Contents of Proceedings of the Zoological Institute

Volume 320 (4), 2016

Date of publication — December 25, 2016

Review of the flatfishes of Vietnam in the collection of Zoological Institute, Saint Petersburg

A review of 47 species in 28 genera of flatfishes (families Citharidae, Bothidae, Paralichthyidae, Samaridae, Soleidae and Cynoglossidae) caught off Vietnam and kept in Zoological Institute is presented. Most of the material is collected off Southern Vietnam, smaller part – in the Gulf of Tonkin with maximal number of species and specimens caught to a depth of 50 m. Bothids, soleids and cynoglossids are most numerous, which is typical of Indo-Pacific flatfish fauna. Study of material adds 15 species to the list of 82 previously known from Vietnam. Two species, the paralichthyid Pseudorhombus oculocirris and soleid Soleichthys tubiferus, are recorded for the first time for the South China Sea, these findings considerably extend their ranges. Thirteen species are indicated for the fauna of Vietnam for the first time: Arnoglossus macrolophus, Chascanopsetta lugubris, Engyprosopon maldivensis, Kamoharaia megastoma (Bothidae), Samariscus filipectoralis, Samariscus luzonensis (Samaridae), Aseraggodes dubius, Zebrias crossolepis, Zebrias lucapensis (Soleidae), Cynoglossus kopsi, Cynoglossus quadrilineatus, Paraplagusia japonica, Symphurus microrhynchus (Cynoglossidae). Annotated synonymy, diagnostic characters, photographs, counts and map of occurrences are given for each species. The comparison shows similarity of flatfish fauna composition of Northern Vietnam and Southern Vietnam in spite of climatic and hydrological difference between regions. Our findings confirm previously known widespread distribution of the Indo-Pacific flatfishes and characterize species as eurythermal and euryhaline.

Taxonomy of the subgenus Triacanus Erichson, 1843 and its distribution in the Palaearctic and Indo-Malayan regions (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)  

The paper devoted to summarizing of new data on the Asian members of the subgenus Triacanus Erichson, 1843 sensu stricto considered together with subgenus Monafricus Kirejtshuk, 1995, stat. nov. in composition of one genus. All Asian species of Triacanus were re-examined, except for T. (Triacanus) japonicus Hisamatsu, 1985 from Japan. Triacanus (Triacanus) conformis sp. nov. from Sichuan (China), T. (T.) pullus sp. nov. from Fujian (China) and T. (T.) unicolor sp. nov. from Cameron Highland (Malaysia) were described. Triacanus (Triacanus) nigripennis Reitter, 1873 with a very wide range in the Indo-Malayan Region is regarded as including three forms, forma typica, forma parva” from Vietnam and forma “punctatissima” from Myanmar (Burma); Vietnam; India, Kerala; Sri Lanka; Malaysia, Cameron Highlands, Sabah (names of these forms taken from synonyms of T. (T.) nigripennis: punctatissimus Grouvelle, 1892 and parvus Kirejtshuk, 1990, syn. nov.). The new data on distribution of all studied species of Triacanus were given and a key to species of this subgenus was elaborated. The probable mode of life of the species of the considered subgenus is discussed.

Earthworms (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) near the township Dombay of Teberda Reserve (Northwest Caucasus, Karachay-Cherkessia)

