Contents of Proceedings of the Zoological Institute

Volume 319 (4), 2015

Date of publication — December 25, 2015

A new species of Theodossia Nalivkin (Brachiopoda: Spiriferida) from the Frasnian of Novaya Zemlya

Descriptions of three new species of Devonian brachiopods Theodossia kagarmanovi sp. nov., Th. novosemelica sp. nov. и Th. tcherkesovae sp. nov. are given. Species belong to the order Spiriferida, suborder Spiriferidina, superfamily Theodossioidea, family Theodossiidae. Brachiopods are collected from the Middle and Upper Frasnian sections of the Southern Novaya Zemlya, Karskie Vorota strait area (Zhandrov and Menshikov subregional Horizons). Besides the description of the shell morphology and interior structure the article contains data about new species stratigraphic distribution and a history of Devonian brachiopods from Novaya Zemlya study.

Systematics of the american Katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Communication 5

This communication deals with a key to subgenera of the Neotropical genus Theia Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1891 (Phaneropterinae) including here the former genera Dolichocercus Rehn et Hebard, 1914, Oxyprorella GiglioTos, 1898 and Theiella Cadena-Castaneda, 2014, as well as with descriptions of some new taxa in the genus Theia (Th. ucayali sp. nov., Th. morona sp. nov., Th. carinata sp. nov., Th. amazonica levis subsp. nov., Th. andina ecuadori subsp. nov.) and in the subfamilies Conocephalinae (Cestrophorini trib. nov., Acanthacara ridiculosa sp. nov.) and Meconematinae (Phlugis gerana sp. nov., Phlugiola? appendicula sp. nov.). Moreover, redescriptions of Th. dives (Giglio-Tos, 1898) and Th. misera (Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1878), comb. nov. are given on the base of study of their previously unknown males; and Odontophlugis ramirezi (Barranco Vega, 2013), comb. nov. is transferred from the genus Phlugis Stal, 1861 to the genus Odontophlugis Gorochov, 1998 (Meconematinae).

Meristic variation of the three-spined stickleback from a Small Like (Karelian Coast, White Sea)

Data on the variability of meristic characters in three-spined stickleback from Starushechije Lake (Karelian coast, the White Sea) were obtained. The lateral plate number in fishes from this freshwater population varied from 4 to 16 with mean value (±SE) 8.7±0.37. Caudal set of plates forming a keel was detected in 96% of analyzed specimens. This phenotype of stickleback (low plated with a keel) was observed in the northeastern part of the European range for the first time. The three-spined stickleback from Starushechije Lake differed significantly by the fin rays numbers from the low plated sticklebacks inhabiting Lobanezhskoe and Svyatoe lakes (Velikiy Island, Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea) and by vertebrae number from Svyatoe Lake stickleback.

A new species of the genus Clidicus from Lower Cretaceous of France (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae)

Clidicus cretaceus sp. nov. from the Lower Cretaceous French amber of Archingeay is described. This finding is important to correct the phylogenetic hypotheses proposed for the tribe Clidicini.

On the ecology of the Mongolian toad (Bufo raddei Strauch, 1876) in the Valley of Lakes, Mongolia

Results of field studies of ecology of the Mongolian Toad (Bufo raddei) in the Valley of Lakes, Northern Gobi, Mongolia, are presented. It is concluded that the toad populations in semi-desert depend more on microhabitat conditions of small low wetlands rather than on multiyear fluctuations of water level of lakes as such.

Pathological change of brood pouch in modern Cladocera (Crustacea)

A pathology in Cladocera – edema of the brood poach is described.

Makarenkoplax gen. nov. and Makarenkoplacidae fam. nov. (Mollusca: Polyplacophora: Chitonida) from the Palaeogene of the Ukraine

A new family Makarenkoplacidae and a new genus Makarenkoplax gen. nov. of Polyplacophora are described from the Lower Palaeocene and the Upper Eocene of the Ukraine. The main characters of the family and genus are: depressions between the jugal and pleurolateral areas; anterior margin of pleurolateral areas strongly reduced and anterior part of jugal area projected; insertion plates strongly pectinated; tegmentum equally sculptured with small quincuncially arranged granules.

