Contents of Proceedings of the Zoological Institute

Volume 316 (4), 2012

Date of publication — December 25, 2012

Systematics of the American katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Communication 2

Gnathoclita (Tettohenicus) anostostoma subgen. et sp. nov. [Pleminiinae], Arachnoscelis tanasijtshuki sp. nov., Phlugis ecuador sp. nov., Ph. morona sp. nov., Odontophlugis ucayali sp. nov., Phlugiola amazonia sp. nov., Neophlugis calabaza gen. et sp. nov., Cephalophlugis? setosa sp. nov. [Meconematinae], Dysonia (Dysonia) mariposa sp. nov., D. (Dissonulichen) satipo sp. nov. and D. (Dissonulichen) simplicipes meridionalis subsp. nov. [Phaneropterinae] are described from Ecuador and Peru. The generic name Valna Walker, 1869 is considered a synonym of the subgenus Dysonia Dysonia White, 1862; the subgenus Dissonulichen Cadena-Castaneda, 2011 is transferred to the genus Dysonia.

Sympatric area of Myodes glareolus and M. rutilus (Rodentia, Cricetidae): historic and recent hybridization

The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) and the northern red-backed vole (M. rutilus) are two phylogenetically close sylvatic species with a widely sympatric range (European part of Russia, Western Siberia). A significant number of M. glareolus with mitochondrial genome of M. rutilus was detected in this sympatry zone earlier and only one of the first generation hybrid (F1) was discovered. The aim of the present study is to assess the extent of modern hybridization and to analyze the possible conditions of interspecies hybridization between the voles. The cytochrome b gene sequences of M. glareolus (164) and M. rutilus (108) sampled in the sympatric area were studied. In order to identify the modern hybrids, 841 individuals of M. glareolus were analyzed with cytochrome b PCR-typing, two microsatellite loci and one nuclear gene (LCAT). The detected unique case of the hybridization between M. glareolus and M. rutilus in nature is evidence that it is a possible at present but rare event. According to findings in the Urals M. glareolus populations, the chances of modern hybridization in the depression phases were higher than those regardless of cycle phase. Interspecific hybridization between these vole species in the historical past may have occurred in the southern Urals refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum, at a low density of both species. A mass independent hybridization during the formation of the sympatry seems less likely.

Evaluation of animal deformity occurrence in natural populations (an example of amphibians)

A new approach is proposed to evaluate the occurrence of amphibian deformities in natural populations. The background and mass occurrence is suggested to separate by convenient level of 5 percent of malformed animals (sample size ?100 specimens is recommended). The system containing three groups of quantitative parameters are considered: a) frequency of malformed animals, Pas; b) frequency of abnormalities (A), including partial (Ap) and relative frequency (Ar); and c) spectrum of abnormalities (Sa), including individual (Sai) and population (Sap) deformity diversity in natural populations and some other parameters (μ and h of Zhivotovsky 1980). Some measures of combined occurrence of abnormalities and abnormality overlap are also analysed (indices of Morisita, and of Czekanovsky–Sorensen). Some aspects of field work are discussed (sampling, age groups, abnormality classification as well as syndrome expression of malformations).

Towards the study of the genus Tersilochus Holmgren, 1859 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tersilochinae) of the Russian Far East and Japan

Seven species of the subgenus Tersilochus, genus Tersilochus, are described from the Russian Far East and Japan in this paper: T. grandiculus sp. nov., T. hokkaidoensis sp. nov., T. impunctator sp. nov., T. juxtus sp. nov., T. konishii sp. nov., T. offrenatus sp. nov. and T. spasskensis sp. nov. Two species, T. curvator Horstmann and T. liopleuris (Thomson), are recorded from the Russian Far East for the first time. A preliminary key to nine species of the subgenus Tersilochus, occurring in the Russian Far East and Japan, is given.

