Contents of Proceedings of the Zoological Institute

Volume 318 (4), 2014

Date of publication — December 25, 2014

Ilya Sergeevich Darevsky. 90 years anniversary

Ilya Sergeevich Darevsky. 90 years anniversary.

My biography (herpetology and life)

The autobiography of zoologist, evolutionist, expert in herpetology and biogeography, Ilya Sergeyevich Darevsky (1924–2009) together with notes and additions are provided.

Ilya Sergeevich Darevsky: 90 years anniversary

Biography of prominent zoologist, evolutionist, expert in herpetology and biogeography, Ilya Sergeyevich Darevsky (1924–2009), list of specialists whose dissertations were supervised by Darevsky and list of key publications about Darevsky are provided.

Ilya Sergeevich Darevsky (1924–2009): bibliography (1938–2014)

A bibliography zoologist, evolutionist and biogeography Ilya Sergeyevich Darevsky (1924–2009), which includes 466 names. Time publications scientist covers the period from 1938 to 2014.

Review of type specimens of rock lizards of Darevskia (caucasica) (Sauria: Lacertidae)

The paper provides information on the current status of the type specimens of Darevskia (caucasica) complex as they were in August 2014. In order to stabilize nomenclature of this complex, the lectotype of Lacerta saxicola daghestanica Darevsky, 1967 is designated. The description of external morphology of paralektotype of a L. s. daghestanica, lektotype and paralektotype of Lacerta caucasica Mehely, 1909 is given. History of description of these taxa is discussed.

Concept of hybridogeneous speciation of vertebrate animals: complex studies of unisexual species of Reptilia

Results of study of unisexual-bisexual complexes from different lizard families have been generalized, using cytogenetic, molecular-cytogenetic data in combination with allozyme, mt-DNA and microsatellite-DNA analysis. These extensive studies of parthenogenetic species of reptiles confirm the concept hypothesis of hybridogeneous speciation of vertebrate animals based on an inter-specific hybridization with forming of a new hybrid unisexual species, clones and forms. Modern researches are considerably extended understanding of evolutionary interrelated phenomena such as hybridization-unisexuality-polyploidy-and ‘balance’ genome. The hybridization may be phylogenetically constrained. An implication of hybridization might be in genome destabilization, and therefore in its rapid diversity, arising of new gene’s variants, of new specific allozyme alleles and microsatellite loci, lacking in parent’s genomes. The implication of unisexuality (in case of its rises) is the maintainance of parental gene block along fixation of new variant of the latter resulting from hybridization.

A review of genus Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Sauria: Gekkonidae) in fauna of Laos with description of four new species

