Contents of Proceedings of the Zoological Institute

Volume 314 (4), 2010

Date of publication — December 25, 2010

Preface. A.P. Andriashev. 100 years anniversary

Preface. A.P. Andriashev. 100 years anniversary.

Three new snailfishes (Scorpaeniformes: Liparidae) from bathyal depths of the Arctic

Three new species of snailfishes caught in the Norwegian Sea south-west of Bear Island at a depth 1470 to 1695 m, are described. Careproctus moskalevi sp. nov. and Careproctus latiosus sp. nov. are most similar to C. micropus (Gunther, 1887) from the depths of Faroe Channel; they are included in subgenus Careproctula Andriashev 2003. Diagnosis of the endemic arctic genus Rhodichthys is corrected. The second species of this genus is described, Rhodichthys melanocephalus sp. nov.

Pogonophryne brevibarbata sp. nov. (Artedidraconidae, Notothenioidei, Perciformes) — a new species of toadlike plunderfish from the Ross Sea, Antarctica

A new species of notothenioid fish, Pogonophryne brevibarbata sp. nov., from bathyal depths of the Ross Sea, Antarctica is described. The new species belongs to the “mentella” group of the genus Pogonophryne and is characterized by having a very short (not extended beyond nostril) and pointed mental barbel with a long (65–68% of barbel length), narrow terminal expansion composed of low folds with serrated ridges.

About use of ontogenetic preceding criterion on the example of the osteological development of the notothenioid fishes (Notothenioidei, Perciformes, Teleostei)

Studying of early stages of development of a skeleton of perciform fishes from suborders Notothenioidei, Percoidei, Blennioidei, Zoarcoidei and Gobioidei has revealed similar sequence of occurrence of skeletal elements of a various origin which corresponds that at other Teleostei. The first in ontogenesis cartilaginous elements of a skull, an axial skeleton and a skeleton of a caudal fin appear. After their occurrence the anlagen of integumentary bones begins. Later the chondral bones appear. In many bones of a complex origin integumentary elements also appear before the chondral. Studying of transformations of a structure of various parts of a skeleton in ontogenesis of the nototheniois has revealed much better expressed lability of a bone tissue in comparison with cartilage. More functional activity of integumentary bone elements in comparison with chondral in bones of a complex origin is shown. The assumption is made that the considerable reduction of an integumentary skeleton in phylogeny of vertebrate animals in many cases has been connected with process of fusion of integumentary and replacing bones in the complex bones taking up functions of both elements. Comparison of sequence of appearance of skeletal elements in ontogenesis of Teleostei and in phylogeny of early vertebrate animals shows obvious similarity of these processes that once again shows criterion of ontogenetic preceding possibilities for reconstruction of evolutionary transformations.

Karyotype of the anadromous whitefish Coregonus lavaretus pidschian (Gmelin, 1788) from the Northern Dvina River (White Sea Basin)

The karyotype of anadromous whitefish from the Northern Dvina River was examined. The chromosomal complement consists of 9 pairs of biarmed chromosomes (8 pairs of meta- and 1 pair of submetacentrics) and 31 pairs of uniarmed (subtelo- and acrocentric) chromosomes, 2n=80, NF=98. The variability in the length of metacentrics of the first pair and the number of B-chromosomes was found.

Karyotypic and taxonomic diversity of the notothenioid fishes of the suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes) of the Southern Ocean

A karyological examination of 61 species (49% of the total number known) belonging to 8 families of the suborder Notothenioidei revealed a high order of karyotypic heterogeneity (2n=20–58, NF=40–88). It has been determined that of these, three species have an ancestral generalised state (2n=48, NF=48). The results indicate that there are 3 evolutionary lines of change in the chromosome karyotype morphology without any increase or decrease in the chromosome number. It is shown that in the families Nototheniidae and Bathydraconidae, there is a characteristically large variability in the karyotypes. On the other hand, in Channichtyidae, a significant taxonomic variability is not in accord with the karyological variability which can be explained by the varied rate of morphophysiological and karyological evolution. The greatest karyotypic variability is found in those species which occur on the Antarctic shelf with its attendant islands and least variability in species on the periphery of the Antarctic region.