Local migration and feeding habits of Carpathian lamprey Eudontomyzon Danfordi (Petromyzontes: Petromyzontidae) in Tisza River System (Danube drainage, Ukraine)

The paper presents data on the feeding habits and migratory activity of Carpathian lamprey Eudontomyzon danfordi Regan, 1911, one of the few predatory lampreys resident in rivers. Observations made in winter revealed some feeding activity though it was commonly supposed that the lampreys cease feeding by the end of autumn. The most intensive feeding occurs from May till August; during the same period, the lampreys actively migrate upstream. Observations made at the rapids revealed that E. danfordi actively preys and feeds during day time when and where the concentration of its prey is high, not only in the evening or at night as was believed earlier.

Musculature of two species of rotifers of the family Brachionidae

The musculature patterns in two species of loricate swimming-crawling rotifers from the family Brachionidae: Platyias quadricornis and Brachionus diversicornis (with malleate type mastax) have been investigated on whole mount preparations by methods of phalloidin fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Elements of somatic, visceral, and somato-visceral musculature have been detected. In both investigated species, the main retractors of different strength are located in the mastax area: anterior dorsal and ventral retractors in P. quadricornis, and medial and ventro-lateral ones in B. diversicornis. The posterior dorsal retractors lie at the level of the base of the foot. No noticeable difference between the two species in position and strength of mastax muscles has been detected. A longitudinal dorsal muscle of the wall of the malleate mastax has been described for the first time. All the differences detected in the position and strength of the corresponding muscular elements seem to be connected with the degree of flatness of the lorica, with the shape and size of the body, and with the structure and position of the foot.

A redescription and phylogenetic position of Adocus planus, an adocid turtle from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia

In this paper we present a detailed description of the holotype of Adocus (orig. Shineusemys) planus from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. The holotype, originally reported to be a plastron, is actually represented by a partial shell with an almost complete plastron and few carapace fragments on the steinkern. The reexamination of the holotype of A. planus allows us to present new images of this specimen, improve its diagnosis and include it in a phylogenetic analysis of Adocusia (Adocidae + Nanhsiungchelyidae) for the first time. The phylogenetic analysis places A. planus within the Adocus clade in polytomy with other species of this genus. This result confirms our previous suggestion that Shineusemys should be considered a junior subjective synonym of Adocus.

New Findings of snakes of the genus Palaeophis Owen, 1841 (Acrochordoidea: Palaeophiidae) from the Middle Eocene of Crimea

The vertebrae of aquatic snakes, referred to the three known species of the genus Palaeophis (P. tamdy, P. nessovi and P. cf. toliapicus), are described from the Middle Eocene (Lutetian) deposits of the Ak-Kaya locality of Crimea, Ukraine. These species demonstrate different degree of aquatic adaptations and lived in a restricted area in the eastern part of the Tethys Ocean during the Middle Eocene.

Volume 316 (3), 2012

Date of publication — September 25, 2012

New cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattina) from Baltic Amber, with description of a new genus and species: Stegoblatta irmgardgroehni

A new genus and species of cockroaches, Stegoblatta irmgardgroehni gen. et sp. nov. is described from Baltic Amber. The taxonomic position of the new genus is discussed and it is concluded that it belongs to the family Blaberidae. The male of Paraeuthyrrapha groehni (Corydiidae, Euthyrrhaphinae) is described for the first time.

Craniometrical variability of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra: Carnivora: Mustelidae) from the Northern Eurasia

The analysis of morphometric variability of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) was carried out based on 350 skulls from geographically distant localities throughout the distribution range of this species, including China, Japan, and India. Our study revealed minor craniometric variability in L. lutra, which increases in tropical regions, and also symmetrical change of size and proportions of the skulls in the eastern and western parts of the Northern Eurasia as well as the change of the latitudinal trend in the skull variation approximately between 50 and 55° N. The correlation between the value of the morphological diversity and climatic variables is demonstrated. The Caucasian otter (L. l. meridionalis ) shows significant similarity with otters from Europe (L. l. lutra). On the contrary, otters occurring in Honshu Island (L. l. nippon ) are well differentiated morphologically from the continental populations. The results of our analysis suggest that L. simplicidens from the Middle Pleistocene of Europe probably represents a fossil subspecies of the Eurasian otter, L. lutra. The hypotheses are formulated about influence of ecological conditions on the the value of the parameters of morphological diversity as well as on the intensity of sexual dimorphism in the L. lutra. The results of our study siggest the higher level of genetic diversity of the Eurasian otter in the eastern part of the Northern Eurasia in comparison with the western part of its distribution range.

