatica and Cheyletiella parasitivorax (Cheyletidae), Syringophilus bipectinatus and Picobia sturni (Syringophilidae), Harpyrhynchoides columbae, Harpypalpus holopus and Ophioptes parkeri (Harpirhynchidae), Psorobia foinae (Psorergatidae), and Demodex folliculorum (Demodicidae). These species exhibit most characters observed in cheyletoid mites. Their character states were selected on the basis of strong a priori evidence of their being stable or ancestral in respective families or subfamilies. In total, 11 terminal taxa and 127 characters (11 autapomorphies) were included in the analysis. All characters were unordered and unweighted. The exact search option (Branch and Bound) was used. Supports for branches were estimated by Bremer support indices (BS). A single tree revealing the superfamily Cheyletoidea as a monophyletic group (BS 8) splitting onto 2 main lineages was obtained. Lineage I (BS 1): Cheyletidae (BS 2) – Syringophilidae (BS 2); lineage II (BS 15): Harpirhynchidae (BS 3) (Psorergatidae-Demodicidae) (BS 23). The reciprocal exchange of outgroup positions showed the same result. The topology of obtained cladogram corresponds to the phylogenetic hypothesis proposed earlier (Bochkov 2002) with exception for the branch bearing the families Epimyodicidae and Cloacaridae, because they were recently excluded from the superfamily (Bochkov and OConnor 2008).

The vertebral abnormalities in eelpout Zoarces viviparus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces, Zoarcidae).

The different vertebral abnormalities in eelpout are described for the first time. Population differences in the malformation frequency for eelpout have been found. The high incidence of vertebral abnormalities have been recorded in eelpout from the Wadden Sea (North Sea) as compared to the samples from the Chupa Inlet (White Sea) and Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). The degree of malformations in fishes correlates with the levels of various water toxicants in the same areas.

A new species of the genus Cybocephalus from Iran and a note on synonymy (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

Cybocephalus (Cybocephalus) assiduus sp. nov. (subfamily Cybocephalinae) collected on Ceroplastes rusci (Hemiptera, Coccidae) hosted on fig (Ficus carica) is described from Iran. The synonymy of C. (C.) politissimus Reitter, 1898 and C. (C.) flavocapitatus Tian et Yu, 1994, syn. nov. is proposed.

New data on the genus Anisopygia saussure (Dictyoptera, Blattellidae), with description of two new species.

Two new species of the genus Anisopygia Saussure, 1893 (A. latisecta sp. n. and A. profundisecta sp. n.) from Mexico are described. The interrelationships of the genera Anisopygia and Ischnoptera Burmeister, 1838 are discussed.

Systematics and phylogeny of the genus Bucculatrix (Lepidoptera: Bucculatricidae) with special attention to larval mode of life and trophic relationships.

The hypotheses concerning position of the family Bucculatricidae in the modern lepidopteran classifications are shortly reviewed. The phylogenetic analysis of the genus Bucculatrix was carried out with maximum parsimony approach. Monophyly of the genus is supported by 5 synapomorphies. The genus is splitted into 5 early diverged taxa (species groups: albella, ceanothiella, gnaphaliella, lavaterella, magnella) and one monophyletic clade (species groups: (albedinella, armata, basifuscella, bechsteinella, cidarella, demaryella, endospiralis, formosa, frangutella, ilecella, ulmella) supported by a synapomorphy: a presence of longitudinal row of cornuti in aedeagus. The groups of magnella and gnaphaliella are both associated with Asteraceae, the former group retains the ancestral position of the bases of the male tegminal lobes. The group lavaterella retains the most archaic structure of the anellus of the male genitalia; all species develop on Malvaceae. Among two other early derivated species-groups, albella shows no autapomorphies and ceanothiella possesses derivatively bulbous base of the aedeagus, with only Rhamnaceae recorded as their food plants. The monophyletic clade is splitted into two subclades. The subclade formed by endospiralis and formosa seems to be more primitive, these taxa sharing the presence of the gnathos in males. Within the rest of groups forming another subclade, the relationships between cidarella, demaryella, and ulmella are supported by one synapomorphy: modified anellus of male genitalia; larvae often feed on amentiferous plants. Other groups, albedinella, armata, basifuscella, bechsteinella, frangutella, and ilecella share one derivative character: presence of spines or other sclerotizations in the ductus bursae of females; larvae are known as the miners of various arboreal plants, mainly belonging to the families Rhamnaceae and Rosaceae. Tendencies in the relationships between the moths and their host plants are discussed on the base of the obtained phylogenetic hypothesis.