Presumption of the marine beginning in the animal physiology and ecology

When the animal ancestors after the long life in the kalium media (protoevolution) had met with sodium ocean, they formed the effective K/Na – pump under critical salinity about 5–8‰ (110–130 mM NaCl). The new scheme of the osmoregulation types related to salinity is demonstrated. Many physiological and ecological adaptations in animals have emerged on the basis of the surface epithelium reactions during the ?-poikiloosmotic stage of evolution.

Modern state of the genus Tobrilus (Nematoda: Enoplida: Tobrilidae)

The genus Tobrilus (Bastian 1865) includes 15 valid species, not counting the endemics of Lake Baikal. These species are subdivided into three groups: “classic” (species described not later than in the first third of the XX century), “new” and Baikal endemics. “Classic” and “new” are closely related through differential diagnosis. The identification of “new” species is difficult. This article provides identification keys for these species presented separately for females and males.

New species of free-living nematode Monhystera curvicaudata sp. nov. (Nematoda: Monhysterida) from India

The article provides the description of Monhystera curvicaudata sp. nov., a new species of free-living freshwater nematode from a water reservoir in Rajastan state, India. The new species differs from the morphologically similar M. pseudomacrura Khera, 1971 from India in the structure of the gubernaculum without apophysis and position of vulva. Morphological characters of the genus Monhystera are discussed; a key to males of the Monhystera species is given.

A review of Russian Upper Jurassic Ichthyosaurs with an intermedium/humeral contact. Reassessing Grendelius McGovan, 1976

The Upper Jurassic ichthyosaurs, characterized by the intermedium/humeral contact are known from several localities in Europe and North America. However, they are often described either briefly, or based on fragmentary material, resulting in a taxonomic tangle in most overviews. Grendelius McGowan, 1976 was previously synonymized with Brachypterygius Huene, 1922. However, it possesses a number of distinct features: intermedium with wide distally faced facet for distal carpal 3 (faced anterodistally in Brachypterygius and equal in size with distal carpal 4 facet), posterodistal contact of metacarpal 5 with ulnare (distal in Brachypterygius), and absence of postaxial accessory digit (well developed in Brachypterygius). We apply a cladistic analysis to place Grendelius and Brachypterygius in a phylogenetic context. Our analysis recovered Brachypterygius and Grendelius as distinct groups. The clade Grendelius + Otschevia gives us good reason to regard the genus Otschevia Efimov, 1998 as a subjective junior synonym of Grendelius.

Volume 319 (3), 2015

Date of publication — September 25, 2015

To the 90 years anniversary of Petr Petrovich Gambaryan

Biography and list of main publications of Petr Petrovich Gambaryan, an outstanding scientist, famous specialist in the functional morphology of mammals, is provided in connection with his 90 years anniversary.

Petr Petrovich Gambaryan: bibliography (1946–2015)

Bibliography of the famous zoologist, functional morphologist and evolutionist Petr Petrovich Gambaryan, including 108 names, is provided. The time of publications issue covers the period from 1946 to 2015.

Ontogeny and taxonomy of Paurodon valens (Mammalia, Cladotheria) from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of USA

Several basal cladotherian taxa previously referred to the “Paurodontidae” (Dryolestida) from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A. represent ontogenetic and individual variation of one single taxon, Paurodon valens Marsh, 1887 (= Archaeotrigon brevimaxillus Simpson, 1927, syn. n.; = Pelicopsis dubius Simpson, 1927, syn. n.; = Archaeotrigon distagmus Simpson, 1929, syn. n.; = Araeodon intermissus Simpson, 1937, syn. n.; = Foxraptor atrox Bakker et Carpenter, 1990, syn. n.). P. valens is characterized by prolonged dental replacement, including late eruption of m4 (and m5 as individual variation) and a time gap between shedding of dp2 and eruption of p2, which can be lost in aged individuals. By a shortened dentary and mandibular symphysis, two-three simple premolariform teeth, and four molariform teeth with tall trigonid and small talonid, P. valens is strinkingly similar to the modern golden moles (Chrysochloridae), particularly to Amblysomus hottentotus. This similarity suggests that P. valens was specialized on consuming earth worms in contrast to a more insectivorous diet characteristic for other dryolestidans.