A redescription of Elkemys australis (Yeh, 1974), a poorly known basal testudinoid turtle from the Paleocene of China

In this study we provide a redescription of the type series of Elkemys australis, a poorly known basal testudinoid turtle (‘Lindholmemydidae’) from the Paleocene of China. Based on new observations we report on some previously overlooked shell characters of Elkemys australis, and also provide a new diagnosis and a new reconstruction for this species. Among ‘lindholmemydids’, Elkemys australis is most similar to Gravemys barsboldi from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Elkemys australis, Gravemys spp. and Hokouchelys chenshuensis from the Paleocene of China differ from other ‘lindholmemydids’ and testudinoids in general in an unique inframarginal pattern (four or five pairs of wide inframarginal scutes which strongly extend on to peripherals), and may form a natural group (either a clade or a grade) of basal testudinoids. Some other characters shared by E. australis, G. barsboldi and H. chenshuensis (large anal notch and relatively narrow vertebrals 2 and 3) are characteristic of some geoemydids and testudinids, that may indicate closer relations of the three mentioned genera to these groups.

On the taxonomy of some Fulgoroidea (Hemiptera)

Issidae: Ardelia Melichar, 1907 is placed in synonymy under Vishnuloka Distant, 1906 and Vishnuloka cuneata Distant, 1906 – under Vishnuloka prominula Distant, 1906; Delia deserta Melichar, 1906 is transferred to the genus Vishnuloka. Nogodinidae: Narayana buruensis Schmidt, 1926 is transferred to the genus Scalabis Stal, 1870, Hysteropterum solidum Melichar, 1911 – to the genus Mangola Melichar, 1906, and Hysteropterum ecarinatum Synave, 1956 – to the genus Telmosias Fennah, 1967; Oryxana subrecta Jacobi, 1941 and Buehleria rabana Lallemand et Synave, 1953 are placed in synonymy under Oryxana suturalis (Melichar, 1906). Acanaloniidae: Amphiscepa subpellucida Fowler, 1904 is transferred to the genus Acanalonia Spinola, 1839. Tropiduchidae: Nacmusius Jacobi, 1944 is placed in synonymy under Cixiopsis Matsumura, 1900; Nacmusius chelydinus Jacobi, 1944 is transferred to the genus Cixiopsis. A key to the species of the genus Vishnuloka is provided. Lectotypes are designated for Amphiscepa subpellucida Fowler, 1904, Delia deserta Melichar, 1906, Issina suturalis Melichar, 1906, Narayana buruensis Schmidt, 1926, Oryxana subrecta Jacobi, 1941, Vishnuloka cuneata Distant, 1906, and V. prominula Distant, 1906.

A new genus of ichneumon-flies of the subtribe Barycerotina (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae) from Mexico

In the subtribe Barycerotina (Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae) a new genus of ichneumon-flies, Khalaimia gen. nov. with the type species Khalaimia mexicana sp. nov., is described from Mexico.

Peculiarities of morphometric variability of white-fish Coregonus lavaretus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Actinopterygii: Coregonidae) of Sevan Lake

On the basis of the morphometric analysis of the variability of the white-fish Coregonus lavaretus of Sevan Lake, it was revealed that a comparatively homogeneous population of this fish has been formed there by the beginning of the XXI century. It is suggested that the unstable hydroecological regime of the lake and the anthropogenic pressing on the population of the white-fish can influence on the formation of new morphological and ecological features of this fish in the future. At the same time, taking into account the evolutionary youth of the white-fish of Sevan Lake and incompleteness of the processes of its formation, it is suggested to consider this fish as an ecological form of Coregonus lavaretus without certain taxonomic status.

New data on the genus Syndias Loew (Diptera: Hybotidae), with description of two new Palaearctic species from Cyprus and Tajikistan

Two new Palaearctic species of Syndyas Loew (Diptera: Hybotidae) are described – S. merzi sp. nov. (Cyprus) and S. tajikistanica sp. nov. (Tajikistan). Syndyas nigripes (Zetterstedt, 1842) is recorded for the first time from the Russian Far East and Kazakhstan. A key to species of Syndyas from the Palaearctic is compiled.