The comparative study of endemic cottoid fishes (Cottidae, Comephoridae) and their adaptation to pelagic habitat in Lake Baikal

This article describes the adaptive processes in the evolution of bladderless fish from benthic to secondary pelagic habitation in both Lake Baikal and the Antarctic eco-systems. It demonstrates how lipids play a major role in the achievement of neutral buoyancy by the endemic Baikalian species, genus Cottocomephorus (Cottidae family), and Comephorus (Comephoridae family), similar to the Antarctic secondary pelagic species of the Notothenioidei suborder. In addition, it also describes how the skeletons of these species became lighter due to bone mass reduction and lower mineralization; and how fin surface area became larger than that of the rest of the body in order for these secondary pelagic fish to attain appropriate balance and floatation.

Two new species of freshwater fishes of the genus Alburnoides, A. fangfangae and A. devolli (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae), from the Adriatic Sea Basin in Albania

Two new species of the genus Alburnoides are described from the river Seman drainage in the eastern Adriatic Sea basin in Albania. Both species have a pharyngeal tooth formula of 2.5–4.2. Alburnoides fangfangae, which occurs in the upper Osum river system, is distinguished from other members of the genus by a combination of characters including 11½–13½ anal fin branched rays, small scales numbering 46–53 in the total pored lateral line, total vertebrae usually 40 (20+20 and 21+19) or 41 (21+20 and 20+21), caudal peduncle depth 43–48% body depth at dorsal fin origin, usually a mostly or completely scaleless ventral keel, the mouth with a curved and only slightly slanted cleft and a produced fleshy snout, the interorbital width 1.3–1.5 times the eye diameter, a weakly ossified preethmoid, and a depressed and considerably expanded anterior tip of the basihyal (a unique feature among the western European Alburnoides). Alburnoides devolli, which is described from the upper Devoll river system, differs in having 11½–13½ anal fin branched rays, larger scales numbering 44–48 in the total pored lateral line, total vertebrae usually 40 (20+20), caudal peduncle depth 35–43% body depth at dorsal fin origin, usually a mostly or completely scaled ventral keel, the mouth with a straight and upturned cleft, the interorbital width 1.1–1.4 times the eye diameter, a completely ossified preethmoid, and a narrow, very deeply indented anterior tip of the urohyal (a unique feature among the western European Alburnoides). A comparison with Alburnoides species from River Danube and Prespa, Ohrid, and Skadar lakes is provided.

Zoogeographical freshwater divisions of the Caucasus as a part of the West Asian Transitional Region

The Caucasus, together with Anatolia, Mesopotamia, internal Iranian and Afghan drainages form a region of extremely high heterogeneity and transitional character between the “true” Holarctic, Sino-Indian and African regions sensu Berg (e.g. 1934, 1949). Its zoogeographical delineation is therefore of considerable interest. The goal of this study was to analyse zoogeographical affinities of the Caucasian ecoregions in terms of fish distribution and estimate the rank of the zoogeographical boundaries between the Caucasus and the drainages of north-eastern Europe (eastern Baltic, Dnieper, Don and Volga), and between the Caucasus and the Iranian basins. Based on a betadiversity index and cluster analyses of lists of taxa (over 500) by the ecoregions, it is shown that faunas of the true freshwater fishes of the Caucasus displays a clear boundary with the eastern Europe, and that the ecoregions of the Ciscaucasia and the Transcaucasia exhibit striking dissimilarities from each other and from the Middle East basins. The Caucasus and neighbouring drainages of the southern coasts of the Black and Caspian seas are merged into the Caucasian Province which is included into the West Asian Transitional Region sensu Banarescu (1991). The results also support delineation of six zoogeographical subdivisions, defined as districts of the Caucasian Province, namely, the West Ciscaucasian District, West Transcaucasian District, East Ciscaucasian District, East Transcaucasian District, the North Anatolian District, and Urmia District.