Early Miocene bear Ballusia (Carnivora, Ursidae) from the locality Khirgis-Nur-I in Mongolia

The maxillary fragment with two molars belonging to a small ursid from the locality of Khirgis-Nur-I in northwestern part of Mongolia (MN3) was examined. Metrical and morphological comparison of the upper dentition in representatives of the genera Ballusia and Ursavus showed remarkable similarities between the Mongolian specimen and B. elmensis from the Early Miocene of Europe. This species is divided into two subspecies: B. e. elmensis (Europe) and B. e. orientalis (Eastern Asia). The tooth morphology of Ballusia demonstrates plesiomorphic states of characters, which became more advanced in representatives of Ursavus.

Two directions of the burrowing specialization in insectivorous mammals (Talpidae, Chrysochloridae)

The transformation of the forelimb musculature in insectivorous mammals was clarified in connection with their digging specialization. The comparative morphological analysis was carried out in five species of moles (Talpidae): Neurotrichus gibbsii; Talpa europaea; Mogera wogura; Scalopus aquaticus; Desmana moschata, and two species of golden moles (Chrysochloridae): Chrysochloris asiatica; Eremitalpa granti. In Т. europaea, during the soil displacement aside the main load falls on the flexors of the shoulder joint, of which the m. teres major is most developed. In golden moles, as in many other mammals, the relative weight of this muscle is significantly less that is connected with a different manner of burrowing. In all moles, in contrast to the gold moles, the maintenance of the permanently extended elbow joint is characteristic during the whole lateral stroke. As a result their olecranon is well developed that allows increasing the lever of the force attachment with relatively weak extensors. Thus, in moles, the relative weight of the m. anconeus longus is less of such in majority of specialized diggers. In both moles and golden moles, the weakness of the muscle parts of the m. flexor digitorum profundus is also observed.

The subcutaneous muscles of small mustelids (Carnivora, Mustelidae)

The comparative morphological analysis of the subcutaneous muscle (m. cutaneus trunci) was performed in eight representatives of the family Mustelidae (Mustela altaica, M. nivalis, M. eversmanii, M. lutreola, M. sibirica, M. erminea, Neovison vison, Martes martes). In all examined species of Mustela except for the stoat M. erminea, and American mink Neovison vison, a part of the subcutaneous muscle fibers is inserted on the superficial fascia of the brachial area, forming the portio brachialis. The peculiarities of the subcutaneous muscle in M. erminea correlate with available morphological and molecular data, which testify its basal state in a group of Palaearctic species of Mustela. Identical structure of the m. cutaneous trunci in the studied species of Mustela (except for M. erminea), and N. vison, which belong to different phylogenetic lines, suggests independent development of the portio brachialis in these lines.

The skeleton of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) from the Upper Paleolithic site Kostenki 14 (Markina Gora), European Russia

The paper presents a description of the skeleton of the woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius excavated from the multilayer Upper Paleolithic site Kostenki 14 (Markina gora) in Voronezh Province, European Russia. Skeleton was found in deposits filling a small gully. The bones were arranged in anatomical order and displaced slightly from each other. The whole absence of the cultural remains and cut marks on the bones indicate that the animal died naturally, without human participation. This skeleton demonstrates replacement of M1 by M2 in the upper jaw, and unfused epiphyses of most bones. Based on morphological and morphometric data, the skeleton belongs to young individual died at the age of 19–25 years, probably, a male. The mammoth from Kostenki 14 lived in the Middle of Valdai interglacial, 33–36 thousands years ago by radiocarbon dating.

Specificity and evolutionary transformation of jaw musculature in Laonastes aenigmamus and Ctenodactylus gundi (Ctenodactyloidea, Rodentia)

Comparison of the gundi (Ctenodactylus gundi) and the Laotian rock rat (Laonastes aenigmamus) with other rodents showed that the structural type of their jaw apparatus (including also masticatory muscle architecture) most closely corresponds to that of the hystricognathous rodents, despite its pronounced specificity. In the gundi its construction might be considered as an example of the advanced, highly specialized variant of this type, in the Laotian rock rat – as its generalized, basic for Ctenohystrica variant. In its design not only hystricognathous but also sciurognathous characters are combined, which could be inherent in ancestors of this clade. The both species use chewing associated with anteroposterior movements of the mandible. It requires differentiation of muscles into vertical and horizontal components. In the considered forms this differentiation is realized in different ways: in the gundi – by the change of an obliquity of the whole muscles, and in Laonastes – by the inclination of separate parts of each of them. In the gundi it is connected with simplification of internal structure of the masseter and temporal muscles, and in the Laotian rock rat, on the contrary – by its complication. Homologous elements of the masticatory muscles in these species can create differently directed efforts, and vice versa. It was showed that evolutionary transformation of the jaw apparatus in the gundi was connected not only with food specialization, but also with adaptations of acoustical and visual analyzers. In the Laotian rock rat the structure of this system didn’t undergo essential adaptive changes.