Morphological characters of lake forms of salmonid fishes of the genera Salmo and Oncorhynchus (Pisces: Salmonidae).

Based on a study of the morphological characteristics of the Sevang trout Salmo ischchan Kessler, 1877 acclimatized in Lake Issyk Kul (Kirghizia) and the lake form of the masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou (Brevoort, 1856) in Lake Biwa (Japan) their unique characteristics were defined. These characters allow to consider these forms as subspecies. The main directions and the rate of change of the characters with the forming of trouts and salmons in Atlantic and Pacific species in lake conditions are considered.

Eucyclops albuferensis sp. nov. (Cyclopida: Copepoda: Crustacea) from Albufera lake, Valencia, Spain.

A new species of Eucyclops (Copepoda: Crustacea) is described from the ancient oligosaline lagoon Lake Albufera (Spain). Eucyclops albuferensis sp. nov. belongs to the Eucyclops-serrulatus-group of species and can be clearly separated from other conspecifics by a combination of characters that includes very long setules on distal side of caudal rami, absence of teeth on hyaline membrane on distal segments of antennules, micropatterns of hairs and teeth on both sides of basipodite of antenna and hair reduction on inner coxal spine in P4. This species is suggested to be a local endemic of the Valencia area, which is well known as a Pleistocene refuge during glaciation.

Distribution of planktonic organisms of tidal bays of the White sea under the influence of hydrodynamical conditions.

The White Sea is one of the most explored water areas in Russia. However, the number of works, devoted to the planktonic fauna distribution of the tidal water areas, is limited, which is explained by the lack of hydrodynamical regime researches of these areas. In the article, the results of the computer simulation of hydrodynamical processes in the Chupa, Keret and Nikolskaya inlets of the White Sea are presented. The simulations were performed with the computer program “CARDINAL” (Coastal Area Dynamics Investigation Algorithm). It is shown that planktonic organisms living in the same water areas under the identical hydrodynamical conditions have various strategies directed either to removal to the open areas of the sea, or to the natural habitat preservation.

Modern fauna of residual water bodies formed on the place of the former Aral sea.

In the first half of the 20th century, the Aral Sea was a single terminal water body of two rivers in the arid zone. The main part of its water area was brackish with specific aboriginal brackish water ecosystems. Since 1960s, decrease of level and salinization of the Aral Sea have begun. Due to the structure of its depression the Aral Sea began to split into several residual water bodies. In 1988–1989, when level decreased by 13 m, the Aral Sea was divided into 2 polyhaline terminal lakes with marine ecosystems – the Large and Small Aral. In the fauna, only widely euryhaline species remained due to water salinization and introduction of exotic species. Piscifauna consisted of introduced species of marine origin. In spring 1990, level of the Small Aral increased and a water flow to the Large Aral appeared. The threat appeared of moving the Syrdarya River mouth to the Large Aral. In August 1992, a dike was built in the Berg’s Strait. Salinity growth in the Small Aral stopped; the salinity began to decrease what was favorable to the fauna. Conditions of transitioinal brackishwater-marine salinity zone were formed. In April 1999, the dike was destroyed by a storm. Construction of new solid dike started in 2004 and was finished in autumn 2005. After Aral Sea division, salinization and level fall in the Large Aral became faster. The Large Aral was divided into the Western Aral, Eastern Aral and Tschebas Bay. Salinity in the eastern basin is growing faster than in the western one. In the late 1990s, the Large Aral became hyperhaline with specific fauna. Some invertebrate species inhabiting saline water bodies in the Aral Sea region moved into the Large Aral by natural way. Among them, the brine shrimp (Artemia parthenogenetica) became predominating in zooplankton.

Species composition of zooplankton in the Curonian and Vistula lagoons of the Baltic Sea.

On the basis of own long-term observations of zooplankton species diversity in the Curonian and Vistula lagoons of the Baltic Sea and literature sources of the late 19th – early 20th centuries, the analysis of variability in zooplankton species composition has been carried out. The conclusion is made, that in general the species diversity in the Curonian and Vistula lagoons has not been changed. The replacement of o-mesosaprobic species by ?-mesosaprobic ones due to the higher trophic status of the basins is noted.

 

 

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