We describe four new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus based on the results of phylogenetic analysis of 673 bp of the COI mtDNA gene and morphological description of voucher specimens from Khammouane and Vientiane provinces, Laos. The three of the new species, namely Cyrtodactylus khammouanensis sp. nov., Cyrtodactylus darevskii sp. nov. and Cyrtodactylus multiporus sp. nov., are described from a small area in monsoon tropical forests on limestone in the environs of Nahome Village, Boulapha District, Khammouane Province, Central Annamites. Cyrtodactylus darevskii sp. nov. differs from all other Laotian Cyrtodactylus by a combination of the following morphological characters: (1) maximum SVL up to 100 mm; (2) dorsal pattern formed by the narrow dark nuchal band and 4–5 dark transverse breaking bands with light yellowish posterior edges between limbs; (4) 38–46 ventral scales; (5) continuous series of 38–44 precloacal and femoral pores in males and 24–34 precloacal and femoral pores in females; (6) preclocal groove lacking; (7) 4–5 postcloacal spurs present in both sexes; (8) one median row of subcaudal scales. Cyrtodactylus khammouanensis sp. nov. appears to be closely related to the recently described C. jaegeri Luu et. al., 2014 and can be distinguished from this species and the remaining Laotian congeners by a combination of the following morphological features: (1) medium size, with a maximum SVL up to 73 mm; (2) males with continuous series of 40–44 precloacal and femoral pores; (3) preclocal groove lacking; (4) 32–38 longitudinal rows of ventral scales at midbody; (5) weakly keeled tubercles present on the dorsum and lacking on the head; (6) 5–6 enlarged postcloacal spurs in both sexes; (8) one median row of subcaudal scales; (7) dorsal pattern consisting of wide dark nuchal band and 4–5 dark wide transverse bands. Cyrtodactylus multiporus sp. nov. is distinguished by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) maximum SVL of up to 98 mm; (2) dorsal patterns consisting of dark irregular separate spots between limbs and on the dorsal surface of the head; (3) nuchal band absent; (4) 30–38 ventrals; (5) continuous series of 58–60 precloacal and femoral pores in males; (6) preclocal groove lacking; (7) 5–6 postcloacal spurs present in both sexes; (8) one median row of subcaudal scales. Cyrtodactylus spelaeus sp. nov. is described from a cave in north of Vientiane Province of Laos and differs from other congeners by a combination of the following characters: (1) maximum SVL of 98 mm; (2) dorsal pattern formed by oblong dark irregular butterflyshaped blotches with light contrast margins; (3) nuchal band with light edging consists of two separate parts, which contact in occipital region; (4) 37–39 ventral scales; (5) 7–8 precloacal pores in males; (5) preclocal groove lacking; (6) 2–3 postcloacal spurs present in both sexes; (7) ten rows of enlarged dorsal tubercles. Our study increase the number of Cyrtodactylus species known for Laos to fifteen. COI DNA-barcoding is successfully applied to reveal cryptic diversity within the genus Cyrtodactylus.

Karyotype of the Eichwald’s Toad, Bufo eichwaldi (Amphibia: Bufonidae)

For the first time the karyotype of Bufo eichwaldi was described (2n = 22). It consists of 12 large metacentric (V), 8 small metacentric (v), and 2 small submetacentric chromosomes (sv): 12 V + 8 v + 2 sv, NF = 44. According to the number of chromosomes and arrangement of NORs (in the end of long arms of pairs 6), the karyotype of B. eichwaldi has no differences from karyotypes of close related B. bufo and B. verrucosissimus. The main difference is wide heterochromatin C-blocks in long arms of pair 10, which is present in B. eichwaldi and lacking in B. bufo and B. verrucosissimus. Moreover, in the Eichwald’s toad the pair 1 has, as a rule, larger size if compare with other two species. Additionally, these two species had two submetacentric chromosomes (pairs 4 and 7), but B. eichwaldi had only one (pair 7).

Zoogeography of the Northern Hemisphere and amphibians: the Palearctic and the Nearctic vs. the Holarctic?

Various schemes, proposed by zoologists and botanists of the second half of the 19th century and the first third of the 20th century, to unite temperate parts of the Northern Hemisphere (the Palearctic and Nearctic realms) in a single biogeographic region under the names “the Boreal Region” or Realm, “the Arctogaean Region”, “the Triarctic” or “the Holarctic”, and “Periarctic region” are briefly outlined. The history of the concept of the Holarctic (A. Heilprin 1883, 1887) and of its critics by Alfred Wallace and Theodore Gill are described. Based on the list of amphibian families and their zoogeographic distribution provided by A. Wallace (1876b), our re-evaluation by means of the Czekanovsky–Sorensen Coefficient confirmed Heilprin’s conclusion about larger similarity between the Palearctic and the Nearctic in comparison with their neighbouring zoogeographic regions. However, the same quantitative analysis of the distribution of amphibians (at the level of families, genera as well as species) in these five regions, based on modern taxonomy evidenced for significant distinctness of amphibian faunas of the Palearctic realm and the Nearctic realm and, thus, did not support the reality of the Holarctic for amphibians.

Analysis of geographic distribution and landscape allocation of amphibians and reptiles in Tuva Republic

Data on the geographic distribution and landscape allocation of amphibians and reptiles of Tuva are presented. 2 species of amphibians and 9 species of reptiles are known from this territory. Amphibians are found in 16 landscape types, whereas reptiles – in 39. Rana arvalis turned out to be most eurybiotic, it was discovered in 13 landscape types, while Salamandrella keyserlingii – only in 7 ones. Among reptiles, the most eurybiotic species is Zootoca vivipara which was found in 15 landscape types, and the most stenobiotic species is Eremias przewalskii which is known from a single landscape only. Altitudinal distribution of amphibians and reptiles, as well as all known cases of syntopy of reptilian species in Tuva are given.