Features of reproduction and postnatal ontogenesis in the Gromov vole (Alexandromys gromovi Vorontsov et al., 1988)

The research was carried out on a laboratory colony of voles Alexandromys gromovi Vorontsov et al., 1988 from Khabarovsk Territory. Nine couples of the first and second laboratory generations were involved in reproduction. Nineteen litters (79 pups) were weighed and measured every day for two weeks. Weight, length of the body, tail and foot were recorded. Special aspects of pups development (time of ears separation, dactyl’s apostatis on the fore- and hindlimbs, teething of upper and lower incisors, eyes opening, hairline formation) and behaviorial patterns were registered. Results were compared with literature data on voles A. mongolicus and A. middendorffii mongolicus» bunch), which are closest to A. gromovi on molecular-genetic data, and A. maximoviczii (A. gromovi was previously seen as its subspecies). Similarities of young ones growth and signs of maturity (separation of ears, teething of incisors, eyes opening) were revealed during the comparison with A. mongolicus. The biggest difference was observed between A. gromovi and A. maximowiczii.

The hair structure of the long-eared gymnure (Otohylomys megalotis)

Weak degree of hair differentiation and microstructure of hair and whiskers of Otohylomys megalotis are similar to those in Hylomys suillus and Neotetracus sinensis: there are spear-shaped lead hairs and zigzag guard hairs of three orders, downy hairs are missing. In O. megalotis: 1) hairs are longer than those of other gymnures; 2) thin convoluted hair bases bound up contributing to the formation of the inert layer of air near the surface of the skin, improves the thermal insulation properties of hair in the absence of downy hairs; 3) strength in thinnest areas of the shaft (at its base and excesses) is provided by thickening of its cuticular scales, the special interconnection between cuticle and cortex, and cruciform layout of medulla discs in these places; 4) the pineal cuticular ornament of hair bases is characteristic of all three species of gymnures and resembles that of other insectivores, as well as of some marsupials and carnivores that reflects similar hair adaptations to the habitats; 5) for the first time discovered specialized pyramidal medulla of vibrissae, stiffening a shaft that is necessary for effective transfer of mechanical impulses to nerve cells of vibrissae follicle and functioning of whiskers as a tactile organ; 6) a long proboscis with well-developed nasal vibrissae and also numerous long whiskers on muzzle, neck, wrists and forearms are important and effective for the O. megalotis orientation in complex terrain karst habitats.

Architectonics of the hairs of the woolly mammoth and woolly rhino

SEM studies of hairs of two individuals of the woolly rhinoceros (rhino) Coelodonta antiquitatis and six individuals of the woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius, and hairs of matted wool (“wads”) of a possible woolly mammoth and/or woolly rhinoceros (X-probe) showed that coloration and differentiation of the hair, hair shaft shape, cuticle ornament and cortical structure are similar in both species and in the X-probe. The cortex has numerous longitudinal slits, which some authors misinterpret as medullae. In both species, the medulla is degenerative and does not affect the insulation properties of the hairs. Nevertheless its architectonics, occasionally discernible in thick hairs, is a major diagnostic for identification of these species. The hair structure of rhino is similar to that of the vibrissae of some predatory small mammals and suggests increased resilience. The X-probe contained numerous the woolly mammoth hairs, a few hairs of the woolly rhino and ancient bison Bison spp. The morphological identification of these mammals hairs is confirmed by genomic sequencing. The multi-layered long fur (not the architectonic of hairs) was a major adaptation of the woolly mammoth and woolly rhino to a cold climate.