Volume 314 (3), 2010

Date of publication — September 25, 2010

On new Central Asian genus and species of wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) exhibiting a pronounced sexual size dimorphism

A new genus Zyuzicosa gen. nov. is erected for eight central Asian species of the burrowing wolf spiders, of which five are described as new: Z. baisunica sp. nov. (both sexes from Uzbekistan), Zyuzicosa gigantea sp. nov. (male from Uzbekistan), Zyuzicosa turlanica sp. nov. (both sexes from South Kazakhstan), Zyuzicosa uzbekistanica sp. nov. (male from Uzbekistan), and Zyuzicosa zeravshanica sp. nov. (both sexes from Uzbekistan). Three new combinations are proposed: Zyuzicosa afghana (Roewer, 1960), comb. nov. (transferred from Avicosa), Zyuzicosa fulviventris (Kroneberg, 1875), comb. nov. (transferred from Tarentula), and Zyuzicosa laetabunda (Spassky, 1941), comb. nov. (transferred from Lycosa). Identification keys to five central Asian genera of the burrowing Lycosidae and to all Zyuzicosa species are provided as well. Three Zyuzicosa gen. nov. species, for which both sexes are known, exhibit a pronounced sexual size dimorphism, having typical dwarf males that are half or less than half the size of corresponding females. This phenomenon has never previously been observed in the Lycosidae.

The osteology of Azhdarcho lancicollis Nessov, 1984 (Pterosauria, Azhdarchidae) from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan

The osteology of the azhdarchid pterosaur Azhdarcho lancicollis Nessov, 1984 from the Late Cretaceous (Turonian) of Uzbekistan is described in detail based on more than 200 bone fragments representing several skull bones, cervical and dorsal vertebrae, pectoral girdle, and limb bones. Azhdarcho lancicollis is characterized by relatively short dentary symphysis and hyperelongated middle cervical vertebrae. The relative length of the cervicals is expressed by the formula I+II < III < IV < V > VI > VII > VIII > IX. The osteology in all azhdarchids is remarkable uniform but Azhdarcho can be distinguished from all other known azhdarchid genera. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the Turonian Azhdarcho and the Santonian Bakonydraco occupy a phylogenetic position basal to the Campanian Zhejiangopterus and the Maastrichtian Quetzalcoatlus.

A review of the genus Prolandreva Gorochov (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Landrevinae)

The genus Prolandreva is briefly redescribed. Its species are reviewed; a new species from South Africa (P. mirabilis sp. nov.) and a new subspecies from Swaziland (P. aenigmatosa borealis subsp. nov.) are described.

New species of the family Philopotamidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from Malaysia and Indonesia

Three new species and one new subspecies of caddis-flies from the family Philopotamidae are described from the South-East Asia: Gunungiella aguha sp. nov., G. gundergonia sp. nov., G. fimfafiazga styniviella subsp. nov. and Wormaldia simplicissima sp. nov. The insects were collected by the authors during the collecting trips to the Western Malaysia (Malacca Peninsula) and Indonesia, Lombok island (G. aguha). The new species from Indonesia lives at inhabits the south-easternmost part border of the distribution area of the genus dispersal range.

New data on horn morphology of the woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis Blumenbach, 1799)

Macro- and microstructure of the Woolly Rhinoceros nasal horn from the collection of the Ice Age Museum was studied. The horn strength and resistance to mechanical damage is provided by the specific structure and connection between unique keratin compartments of the horn, the filaments. The heterogeneous structure of the horn was revealed in the horizontal section at different points. The central part of the horn is denser and more resistant to fracture compared with the peripheral one, and its filaments are larger and stronger united. The complex system ensuring the safety and functionality of the horn is an adaptive feature of this species.