Volume 318 (3), 2014

Date of publication — September 25, 2014

On a new ichthyosaur of the genus Undorosaurus

A new species of ichthyosaur genus Undorosaurus from the Volgian stage of Moscow is described based on an incomplete forelimb. It differs from congeners basically in the form and position of pisiforme. With the application of cladistic method the phylogenetic position of two genera Undorosaurus and Paraophthalmosaurus in the system of Ichthyosauridae is defined. Both taxa are referred to the clade Ophthalmosaurinae.

Late pleistocene hyena Crocuta ultima ussurica (Mammalia: Carnivora: Hyaenidae) from the Paleolithic Site in Geographical Society Cave in the Russian Far East

Fossil hyena remains recovered from Geographical Society Cave in the southern part of Primorskii Territory in Russia are referred, as a result of this study, to Crocuta ultima ussurica. The available radiocarbon dates define a time of the fossiliferous layer as the warm stage of the Late Pleistocene (MIS 3). Morphological difference between C. ultima ussurica and C. crocuta spelaea appeared to be as follows: the former species has more robust (with regards to the skull size) cheek teeth implying bone-crushing adaptation; the latter species exhibits more carnivorous specialization. Taphonomical analysis of the bone assemblage suggests the cave was used as a hyena den; no essential dissimilarity is observed between hyena dens in Europe/Western Siberia and in the Russian Far East. The existence of two chronosubspecies is proposed: C. ultima ultima from the Middle Pleistocene of China and C. u. ussurica from the Late Pleistocene of the Russian Far East and China.

Systematics of the American Katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Communication 4

This communication contains a correction of the nomenclature of tegminal veins in the genus Aegimia Stal, 1874 and a review of new material on the genus Ceraia Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1891 (Phaneropterinae). For the latter genus, a new species group (the Dentata group) is established, a composition of the former Capra group is revised, new data on some species distribution are given, as well as C. viktori sp. nov., C. cornutoides separata subsp. nov., C. legitima sp. nov., C. legitima angulata subsp. nov., C. sagittata sp. nov., C. propria sp. nov., C. capra megacerca subsp. nov., C. mollis sp. nov., C. colombiana sp. nov., C. oaxaca sp. nov., С. surinamensis granti subsp. nov. and C. woronovi sp. nov. are described from South America (Ecuador, Peru, Colombia) and Mexico. Two former subspecies, C. tibialoides panamensis Emsley et Nickle, 1969 and C. hemidactyloides stenopa Emsley et Nickle, 1969, are considered as distinct species: C. panamensis stat. nov. and C. stenopa stat. nov.

Systematics and nomenclatorial notes on some taxa of Zabrini and Harpalini from the Palaearctic, Oriental and Australian regions (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

The paper deals with the taxonomy of some members of Zabrini and Harpalini based mainly on the examination of the type material. Harpalus indicus orientalis subsp. nov. is described from Myanmar, China, Vietnam and Laos. Notiobia (Anisotarsus) peratra (Sloane, 1920), originally described from Tasmania and the south-east of Australia within the genus Diaphoromerus Chaudoir, 1843, is redescribed. The following new synonyms are proposed: Amara abdominalis (Motschulsky, 1844) = Phobophorus paccatus Motschulsky, 1850, syn. nov.; Amara lamia Andrewes, 1924 = Trichotichnus ladakhensis Kirschenhofer, 1992, syn. nov.; Amathitis Zimmermann, 1832 = Phobophorus Motschulsky, 1850, syn. nov.; Chydaeus andrewesi szetschuanus Schauberger, 1932 = Ch. guangxiensis Ito, 2006, syn. nov.; Harpalomimetes fukiensis (Jedlicka, 1957), comb. nov. = Kareya fukiensis Jedlicka, 1957 = Harpalomimetes orbicollis Ito, 1995, syn. nov.; Harpalus Latreille, 1802 = Licinoderus Sainte-Claire Deville, 1905 = Neoharpalus Mateu, 1954 = Baeticoharpalus Serrano et Lecina, 2009, syn. nov.; Harpalus politus Dejean, 1829 = H. eberlovi Berlov, 1996, syn. nov.; H. praticola Bates, 1891 = H. himalayicus Jedlicka, 1966, syn. nov.; H. semipunctatus Dejean, 1829 = H. aesculanus Pantel, 1888, syn. nov.; H. subcylindricus Dejean, 1829 = H. ambigenus Reiche, 1853, syn. nov.; Notiobia peratra (Sloane, 1920) = Chydaeus queenslandicus Baehr, 2004, syn. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Diaphoromerus perater Sloane, 1920; Harpalus indicus Bates, 1891; and H. semipunctatus Dejean, 1829.