Volume 319 (2), 2015

Date of publication — June 25, 2015

Taxonomic revision of tribosphenic mammals from the Lower Cretaceous Antlers Formation of Texas and Oklahoma, USA

There are five taxa of tribosphenic mammals in the Early Cretaceous Antlers Formation of Texas and Oklahoma, USA: a basal stem therian (Kermackia texana), stem therians near the eutherian-metatherian dichotomy (Holoclemensia texana and Pappotherium pattersoni), and stem marsupials (Atokatheridium boreni and Oklatheridium szalayi). K. texana has a primitive therian postcanine formula with three molars, replacement of p5, M3 with low protocone and no conules, lower molars with a large trigonid angle, oblique protocristid, paraconid smaller than metaconid (except m3), strong distal metacristid, narrow talonid, small talonid basin, and small entoconid (absent on m3). H. texana also has replacement in the fifth premolar locus and three molars. It is more derived in having a larger protoconal region with higher protocone and conules present, lack of distal metacristid, smaller trigonid angle, transverse protocristid, and wide talonid with larger talonid basin. It is similar to Eutheria by having M1 with reduced ectoflexus, semimolariform p5, and low trigonid angle with transverse protocristid. Holoclemensia cannot be referred to Eutheria because of the lack of the second rank postvallum/prevallid shear and unwinged conules. P. pattersoni (=Slaughteria eruptens) has replacement in the fifth premolar position, premolariform p5, and three molars (symplesiomorphies for Theria). It is more derived than Holoclemensia in having a wider and shorter talonid. Pappotherium is similar to Eutheria in having a low trigonid angle, transverse protocristid, and the cristid obliqua labial to the protocristid notch. It cannot be attributed to the Eutheria because of the narrow protoconal region, low protocone, small conules lacking internal cristae, postprotocrista not extending labially past the metacone base, and a small talonid basin. Atokatheridium boreni and Oklatheridium szalayi (=O. minax, syn. nov.) have four molars and emphasis on the postvallum/prevallid shear (large metacone on M2, strong postmetacrista, paraconid higher than metaconid). These taxa cannot be attributed to the Deltatheroida because of large protoconal region with winged conules. Oklatheridium is further different from the Deltatheroida in having a wider talonid and better developed entoconid.

Vensala incerta (Copepoda, Calanoida): a new genus and species from deep Atlantic waters

A new genus of a benthopelagic copepod is described from females and male taken from the abyss of the South Atlantic close to the sea bed. Vensiasa incerta gen. et sp. n. shares the presence of sensory setae on maxilla and maxilliped with all other “Bradfordian” members of the Clausocalanoidea. This new genus with a 1, 2, 3 setal pattern on the praecoxal endites of the maxilliped is attributed to the Diaixidae. Vensiasa gen. n. is distinct from all other diaixid genera in the following characters: maxillulary endopod with 5 setae; maxillary endopod setal formula as 6w+2br, worm-like setae differ in morphology between each other, same for brush-like setae; male’s P5 protopods asymmetrical, and left leg endopod is longer than the 3-segmented exopod. A differential diagnosis for the genus is given based on both sexes. Vensiasa gen. n. is now found from equator up to 36°S in the eastern and western South Atlantic.

On systematics of the subfamily Cybocephalinae (Coileoptera: Nitidulidae) with description of new species and generic taxa

This paper describes a new species, Hierronius madeiraensis sp. nov., from Madeira belonging to the wingless group of the family Nitidulidae, together with the description of new cybocephalin genera from Japan (Apastillus gen. nov., type species: Pastillus eminentithorax Sadatomo Hisamatsu, 2013), South America (Amedissia gen. nov., type species: Pycnocephalus argentines Brethes, 1922) and Micronesia (Pacicephalus gen. nov., type species: Cybocephalus gressitti Endrody-Younga, 1971). A key to all recent and fossil genera of the subfamily is provided. Theticephalus Kirejtshuk, 1988 is regarded as a separate genus (stat. nov.). The genera with species having partly or completely reduced hindwings (Apastillus gen. nov., Hierronius Endrody-Younga, 1968, Pastillodes Endrody-Younga, 1968, Pastillus Endrody-Younga, 1962, and probably the fossil Pastillocenicus Kirejtshuk et Nel, 2008), characterized by a short metaventrite, are considered as independent lineages. The systematics and phylogeny of the family are discussed in regards to recent publications affecting the position of the subfamily Cybocephalinae and proposing changes in the general system of the family Nitidulidae.