The auricle muscles in the relict rodent Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia: Diatomyidae)

The facial muscle complex responsible for auricle mobility in the recently described relict rodent Laonastes aenigmamus Jenkins et al., 2005 (Diatomyidae) was studied for the first time. The members of other high-level rodent taxa that could be closely related to this species according to various hypotheses were also included in the morphological analysis for comparative purposes: Ctenodactylus gundi (Ctenodactylomorphi: Ctenodactylidae) and Chinchilla lanigera (Hystricognathi: Chinchillidae). The results of the study demonstrated the origin of the m. cervico-occipitalis and the mm. cervico-auriculares on the occipital crest and the unusual structure of the m. platysma cervicale, all distinctive features of the examined muscle complex in Laonastes. In Laonastes and Ctenodactylus, a number of common characters in the structure of the auricle muscles were also observed: the topography, interaction and areas of the insertion of the m. interscutularis and the m. cervico-occipitalis; the two-layer condition of the mm. cervico-auriculares. The obtained results do not contradict the available morphological and molecular data supporting the close affinity between Diatomyidae and Ctenodactylidae.

Volume 316 (2), 2012

Date of publication — June 25, 2012

A review of fossil vertebrate remains from Pleistocene layers of Akhstyrskaya Cave (North-West Caucasus)

The Pleistocene fauna of vertebrates from the Akhshtyrskaya Paleolithic cave site comprises nine species of birds and 34 species of mammals, including 5 extinct taxa (Arvicola cf. chosaricus, A. cf. kalmalkensis, Ursus kudarensis, Panthera spelaea, Megaloceros giganteus). Most of fossil bone-fragments of large mammals (over 95%) belong to the Kudaro cave bear (Ursus kudarensis). Cave-bear remains predominantly represent males. The set of skeletal elements suggests the death of bears by natural causes, inside the cave. Traces of damage on bear bones produced by predators are scarce; no unambiguous cut marks from stone tools were revealed. The Akhshtyrskaya Cave presumably was used by cave bears for overwintering, serving from time to time as a shelter for ancient hominins.

The forgotten dinosaurs of Zhetysu (Eastern Kazakhstan; Late Cretaceous)

The Late Cretaceous dinosaur-bearing localities discovered in the Ili River Basin in the foothills of Dzhungar Alatau, in the center of the historical region Zhetysu (Semirechie), in 1925–1927 are among the first occurrences for dinosaurs discovered in Asia. Preliminary identifications of dinosaurian remains from the Zhetysu localities, reviewed by Nesov (1995a), included Sauropoda, Tyrannosauridae, Hadrosauridae, Ankylosauridae, and possible Ceratopsidae. The only previously described specimen from this assemblage is a tibia attributed to cf. Ceratopsia by Riabinin (1939) from the Kara-Cheku locality. This bone is considered currently as Dinosauria indet. We describe here the most important find from this fauna to date, a partial tyrannosaurid dentary collected by a team from the Institute of Zoology of the Kazakh Academy of Sciences at the Kara-Cheku locality in 1950. This specimen can be confidently identified as a derived tyrannosaurine based on the incrassate teeth and the small first alveolus. This is the first record of a tyrannosaurine from the Late Cretaceous of Kazakhstan and Middle Asia. The age of Zhetysu dinosaur fauna is possibly Campanian or Maastrichtian.

Ryocalanus antarcticus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Copepoda) – first ryocalanoid from the Southern Ocean

A new ryocalanoid copepod, Ryocalanus antarcticus sp. nov., is described from both genders collected during the German expeditions EASIZ-II in 1998 and ANDEEP SYSTCO in 2008 above the seabed in deep waters of the Southern Ocean. The new species is well distinguished from congeners in the shape of the genital double-somite and the posterior corners of prosome, the structure of distal segments of geniculated antennule in male and details of leg 1 and limb armament. Species of Ryocalanus are separated into two groups. Group I contains medium to large sized copepods with a single rostrum, a geniculated moderately modified right antennule in the male, and the distal segments of the male uniramous leg 5 armed with terminal spines. Group II of Ryocalanidae share the small size (<1.6 mm), a bifid rostrum, the male highly complex geniculated right antennule, with strongly modified distal segments, and an indistinctly biramous male leg 5 with distal exopod segments lacking terminal spines. R. antarcticus sp. nov. is the first ryocalanoid copepod recorded from the Southern Ocean.