Population structure, growth and diet of atlantic wolffish Anarhichas lupus marisalbi Barsukov, 1956 in the Кandalaksha Bay of the White Sea

Long-term data on age/size structure, sex ratio, sexual maturity, fecundity and diet of the wolffish from the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea are presented. The fishes 4+–6+ years old, 35–45 cm in length and 0.4–0.6 kg in body mass dominated in the samples. The linear and body mass growth of the wolffish is described. The average sex ratio was 1:1. The wolffish attains sexual maturity at age 4+–6+; spawning takes place in July–August. The wolffish fecundity varied from 420 to 6650 eggs per female (mean value 1725±149). The fecundity to size regressions are calculated. Gastropod and bivalve mollusks as well as crustaceans dominated in the food spectrum of the wolffish.

Review. A.I. Shatalkin. «Zoological Philosophy» of Jean-Baptiste De Lamarck: Sight from XXI century. Moscow: KMK Scientific Press Ltd. 2009. 606 p., ref. 1128, 40 Figs

Review. A.I. Shatalkin. «Zoological Philosophy» of Jean-Baptiste De Lamarck: Sight from XXI century. Moscow: KMK Scientific Press Ltd. 2009. 606 p., ref. 1128, 40 Figs.

Volume 314 (2), 2010

Date of publication — June 25, 2010

New docodontans from the Middle Jurassic of Siberia and reanalysis of Docodonta interrelationships

Two new docodontans, Simpsonodon sibiricus sp. nov. and Hutegotherium yaomingi gen. et sp. nov., and a new specimen of Itatodon tatarinovi Lopatin et Averianov, 2005 are described from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) Itat Formation of Krasnoyarsk Territory in West Siberia, Russia. A new phylogenetic analysis, incorporating 37 dental and mandibular characters and 18 docodontan and outgroup taxa demonstrated that Itatodon is the most basal known docodontan. Other docodontans can be classified in Docodontidae (Docodon and Haldanodon, with Borealestes recognized as a stem docodontid), Simpsonodontidae fam. nov. (Simpsonodon and Dsungarodon), Tegotheriidae (Krusatodon, Hutegotherium gen. nov., Tegotherium, and Sibirotherium), and Docodonta incertae sedis (Castorocauda, Tashkumyrodon, and Acuoduolodon). Simpsonodontidae fam. nov. is characterized, in particular, by a strongly developed additional groove dorsal to the Meckelian groove. The Middle Jurassic mammals of Laurasia are now known from three principal assemblages: Forest Marble in England, Balabansai in Kyrgyzstan, and Itat in West Siberia. All these three assemblages are very similar and comprise docodontans, allotherians, eutriconodontans, “symmetrodontans,” dryolestidans, and stem zatherians. The Middle Jurassic radiation of mammals has almost no roots in the known Early Jurassic mammal fauna and the evolutionary events which led to formation of the principal groups of Mesozoic mammals (Docodonta, Multituberculata, Eutriconodonta, Dryolestida, and stem Zatheria) should have occurred sometime between the Sinemurian and Bajocian in Laurasia, most probably in Asia (Siberia?).

Black flies of the genera Gymnopais Stone, 1949 and Twinnia Stone et Jamnback, 1955 (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the fund collection of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences

As a result of examination of the fund collection of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, detailed redescriptions and original drawings of 9 species (of 12 known in the World fauna) of the genus Gymnopais Stone, 1949 and 4 species (of 10 known in the World fauna) of the genus Twinnia Stone et Jamnback, 1955 are given. Keys to all known12 species of Gymnopais and 9 species of Twinnia of the World fauna are provided. The information on Twinia changbaiensis Sun, 1994 (China, Liaoning) is insufficient, and this species is not included in the key.