New genus of the family Cyclopteridae – Microancathus gen. nov. (Pisces: Cottoidei: Cyclopteridae) with description of a new species Microancathus tokranovi sp. n

A new cyclopterid genus Microancathus gen. n. is established for a new species M. tokranovi sp. n. and Eumicrotremus fedorovi Mandritza, 1991. The unique characteristics of the new genus are: the existence of only one pore in the infraorbital seismosensory canal of the head; flat or hemispherical (not conical) bone plaques on the body covered with numerous small spines; opercle with the conspicuous notch of the posterior edge and S-shaped subopercle replicating the shape of the posterior edge of opercle. The new species M. tokranovi is characterized by the greatest in the family height of the body (61–75% SL), and lesser developed bone plaques than in M. fedorovi. Small specimens (lesser than 47 mm SL) possess bone plaques on the anterior part of the body only; bony plaques absent on the caudal part, on rays of the first dorsal fin and on the head. Larger fishes have bone plaques on mentioned parts of body, but these plaques are small and occupy the central part of the underlying connective-tissue tubercles only. The bone plaques of M. tokranovi are flatter than in M. fedorovi. The first vertebra is included in the occipital region of the neurocranium in the both species, but the first neural arch is directed dorso-posteriorly in M. tokranovi, and is strictly dorsal in M. fedorovi.

Biodiversity of benthic animal communities and quality of waters in the Neva estuary under anthropogenic stress

In the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland 129 in the Neva Bay 127 species and superspecies taxa of benthic animals were found. In total in 1994–2014 188 taxa of benthic animals were recorded in the estuary of the Neva River. Among these 68 are common for the Neva Bay and the eastern Gulf of Finland. At present zoobenthos communities in the estuary are dominated by eurybiont indicator species inhabiting “polluted” and “dirty” waters responding positively to an increase of organic pollution and eutrophication of the ecosystem and resistant to high concentrations of heavy metals and pollutants. Integrated mean assessment of water quality over the entire Neva Bay by means of (IP') (for the 1994–2014) remained relatively stable during the whole period, waters (except in 2006) were assessed as “polluted”. In the health-resort zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland IP' changed during the period of studies from 67.4 to 71.5% characterizing the quality of waters as “polluted-dirty”, which is one class lower than waters of the Neva Bay. As a result of pollution species diversity of benthic animals in the resort zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland is notably lower than in the Neva Bay.

Architecture of haptoral musculature in three species of Ligophorus (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae)

The posterior attachment organs of monogeneans known as haptors show exceptional morphological plasticity and play a major role in monogenean taxonomy. Our knowledge of haptoral musculature, however, is still very limited and further study of this musculature in different groups of monogeneans may be instrumental in improving their taxonomic system and furthering our knowledge of their modes of attachment. This study used phalloidin staining in conjunction with confocal microscopy to examine haptoral musculature in three species of Ligophorus (L. llewelyni Dmitrieva et al., 2007, L. pilengas Sarabeev et Balbuena, 2004 and L. kaohsianghsieni (Gusev, 1962) Gusev, 1985), a member of the monopisthocotylean family Ancyrocephalidae sensu Bychovsky et Nagibina, 1978. Sclerotised structures (anchors, connecting bars and marginal hooks) were visualised simultaneously with muscles by capturing laser light reflected off the surfaces of these sclerites. The haptoral musculature was shown to be identical in L. pilengas and L. llewelyni and essentially similar between these two species and L. kaohsianghsieni, but the latter species had also some notable differences. Common to all three species were thick extrinsic muscles arising from the inner roots of the anchors, a muscle bundle connecting the inner roots of the opposite ventral anchors, muscles running from the outer roots of the anchors to the body wall, muscles originating from the dorsal bar and inserting on the anchoral openings and muscles connecting the bars with anchoral roots. Ligophorus llewelyni and L. pilengas have a more elaborate haptoral musculature than L. kaohsianghsieni with some additional muscles, tendon-like muscle extensions and a strong bracket-shaped muscle presumably functioning as a catch-muscle for the dorsal anchors. Functional roles of individual haptoral muscles in attachment are discussed and the architecture of haptoral musculature in Ligophorus is compared with that of other ancyrocephalids.

Specific features of ecology of the clownfin sculpin Artediellus camchaticus Gilbert et Burke, 1912 (Pisces: Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae) in the Pacific waters near Kamchatka and Kuril Islands

Specific features of ecology of the clownfin sculpin Artediellus camchaticus (Cottidae) in the Pacific waters off the southeastern Kamchatka and northern Kuril Islands are provided. Main habitation area of this relatively rare and small species of sculpins with maximal length 19 cm and body weight to 50 g is waters of the lower part of the shelf with near-bottom temperatures 0–2 °С, where it most frequently occurred with walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma and northern rock sole Lepidopsetta polyxystra. Smallest individuals stay mainly in bathymetric interval 151–250 m, while relatively large – mainly on smaller and greater depths. Clownfin sculpin is benthophage, main food objects of which (over 98% by weight) are amphipods and polychaetеs. Catch rates and occurrence of clownfin sculpin in the Pacific waters off the southeastern Kamchatka and northern Kuril Islands are subjected to some interannual, seasonal, and diurnal dynamics.