Molluscs of the genus Onoba H. Adams, 1852 from the Barents Sea and adjacent waters (Gastropoda: Rissoidae)

Four species of Onoba H. Adams et A. Adams, 1852 are reported from the Barents Sea and adjacent waters of Arctic Basin and White Sea: O. aculeus (Gould, 1841), O. semicostata (Montagu, 1803), O. leptalea (Verrill, 1884) and O. improcera Waren, 1996. Onoba karica Golikov, 1986 is considered as a synonym of O. leptalea. Both O. mighelsi (Stimpson, 1851) and Alvania jeffreysi (Waller, 1864) were erroneously recorded from the Russian waters by previous authors.

A review of the genus Crocodorylaimus Andrassy, 1988 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida)

This review discusses the taxonomic composition of the genus Crocodorylaimus Andrassy, 1988 and provides its revised diagnosis and a key for species identification. The species С. thermalis Andrassy, 1999 and C. vaginatus Ahmad et Araki, 2003 are synonymised, the status of C. fecundus (Cobb,1914) = Laimydorus fecundus (Cobb, 1914) Andrassy,1986 is changed. A new species, C. borchuk sp. n., is described. The new species differs from morphologically similar species C. flavomaculatus (Linstow, 1876) and C. dadayi (Thorne et Swanger, 1936): from the former by the presence of paravulvar papillae and from the latter by a higher number of supplements and shorter prerectum.

Volume 318 (2), 2014

Date of publication — June 25, 2014

Systematics of the American Katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Communication 3

New data on Phaneropterinae from Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru and Bolivia are given. Vellea pulchra sp. nov., Euceraia umbrosa sp. nov., E. subaquila colorata subsp. nov., E. cercata sp. nov., E. cercata elchaco subsp. nov., E. convoluta sp. nov., E. proxima sp. nov., E. abnormalis parallela subsp. nov., E. varia sp. nov., E. varia simulata subsp. nov., E. gusarovi sp. nov., Pycnopalpa porphyretica sp. nov., P. occidentalis sp. nov., P. gracilenta sp. nov., Hetaira angusta sp. nov. and H. morona sp. nov. are described. New subgenera of the genus Pycnopalpa Audinet-Serville, 1838 (Vitrosoria subgen. nov. and Gracisoria subgen. nov.) are established. Euceraia sanguinea Piza, 1950, sp. dist. and Zenirella Piza, 1973, gen. dist. are restored from synonymy. Zenirella punctata (Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1878), comb. nov. and H. aurigera (Rehn, 1918), comb. nov. are transferred from the genera Ligocatinus Rehn, 1901 and Topana Walker, 1869 to Zenirella and Hetaira Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1891, respectively. Two former genera are included in the genera Hetaira and Gnathoclita Hagenbach, 1841 (Pleminiinae) as their subgenera Atopana Vignon, 1930, stat. nov. and Disceratus Scudder, 1869, stat. nov. (= Tettohenicus Gorochov, 2012, syn. nov.), respectively. Some new data on species distribution are given.