Migratory strategy of Bluethroats, Luscinia svecica, in eastern Fennoscandia. Part 2: response to acoustic markers and habitat selection at stopover

Response of bluethroats to the playback of species-specific song and the role of acoustic markers in habitat selection at autumn migratory stopovers were studied. The birds were mist-netted after the song playback and under the control conditions (no song). First captures and recaptures of birds were discussed. The song playback attracts bluethroats in the end of nocturnal migratory flights and the very beginning of a stopover and does not attract birds during stopover. Acoustic marker plays a significant role in habitat selection at the first stages of stopover: The tape-lured bluethroats concentrate around the sound source and then distribute over surrounding area. The possible reasons of response of migrating birds to the acoustic marker, as well as higher proportion of adults and lower proportion of fat birds among tape-lured bluethroats in comparison to the birds trapped under the control conditions have been discussed.

New cricket taxa of the subfamilies Phaloriinae and Pteroplistinae (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) from South-East Asia

Four new species of Phaloriinae (Trellius barisan sp. nov, T. lampung sp. nov., T. curup sp. nov., and T. inquisitor sp. nov.) and a new monobasic genus of Pteroplistinae (Asymmetriola spinosa gen. et sp. nov.) are described. T. inquisitor is from Central Vietnam and the other crickets are from Southern Sumatra, Indonesia.

New genus and species of the tribe Opatrini (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Tenebrioninae) from the lowermost Eocene amber of Paris Basin

Eupachypterus eocenicus gen. et sp. nov. from the Lowermost French Eocene Amber is described. The genus is most similar to the genera Neopachypterus and Pseudolamus from the tribe Opatrini by the shape of trochanters, but differs in the large eyes, presence of a row of spines along protibiae, very long spurs of protibiae (about as long as tarsomere 3), narrow subcylindrical apical maxillary palpomere, shape of apical labial palpomere and acute apex of penis trunk.

Evolution of the elephants of the mammoth lineage in the Northern Caucasus (Russia) in the Pliocene and Pleistocene

The Northern Caucasus (Russia) was an area of distribution of the elephants of the mammoth lineage (genus Archidiskodon Pohlig, 1885) from the Pliocene (early/?middle Villafranchian) to the early Pleistocene (Bicharian). The reexamination of the type specimen of Archidiscodon gromovi Alexeeva et Garutt, 1965 has demonstrated that it does not differ from A. meridionalis (Nesti, 1825) in structure of M3 and, therefore, should be considered a junior synonym of the latter species. M3/m3 structure of the oldest Archidiskodon from Sablino pit (lower layer) differs from those of Archidiscodon from the Apsheronian (late Villafrancian), that allows to establish Archidiskodon from Sablino pit as a new species – A. garutti sp. nov. M3/m3 structure of «A. gromovi» has variations which appeared due to use of a mixed sample, consisting of specimens of A. meridionalis and A. garutti sp. nov. This study improves diagnosis of A. meridionalis and clarifies systematic position of Mammuthus rumanus (Stefanescu, 1924), which is considered as Elephas antiquus rumanus. Part of material, previously assigned to Mammuthus rumanus, is considered as Archidiskodon sp. Thus, the elephants of the mammoth lineage in the Northern Caucasus were represented by two successive species: Archidiscodon garutti sp. nov. and A. meridionalis (A. m. meridionalis, A. m. tamanensis). The chronological distribution of the genus Archidiskodon in the Northern Caucasus covers interval of about 2 millions years (about 3.0–1.25 millions years BP; middle/late? Akchagylian – early Apsheronian, roughly corresponds to the middle – late Villafranchian and, possibly, Biharian).

Structure and evolution of the cuticular plaques of pogonophorans (Annelida: Pogonophora)

The structure and evolutionary significance of the pogonophoran trunk cutucular plaques are studied. All pogonophoran cuticular plaques, including those in the bridle, have the same basal set of the structural characters. The structure, origin and arrangement pattern of the cuticular plaques show that they are apomorphies of Pogonophora. These structures, unlike setae, are not derived from any ancestor cuticular structures. The arrangement patterns of the cuticular plaques are quite variable in different body parts but nowhere repeat the neuro-notopodial scheme of the annelid setae arrangement. In various body regions of pogonophorans, including the bridle, the cuticular plaques underwent the similar evolutionary transformations.