Peculiarities of taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus Sch. (Parasitiformes: Ixodidae) development in natural biotopes in Leningrad Province

The peculiarities of taiga tick development were analyses on basis of long-term observations of generations of 30 females during life of ticks at the all stages, in active and inactive conditions, in periods of wintering and metamorphosis. The life cycle of Ixodes persulcatus in the conditions of Leningrad Province (north-west of Russia) lasts 3 years, only one stage is developed per year. Absolute age of taiga tick is equal to 3 years. Calendar age of larvae and nymphs could reach 11–12 months, calendar age of imago is not more than 11 months in favorable biotic and abiotic factors.

About the desert lidless skink Ablepharus deserti in Kazakhstan and parapatry of A. deserti and Asymblepharus alaicus (Reptilia: Scincidae)

A retrospective analysis of the data on distribution of the Desert Lidless Skink, Ablepharus deserti Strauch, 1876 in Kazakhstan is undertaken. Based on new species records and museum collection revision a view on Ablepharus deserti distribution in the republic is markedly expended. The perspectives in the study of territorial and ecological interrelations of Ablepharus deserti and Asymblepharus alaicus in the mountain foothills of Western and Northern Tien-Shan are outlined.

Volume 319 (1), 2015

Date of publication — March 25, 2015

Late pleistocene Ursidae and Mustelidae remains (Mammalia, Carnivora) from Geographical Society Cave in the Russian Far East

The paleontological collection from Geographical Society Cave located in southern part of Primorskii Territory is found to comprise 5 species of ursids and mustelids: Ursus arctos, Meles anakuma, Martes zibellina, Gulo gulo and Lutra lutra. Bone remains of brown bear (Ursus arctos) predominate; scant tooth-marks of large carnivores on their surfaces suggest bears to have been only occasional prey, dying mainly when overwintering in the cave. The presence of Asian badger (Meles anakuma) and true otter (Lutra lutra), whose findings are not known northwardly, provide the possibility to regard southern regions of the Russian Far East as a refuge, where these species survived during the Late Pleistocene.

Transfer of Platycola circularis Dons, 1941, symbiont of wood-boring isopod Limnoria, to Lagenophrys (Ciliophora, Peritrichia)

Dons described several new ciliates on the gribble Limnoria lignorum in Norway, including Platycola circularis Dons, 1941. My samples of wood borers on Murmansk coast of Barents sea, in White and Black seas and in NW Pacific from Vladivostok to Bering island had only Lagenophrys on pleopods. L. circularis (Dons, 1941) comb. nov. is redescribed using samples made on Murmansk coast not far from its type locality (Trondheimsfjord). Previous descriptions of this species under 3 different names are analysed.

Irkana gen. nov. (Ciliophora, Suctorea), a symbiont of the colonial peritrich Carchesium in Lake Baikal

Elodea canadensis near a wharf in Listvenka bears colonies of Carchesium richly infested with a new species of small suctorians, supposedly modified tokophryids. The description of this suctorian is illustrated with a series of drawings made with the aid of an ocular reticle and thus retaining the exact proportions of the cells, of their tentacles and host stalks; this series shows growth stages and individual variations in cell size, shape, number and distribution of tentacles. Cells are bag-like, with a somewhat erratic distribution of retractile acrotenic tentacles in 2–3, rarely 4 indistinct groups on the cell surface, without actinophores, with an ovoid macronucleus and homogenous attachment disc (fixon), without a stalk; reproduction is by internal budding. New combination: Tetrahymena hydrae (Entz, 1912) Jankowski comb. n. for Balantidium hydrae Entz, 1912 (endoparasite of co-existing Hydra baicalensis).