Giant Mosasaurus hoffmanni (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Penza, Russia

This study provides a morphological description of the fragmentary skull of a mosasaur discovered in 1927 in the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) deposits in the city of Penza (Russia). Some bones from the original material had been lost since their discovery; their description is based on plaster casts. The Penza mosasaur displays characteristic features of Mosasaurus hoffmanni such as the posterior carina that shifts from a somewhat lateral position in the anterior teeth to a posterior position further along the tooth row, a frontal with convex lateral margins, and a powerfully built dentary. This is the first unequivocal record of this taxon from Russia. M. hoffmanni from the Penza is one of the largest mosasaurs ever known with an overall length of the body about 17 m.

A redescription of the feather mite, Dubininia accipitrina (Trouessart, 1885) (Acari: Xolalgidae), parasitizing falcons (Falconiformes: Falconidae)

Dubininia accipitrina (Trouessart, 1885) is the type species of the feather mite genus Dubininia Vassilev, 1958 (Xolalgidae: Ingrassiinae), infesting various falcons of the genus Falco Linnaeus. This species is redescribed based on samples from the American Kestrel Falco sparverius Linnaeus (Falconiformes: Falconidae).

Two new species of the Empis (s. str.) nigriceps group (Diptera: Empididae) from the North-West Caucasus

Two new species of the Empis (Empis) nigripes group are described from the North-West Caucasus: E. (E.) hilariformis sp. nov. (Russia: Krasnodarskiy Territory) and E. (E.) ovchinnikovae sp. nov. (Russia: Krasnodarskiy Territory). A key to species of the E. nigripes group from the Caucasus is provided.

Volume 318 (1), 2014

Date of publication — March 25, 2014

Interactions of photoperiod and thermorhythm in the induction of larval diapause in the blowfly, Calliphora vicina R.-D. (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

Laboratory experiments were conducted with a strain of Calliphora vicina originated from individuals collected in the environs of St. Petersburg, Russia. Females developed and were kept at 20° C under short day length of 12 h, their progeny developed at the same photoperiod but at different temperature regimes. At 12° C most of the larvae entered diapause, at 15° С about 50 % of the larvae diapaused, and at 18° C diapause was not observed. Thermorhythm (alternation of 12-h-long periods with temperatures of 12 and 18° C) induced diapause in approximately a third of individuals, regardless of whether the low temperature coincided with the dark or with the light phases of the photoperiod. Thus, the larval diapause of C. vicina represents an exception to the rule stating that the role of the night temperature in the diapause induction is much more important than that of the day temperature. The analysis of this and some other known exceptions to the above rule suggests that they can be expla ined by a combination of a very strong thermal and a very weak photoperiodic response which makes their interaction negligible.

Flight speed of the song thrush (Turdus philomelos) during autumn nocturnal migration

Nocturnally migrating birds were observed with Electronic-optical system for registration. The Song Thrushes have been distinguished among the nocturnal migrants by the linear size, wing-beat pattern and phonological data. The airspeed of the thrushes varies depending on wind direction and velocity. It increases with increasing headwind component relative to its value in calm air and decreases with increasing tail-wind component. The air speed of the migratory flight in thrushes is proportional to an effective wing-beat frequency calculated for the flapping phases and pauses between them. Under different wind conditions the birds maintain optimal physiological wing beat frequency within rather narrow range but vary their airspeed by duration of inertial phases of flight. The observed airspeeds of the Song Thrushes were close to the theoretically predicted maximum range speed indicating energy-selected migration strategy in autumn.

Variations of the tooth morphology of the Woolly Mammoth Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799) (Mammalia: Elephanthidae)

Cases of variations in the morphology of isolated upper teeth M3 of Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799) from the south-east of West Siberia and Yakutiya are described. The anomaly of M. primigenius tooth from Yakutiya is expressed in changing of the tooth crown shape and position of dental plates in M3. Development of the anomaly was probably associated with a delay of loosing the tooth of the previous generation (M2) and disorder of the formation of M3 at the stage of its mineralization. Two M3 teeth from Novosibirsk Province are characterized by changing of the wearing surface and root shape. One of them shows two wearing surfaces in parallel to initial masticatory surface, shifted lingually. The upper part of the root is bent buccally, that is connected with the falling out of the tooth from the alveolus. The appearance of such a change, presumably, is connected with a mechanical injury of the cheek region of skull. The reconstruction of the formation of this tooth anomaly in M. primigenius was carried out. The second of these teeth also has a wrong position of the masticatory surface, which has a gradual curvature from nearly perpendicular (to enamel plates) in the anterior part of the tooth to about 45° in the posterior plates.