Three new species of the scarab beetle genus Madecorphnus Paulian, 1992 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae) from Madagascar

Three new species of the scarab beetle genus Madecorphnus, endemic to Madagascar, are described and their characters are illustrated: M. hanskii sp. nov. (Ambohitantely Special Reserve, Central Plateau), M. aquilonius sp. nov. (Northern Madagascar), and M. barclayi sp. nov. (Masoala Peninsula, North-Eastern Madagascar). Distribution maps are presented.

Schizocarpus saveljevi sp. nov. (Acariformes: Chirodiscidae) parasitizing the Eurasian beaver – Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Castoridae) from Leningrad Province (Russia)

Eight species of the fur-mite genus Schizocarpus Trouessart, 1896 (Acariformes: Chirodiscidae) were collected from one skin of the Eurasian beaver supposedly belonging to the subspecies Castor fiber (?) orientoeuropaeus Lavrov, 1981 (Rodentia: Castoridae) from Boksitogorsk District of Leningrad Province (Russia). Among them, Schizocarpus saveljevi sp. nov. is described as a new for science, S. zurowskii Bochkov et al., 2012 and S. heatherae Bochkov et al., 2012 are recorded from this beaver subspecies for the first time, and other five species are the same as on beavers of this subspecies from the Voronezh Reserve (Bochkov and Dubinina 2011), i.e. S. brachyurus (Dubinina, 1964), S. capitis (Dubinina, 1964), S. fedjushini (Dubinina, 1964), S. gozdziewskii Bochkov et al., 2012, and S. radiatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1985. The beaver skin was without head and therefore some Schizocarpus species specialized to this microhabitat were not collected.

Baltic Dunlin (Calidris alpina schinzii Brehm) on Kurgalsky Peninsula: features of biology, the annual cycle, and factors of the environment limiting its distribution in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland

This paper presents the description of the breeding biology of Baltic Dunlin on the Kurgalsky Peninsula (eastern part of the Gulf of Finland). Variability of terms of the arrival and start of reproduction and their dependence from the process of spring events in the Baltic region was studied. These parameters were compared with data from other parts of the area. The essential delay of terms of the arrival and start of reproduction of Baltic Dunlins is observed in process of movement to the north-east of the breeding area. At that, the time of the termination of eggs laying everywhere is dated for the last dates of May – beginning of June, and flying away of young and adult birds everywhere finished by the end of June – beginning of July. In north-east areas, there is an essential reduction of the period of eggs laying and, especially, the prebreeding period. Important factors of dynamics of natural habitats of Baltic Dunlins are the effect of winter shearing of ice and of the autumn storms, interrupting vegetative successions at early stages of their development. Recommendations to the protection of this subspecies are given.

Volume 316 (1), 2012

Date of publication — March 23, 2012

Systematics of the American katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Communication 1

Championica cervus sp. nov. and Ch. peruana spinifera subsp. nov. (Pleminiinae), as well as Machimoides rehni sp. nov., M. vivasi peru subsp. nov., Lichenomorphus berezini sp. nov., L. sinyaevi sp. nov., L. oscari sp. nov., Dysonia pardalis sp. nov., D. holgeri extensa subsp. nov. and D. holgeri cusco subsp. nov. (Phaneropterinae) are described from Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Mexico.

Review of the type specimens of Rock Lizards of Darevskia (saxicola) complex (Sauria: Lacertidae)

The paper provide information on the current status of the type specimens of Darevskia (saxicola) complex as they were in December 2011. I order to stabilize nomenclature of this complex, the neotype of Lacerta saxicola Eversmann, 1834, lectotypes of Lacerta saxicola brauneri Mehely, 1909 and Lacerta saxicola lindholmi Szczerbak, 1962 are designated. History of description of these taxa is discussed.