Supplementary description of Pontharpinia robusta Gurjanova, 1938 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Phoxocephalidae)

The original description of Pontharpinia robusta Gurjanova, 1938 is supplemented for the first time by descriptions and illustrations of the main diagnostic characters: the shape of rostrum and lower antennal angle, and the morphology of mandible, uropod 3 and telson. Major diagnostic characters were compared to those of the type specimen. A long, downward-tapering process on the lower antennal angle, reported in the original description, was shown to be absent both in male and female specimens of this species.

Volume 314 (1), 2010

Date of publication — June 25, 2010

New benthopelagic calanoids (Crustacea: Copepoda) from deep Atlantic waters

Two new genera and species of benthopelagic clausocalanoid copepods are described from collections taken at abyssal depths close to the sea bed in the tropical Atlantic. Procenognatha semisensata gen. et sp. nov. and Ranthaxus vermiformis gen. et sp. nov. both share the presence of sensory setae on maxilla and maxilliped with all other members of bradfordian copepods of Clausocalanoidea, but do not fit the diagnosis of any of these genera. Procenognatha differs from other bradfordians by the swollen basal half of the proximal posterior seta on the maxillule praecoxal arthrite and by having three sclerotized terminal setae on the maxilla endopod. Ranthaxus is distinguished by the presence of worm-like sensory setae on maxillule, maxilla, basis and endopod segment 5 of maxilliped and by welldeveloped, elongated worm-like sensory setae of maxilliped syncoxa.

Itilochelys rasstrigin gen. et sp. nov, a new hard-shelled sea turtle (Cheloniidae sensu lato) from the Lower Paleocene of Volgograd Province, Russia

Itilochelys rasstrigin, gen. et sp. nov., a new hard-shelled sea turtle (Cheloniidae sensu lato), is established based on a partial skull, two lower jaws, a humeral bone and cervical vertebrae I–III from the Lower Paleocene of Volgograd Province, Russia. Itilochelys rasstrigin differs from other cheloniids s.l. by the following combination of characters: (1) long skull; (2) short snout; (3) deep cheek emargination; (4) frontal contributing to orbital margin; (5) prefrontal/ postorbital contact absent; (6) long anteroventral process of postorbital; (7) extensive secondary palate; (8) moderate vomer length on triturating surface; (9) deep and narrow midline groove on triturating surface through vomer length; (10) swellings lateral to midline groove present; (11) long lower jaw symphysis; (12) concave lower triturating surface; (13) blunt and shallow symphyseal ridge ending in a triangular elevation; (14) lingual ridges on the lower jaw absent. The new taxon increases diversity of stem-cheloniids and represents the most complete finding of these turtles in Russia.

A new basal coelurosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Middle Jurassic of Siberia

Kileskus aristotocus gen. et sp. nov. from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) Itat Formation at Berezovsk Quarry, Krasnoyarsk Territory (West Siberia, Russia), is based on an associated maxilla and premaxilla, a mandible fragment, and some possible associated postcranial elements. Kileskus gen. nov. is referred together with the Middle Jurassic Proceratosaurus from England and the Late Jurassic Guanlong from China to Proceratosauridae fam. nov. (Tyrannosauroidea, Coelurosauria) which is characterized by sagittal nasal crest (unknown for Kileskus gen. nov.), enlarged external nares, short ventral margin of premaxilla, and depth of the antorbital fossa ventral to the antorbital fenestra that is much greater than the depth of the maxilla below the ventral margin of the antorbital fossa. Kileskus gen. nov. is more similar to Proceratosaurus than to Guanlong in having anterodorsal process of the premaxilla inclined slightly anterodorsally and nares inclined posterodorsally, but differs from these two genera by having ascending process of the maxilla confluent with anterior rim of maxillary body and gently sloping posterodorsally. Kileskus gen. nov. has a basal position within the Proceratosauridae. Dilong from the Early Cretaceous of China with a parasagittal nasal crests is the sister taxon for the Proceratosauridae. The new taxon is one of the oldest members of Coelurosauria and Tyrannosauroidea in the fossil record.