The population and characteristics of biotope distribution of earthworms near the township Dombay of the Teberda Reserve were studied. A mountain-forest belt, sparse growths of trees, elfin woodlands at the top edge of the forest, a sub-alpine meadow and lower mountain pastures were screened. Faunistic and quantitative surveys of earthworms were conducted in the soil and deadwood. The method of excavation and manual disassembly of soil samples was used in soil research. In the study of deadwood, trunks of Fagus orientalis and Picea orientalis of the 2nd and 3rd stages of decomposition were examined manually. Quantitative values were calculated per unit area (1 m2) and unit volume (1 m3). Twelve species of Lumbricidae were described in total. The Crimean-Caucasian endemic polymorphic species Dendrobaena shmidti, represented here by an unpigmented endogeic form, has the greatest abundance, biomass and widespread distribution. The highest species richness of Lumbricidae is in the mountainforest belt, which is inhabited by representatives of four morpho-ecological groups: epigeic, epi-endogeic, endogeic and anecic species. Forest communities are inhabited by 4–9 earthworm species. The lowest species diversity and abundance were observed in the sparse growths of trees, elfin woodlands at the top edge of the forest and the subalpine meadow. The highest abundance and biomass were observed on pasture. The endogeic earthworms were a dominant group in all communities. A high proportion of epigeic species in all forest communities was noted only for deadwood. The epi-endogeic group is represented primarily by Lumbricus rubellus, the abundance of which is particularly high in the pasture. The epi-endogeic species Eisenia fetida was found only in deadwood. The only anecic species, L. terrestris, was encountered in two forest communities and in a garden of Dombay. Small epigeic species Dendrobaena octaedra, Dendrodrilus rubidus tenuis and Dendrobaena attemsi play the main role in deadwood decomposition; deadwood serves as the main habitat for these species in spring and summer. Deadwood is an additional habitat for large-sized endogeic and epi-endogeic species; mature and juvenile worms live here in the litter and moss cover, the rotting wood is penetrated only by juveniles of large-sized species.

Variability of wings pattern of the locusts from the tribe Bryodemini Bey-Bienko (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

Variability of the pattern of distribution of dark pigment and colouring of the wings Bryodemella tuberculatum (Fabricius, 1775), Bryodema luctuosum (Stoll, 1813), B. gebleri (Fischer-Waldheim, 1836) and Angaracris barabensis (Pallas, 1773) were studied. It was found that the pattern on the wings in the species of B. tuberculatum, B. luctuosum, B. gebleri is species-specific, but subjected to considerable variability. The most extreme variants, with clear contours are well distinguishable; however, forms with transitional morphological features fuzzy boundaries of the patterns were detected. Among the species of B. tuberculatum, B. luctuosum, B. gebleri, a vague resemblance to variants of the patterns on the wings was noted. It is possible that in this case «the law of homologous series» established by N.I. Vavilov in 1920 is demonstrated. According to this law, the variability of the closely related genera and species goes in common (parallel) way. Within the genus Angaracris Bey-Bienko,1930, the pattern and coloration of the wings is most strongly affected by the variability. However, the available material including published data from China allow creating transitional rows from most aberrant to typical forms. The opinion is expressed about necessity of taxonomic revision of the genus Angaracris.

The occurrence of the new zooplankton species in the Lena river delta

The Lena River impact on the water bodies of its catchment area increases in connection of climate warming. During spring floods the river water enters the numerous floodplain water basins, further promotes the passive dispersal of their fauna in the northern direction. The occurrences of new (for the local fauna) zooplankton species repeatedly documented in the lakes on Samoylov Island in the south part of the Lena Delta over the last 15 years. Seven “invasive species” belong to Cladocera, four to Copepoda and one species of Rotifera. Some cladocerans –Sida crystallina (O.F. Muller, 1776), Limnosida frontosa (Sars, 1862), Diaphanasoma brachyurum (Lievin, 1848) and Polyphemus pediculus (Linnaeus, 1761) – several times appeared and disappeared in the floodplain aquatic habitats on Samoilovsky Island during the observation period. Simocephalus vetulus (O.F. Muller, 1776) found conditions here to be favorable and formed the local population in the floodplain pools. Acroperus harpae (Baird, 1834) and Holopedium gibberum Zaddach, 1855 started to settle from low floodplain in neighboring water ecosystems of the first delta terrace with a height of 10–16 m. The spread of resting stages of zooplankton are likely to occur with the participation of waterfowl. In years with extremely high spring tide, the expansion of species, not typical for the area, was of a catastrophic nature. A massive invasion of certain species, for example Holopedium gibberum Zaddach, 1855, can cause a rapid restructuring of the lake biocoenosis and disturb the ecological balance in it, resulting in parasitic epizootic.

Volume 320 (3), 2016

Date of publication — September 23, 2016.

A foreword

In the present issue of the Proceedings of the Zoological Institute of the RAS we published papers on the materials of the 5th International Scientific Conference “Dynamics and functioning of aquatic ecosystems under the impact of climate change and anthropogenic stress”, which was held on 12–17 October, 2015 in Saint Petersburg. The conference was dedicated to the 110th anniversary of outstanding hydrobiologist and zoologist, the founder of Experimental Hydrobiology in the USSR, Prof. Georgij G. Winberg.