Ornithostoma sedgwicki – valid taxon of azhdarchoid pterosaurs

Ornithostoma sedgwicki Seeley, 1891 from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) Cambridge Greensand of England is represented by edentulous jaw fragments, posterior skull fragment with the supraoccipital crest, and by several postcranial bones attributed previously to Lonchodectes. Ornithostoma is referred to the Azhdarchoidea based on a combination of derived characters (teeth absent, middle cervicals moderately elongated, pneumatic foramen on anterior side of humerus, large pneumatic foramen on posterior side of femur at greater trochanter) and plesiomorphic characters (deltopectoral crest not warped, femoral neck to shaft angle less than 145°). The structure of the supraoccipital crest and humerus resembles those in Tapejara, but Ornithostoma differs from that taxon by a strong median ridge on the occiput presumably associated with a more elongated rostrum. At least three taxa of basal azhdarchoids were present in the British Lower Cretaceous.

New data on the soft-shelled turtles from the Upper Cretaceous Kyrkkuduk I locality of Southern Kazakhstan

We re-examine one previously described trionychid specimen (a posterior part of a carapace formerly attributed to Trionyx zakhidovi Khosatzky, 1966) and describe additional trionychid shell material from the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian – ?Middle Campanian) Kyrkkuduk I locality (= Sary-Agach) in southern Kazakhstan. All material was collected by the Russian geologist and paleobotanist V.D. Prinada in the 1920s. Based on new observations and material, we refer much of the material from Kyrkkuduk I to “Trionyxkansaiensis Vitek et Danilov, 2010, a shell taxon known from the Late Cretaceous of Tadzhikistan and Kazakhstan. The remaining material is assigned to a second trionychid taxon that is similar to some members of the tribe Trionychini from the Late Cretaceous of Asia, but is identified conservatively as Trionychidae indet. Thus, we confirm the presence of at least two forms of trionychids in the Kyrkkuduk I locality, as was previously proposed by earlier authors, although our taxonomic identifications differ. The newly referred material of “Trionyxkansaiensis expands the geographic range of this species and provides new information about its morphology, especially the structure of the xiphiplastron and variation of the neurals.

Pseudocalanus acuspes (Crustacea: Copepoda) from the White Sea

The presence of Pseudocalanus acuspes in the White Sea is confirmed. In this northern Sea P. acuspes coexists with its congener P. minutus. The morphological characters proposed by Frost (1989) as distinguishing for P. minutus and P. acuspes apply well for the White Sea specimens. A key diagnostic character is P4 coxopod to basipod ratio, which is more than 1.5 in P. minutus and less than 1.5 in P. acuspes. Additional characters are: size of spiniform processes on postero-ventral margins of pedigerous somites 2 and 3, prosome to urosome ratio, and shape of cephalon in anterior lateral view. In females morphology of oral parts does not help in distinguishing between species, but is helpful for males.

Postnatal development and some features of reproduction of the two species of rats (Rattus rattus Linnaeus, 1758 and Rattus tanezumi Temminck, 1844)

Laboratory rat colonies, belonging to two different chromosome types: Oceanian (2n = 38), Rattus rattus and Asian (2n = 42), Rattus tanezumi have been studied. Fifteen litters (93 pups) of R. rattus and 27 litters (131 pups) of R. tanezumi were weighed and measured every day. From the first through the 17th day weight, lengths of body, tail and foot were recorded, characteristic features of development of pups (time of separation of ears, divergence of fingers on the fore- and hind limbs, eruption of upper and lower incisors, opening of eyes) were noted, changes of coloration and forming of fur and behavioral patterns were fixed. Higher viability, larger sizes and higher rates of development of pups of R. rattus, and also essential differences in breeding (seasonality in R. rattus and year-round cycle in R. tanezumi) have been discovered. The differences in development of behavior and moving activity are slight.

New species of the genus Trixagus Kugelann, 1794 (Coleoptera: Throscidae) from the lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France)

Trixagus majusculus sp. nov., the third fossil representative of the genus of the elaterioid family Throscidae: Throscinae is described from the Lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France). The new species is compared with both extinct and extant species of the genus. “Throscus (?)” peritulus Cockerell, 1925 is excluded from the family Throscidae and a review of the available fossil representatives of this family is given.



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