New species of the Madagascan scarab beetle genus Madecorphnus Paulian, 1992 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae)

Three new species of the scarab beetle genus Madecorphnus, endemic to Madagascar, are described from the material collected by the staff of the California Academy of Sciences. The new species are: M. fisheri sp. nov. (mid-elevation rain forest on the eastern flank of the Anosyenne Mountains, southern Madagascar), M. saintemariensis sp. nov. (coastal forest, Sainte Marie Island, eastern Madagascar), and M. tuberculatus sp. nov. (low elevation rain forest, Betampona Reserve, eastern Madagascar).

Review of Clinocerinae (Diptera: Empididae) from the Caucasus, with description of three new species

Eighteen species of Clinocerinae are recorded from the Caucasus, including three new species described herein [Kowarzia caucasica sp. nov. (Russia: Republic of Adygea), Trichoclinocera grichanovi sp. nov. (Russia: KabardinoBalkaria), Wiedemannia kustovi sp. nov. (Russia: Republic of Adygea)]. The genus Trichoclinocera Collin is recorded from this region for the first time. A key to Clinocerinae of the Caucasus is presented.

On a new classification of the genus Siboglinum Caullery, 1914 (Annelida: Pogonophora)

The largest pogonophoran genus Siboglinum Caullery, 1914 is for the first time reviewed and divided into nine subgenera, diagnoses provided and species listed. The following characters in various combinations are considered to have subgeneric significance: disposition of glandular areas on the forepart, presence and relative development of anterior teeth on chaetal heads, number, shape and disposition of the girdles of chaetae, shape of a segmental groove on the forepart, length and details of structure of the spermatophore, colour of the tube, presence of segments (together with rings or separately) on the tube, relative thickness of the tentacle, presence of pinnules on the tentacle. Several species of Siboglinum from the ZIN collection have been re-examined to define their position in the proposed subgeneric classification.

Wing polymorphism in Netomocera ramakrishnai Sureshan, 2010 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in East Asia, with the first description of a brachypterous morph

Netomocera ramakrishnai Sureshan, 2010 is newly recorded from China (Taiwan), Japan (Honshu) and the Russian Far East (Sakhalin I. and Kamchatka Terr.). Females of the species also showed the first example of wing polymorphism in the genus Netomocera Boucek, 1954 and the second in the subfamily Diparinae Thomson, 1876. Female wings of N. ramakrishnai range from being fully macropterous in eastern India to macropterous or slightly brachypterous in Taiwan and fully brachypterous in Japan and eastern Russia. The previously unknown brachypterous morph of N. ramakrishnai is described and illustrated, and the distribution of the species is discussed.

Cow sharks (Hexanchiformes) from the Cretaceous deposits of the Crimea

This paper presents descriptions of five species of sharks of the families Hexanchidae and Crassodontidanidae from the Cretaceous deposits of South-West Crimea: Crassodontidanus aff. wiedenrothi (Thies, 1983) (Bolshoy Kermen Mountain, lower Hauterivian), Pachyhexanchus pockrandti (Ward et Thies, 1987) (Bolshoy Kermen Mountain, lower Hauterivian), Notidanodon aff. lanceolatus (Woodward, 1886) (Belaya Mountain, lower – middle Cenomanian), N. cf. lanceolatus (near Maryino Village, middle Aptian), and N. dentatus (Woodward, 1886) (Kremennaya Mountain, lower Cenomanian). The tooth of Crassodontidanus aff. wiedenrothi is close in morphology to those of C. wiedenrothi from the Jurassic of Germany. Pachyhexanchus pockrandti is the second record of this species in the Tethys region. Representatives of Notidanodon aff. lanceolatus are sharply different from other species of this genus in tooth morphology; this taxon is, likely, an ancestral form for the family Heptranchidae.



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