Autumn migration speed of the chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) migrating across Europe as shown by ringing results in Eastern Baltic

An analysis of the speed of autumn migration is based on 224 ringing recoveries selected from 1866 recoveries of the Chaffinch caught in 1957–1997 at the Rybachy Biological station on the Courish Spit, Eastern Baltic. It was found that in all individuals pooled the migration speed varies between 20.0 and 284.8 km·day–1 and the average speed is 53.5 km·day–1. No significant differences in migration speed were found among different years and between males and females (aged and not aged pooled). Adults migrate significantly faster than first-year birds. Weak correlation between migration distance and speed of movement in all Chaffinches analyzed and higher speed of adults wintering further south than first-year birds implies the tendency to faster speed in birds traveled farther. No difference in migration speed was found between early- and late-migrating individuals, in contrast to findings in many other migratory species.

Middle Pleistocene Ursus thibetanus (Mammalia, Carnivora) from Kudaro caves in the Caucasus

A comparison of fossil teeth of Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus) from the Middle Pleistocene layers of Kudaro 1 Cave and Kudaro 3 Cave with those from other Caucasian and West European localities showed a marked morphological similarity, allowing the studied material to be referred to the subspecies U. t. mediterraneus. This fossil subspecies is distinguished from the recent subspecies U. thibetanus by its larger tooth size. The morphology of the metapodial bones from the Kudaro Caves suggests that during the Middle Pleistocene in the Caucasus the Asian black bear led an arboreal mode of life.

The life-cycles and growth of some comb-branchial mollusks (Gastropoda: Pectinibranchia) in the ponds of the European part of Russia

The life-cycles of three mollusc species, Bithynia tentaculata, Contectiana listeri, and Viviparus viviparus (Gastropoda: Pectinibranchia), from the different freshwater bodies of the European part of Russia were studied. The growth rates were determined from the analysis of morphometric characteristics of their shell. The maximum duration of the life-history of comb-branchial molluscs is larger, than that of freshwater pulmonate snails. The life-cycle of Bithynia tentaculata (Bithyniidae) may last 4 years. The duration of life of large molluscs of the family Viviparidae (Contectiana listeri and Viviparus viviparus) is 5–6 years. The structure of the life-cycles of different populations of the same species depends on the temperature regime in the waterbody.

Migratory strategy of bluethroats, Luscinia svecica, in Eastern Fennoscandia. Part 1: main stopover parameters

Main parameters of stopovers of bluethroats (rate and duration of stopovers and fuel deposition rate) in northern taiga of Eastern Fennoscandia were estimated, age and sex differences in the migration strategy (timing of migration and stopover parameters) were studied. First captures and recaptures of mist-netted birds were discussed. Adult bluethroats rarely make long stopovers and gain mass more rapidly than juveniles. The difference in the timing of migration between sex and age groups in two regions of Fennoscandia is discussed, together with the possible link between the too low proportion of adults in captures of nocturnal migrants (coastal effect) and age-related difference in migratory strategy.

On the effect of temperature on the induction of host parasitization by Trichogramma buesi Voegele (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females

Laboratory experiments demonstrated that females of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma buesi started parasitization of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella, eggs at 25 °C faster than at 15 °C. Obviously, high temperature increases host search, inspection, and parasitization activity. Moreover, most of females that started to parasitize at 25 °C, continued parasitization at 15 °C. However, in the absence of host eggs or in the dark (when Trichogramma did not start to parasitize) high temperature did not influence further parasitization. Special experiments show that parasitization of at least one host is necessary to promote further parasitization at low temperature. Thus, the minimal effective time of exposure to high temperature in an individual female is equal to several minutes which are required to parasitize one host egg. However, the period of time from offering hosts to the beginning of parasitization vary considerably even among females of laboratory line kept under standard conditions, and, that is why, at the population level the effect on the further parasitization gradually increases with the duration of the exposure to high temperature.



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