New species of Siboglinum (Annelida: Pogonophora) from the Antarctic Ocean

Four new species of the genus Siboglinum Caullery, 1914, obtained from 12 stations at depths of 1265–6070 m in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean Sectors of the Antarctic Ocean are described. The material came from the following regions: Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, Bransfield Strait, Orkney Trench, Laurie Trench and Davis Sea. The comparative characteristics of the new species are given in a table. Several characters occurring in various of the new species are rare or unique among the congeners: cuticular plaques on the metameric region of the trunk, four separate girdles of chaetae, an extremely long distance (up to 7 mm) between the girdles, occurrence of a transverse row of interannular papillae, a remarkable leftward shift of the tentacle base, and a combination of both main types of arrangement of postannular papillae (in rows and singly) within one species. The new species are assigned to two subgenera, Siboglinum Caullery, 1914 and Ekmanifilum Smirnov, 2014; the diagnostic characters of all Siboglinum subgenera are compared and summarized in a table. Two keys are provided to the Siboglinum subgenera and to the known species of Antarctic pogonophorans.

On the Upper Jurassic Ichthyosaur remains from the Russian North

An ichthyosaurian skeletal remains assigned to the genera Arthropterygius and Ophthalmosaurus are described from the Volgian deposits of the Komi Republic and Nenets Autonomous Region (Okrug) (Russia). These specimens along with findings from Svalbard provide an opportunity to draw some preliminary conclusions on the distribution of ichthyosaurs during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous epoch.

Influence of fuel load and weather on timing of completing nocturnal flights in Reed warblers, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, during season migrations

Time of completing nocturnal migratory flights in passerines is essential for their safety during landing and stopover site selection. I studied landing time, fuel stores and weather at landing in Reed warblers migrating through the Courish Spit on the Baltic Sea in autumn and spring. I used data on 697 Reed warblers tape-lured into a habitat atypical of this species in 1999–2002. In both seasons, more than one-half of all birds (59% in autumn, 56% in spring) were captured in the last two hours before sunrise, while the rest in the beginning and middle of the night. I tested the hypothesis that early landing could be caused by take-offs in the beginning of the night with small fuel stores, not sufficient for the flight throughout the night. It was confirmed only for the young birds that migrated in the second half of the autumn season. Comparing wind assistance, cloud cover and precipitation in the days of landings in the beginning-middle of the night versus late night, I found no impact of these potentially important weather parameters on the temporal distribution of early and late landings. It is assumed that early landings of some Reed warblers could be caused by short-term nocturnal flights not directly related to the migration rush to the target.

Revision of crossbills (Aves: Fringillidae: Loxia) collected on Commander Islands and Kamchatka

The refined data about one specimen of Red Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) and one specimen of White-winged Crossbill (L. leucoptera) collected at the end of the XIX century on Commander Islands are given, as well as the data on two specimens of L. curvirostra collected in 1940 in Kronotsky reserve on Kamchatka. The history of their skins received by the collections of zoological museums of Saint Petersburg and Moscow is regarded. The results of the revision of birds subspecies identification allowed to conclude that the chance of appearance of crossbill subspecies in the northeast of Russia was higher for the Palearctic subspecies than for the Nearctic ones.

A new genus and new species of the family Caliscelidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoroidea) from Thailand with notes on evolution of the family

Thaiscelis alutaceus gen. et sp. nov. is described from Thailand, which is the first record of the subfamily Caliscelinae from this country. The taxonomic position of the genus Bambusicaliscelis Chen et Zhang, as well as the evolution of the family Caliscelidae, are briefly discussed. The area of origin and the primitive and advanced groups of the family are hypothesized.

A new species of the genus Dolichopoda (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) from Teke Peninsula, Turkey

Dolichopoda fortuita sp. nov. from Teke Peninsula in Southern Turkey is a second Turkish species of this genus with the epiphallic process of male genitalia bifurcate. Description of this species is provided with a brief morphological analysis of the general plan of male genitalia structure.

A new species of Barycnemis Forster, 1869 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tersilochinae) from the Russian Far East

A new species of the subfamily Tersilochinae, Barycnemis sugonyaevi sp. nov., is described from the Russian Far East. This species is readily distinguished from other species in this genus by its extremely short antennal flagellomeres, short basal area of the propodeum and short hind basitarsus. It resembles the genus Tersilochus as it has a short and weak foveate groove of the mesopleuron, short basal area of the propodeum and short thyridial depression, but other important features, such as a globose head, laterally compressed mesosoma, thickened femora, apically curved hind tibial spurs, and a short and robust ovipositor, indicate that this species belongs in Barycnemis.



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Last modified: February 5, 2019