Ecosystem changes in the Egyptian saline Lake Qarun during the XX–XXI centuries (short review)

Since beginning of the 20th century the salinity growth in Lake Qarun (Egypt) accelerated. Changes in the specific structure of plankton and benthos have been observed. Three stages of biotic changes may be separated. The salinity change determined biodiversity transformation only until 1928. Due to natural causes new species invasions – marginal marine (Cerastoderma glaucum, etc.) and halotolerant lacustrine (Arctodiaptomus salinus, Moina salina, etc.) – occurred, reducing the diversity and abundance of freshwater forms. Because of the growth of salinity the certain species of fish began to disappear in the lake. Catch of fish has fallen sharply, affecting the standard of living of the local population on the shores of the lake. To improve the situation, in 1928, people started to introduce the young marine fishes and crustaceans. Some species of introduced animals began to breed successfully, but not all, so the fry of some species of fish are transported annually from the sea into the lake. The second stage of the biotic transformation in the lake started, when the mass directed and accidental marine aquatic organism introduction by people was the main reason. The flow of marine species increased, halotolerant lacustrine species have disappeared, and the maritime community has formed. In 1950–1970s, intensive eutrophication began; it and alien species anthropogenic introduction have become the driving forces of the ecosystem changes. In the next decades, the main causes of changes in community structure will be eutrophication, pollution and aliens, especially jellyfish Mnemiopsis leidyi, invaded the lake in 2014.

Assessment of water quality and state of waterbasins of different types from characteristics of benthic animal communities

Studies on waterbasins of different type have shown the impact of eutrophication and pollution by toxic and organic matter on the structural and functional characteristics of zoobenthos. A major factor determining quantitative development of non-predatory zoobenthos in lakes is, undoubtedly, the level of development of primary producers. Relationship of zoobenthos biomass and primary production is particularly pronounced in shallow lakes. Analysis of relationship of zoobenthos with abiotic and biotic factors in shallow hyperhaline lakes of Crimea has shown that the most significant parameters determining the values of biomass of macrozoobenthos were salinity and primary production, second in significance were oxygen concentration and depth. The changes in structure and quantitative characteristics of benthic communities of the Neva River estuary occur under impact of a complex combination of organic and toxic pollution. For the assessment of water quality and state of ecosystem in the Neva River estuary we used IP' integrated index specially devised by us for water-bodies and watercourses of north-western Russia. It is based on structural parameters of zoobenthic communities and makes it possible to take into consideration pollution with toxic and organic substances. On average the water quality of the Neva Bay judging from IP' values was relatively stable during 1982–2014. It was assessed as “polluted” with exception for abnormality in 2006 (“polluted–dirty”) caused by large-scale dredging work. As a result of stronger pollution, species diversity of benthic animals in the Resort District of the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland is lower than in the Neva Bay.

The lipid content in organs and tissues of fish found in lake contaminated by mining wastes

For several years in Institute of Biology of the Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences carried out monitoring studies state fish fauna of Lake Kostomuksha (Karelia, Russia), which is the burial of technogenic waste materials of Kostomuksha ore dressing mill. The activity of the enterprise has led to a change in the basic physical and chemical characteristics of the water: high mineralization and increased turbidity in Lake Kostomuksha. Comparative analysis of contents of lipids and fatty acids in tissues pike, roach and whitefish from the two points (Lake Kostomuksha (experimental) and Lake Kamennoe (control))was conducted to determine the effect of mining wastes on the biochemical status of fishes. According to lipids analysis, pike was the most resistant to anthropogenic influence among the studied species of fishes. This result is explained by the peculiarities of ecology pike: pike, unlike the roach and whitefish, belongs to a higher order of the consuments. Possibly, in the evolution of this species formed special adaptive mechanisms, including at the biochemical level, allowing more plastic to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The most pronounced difference in the content of lipids and fatty acids found in fish liver, it may be connected by a high metabolic activity of this organ. Change in the content of lipid components in the gills and kidneys of fishes in the mining water was likely to be associated with the regulation of the osmotic pressure and the maintenance of ion exchange of fishes under conditions of high mineralization of tailing. The muscles of fish less vulnerable to the toxic effects. The degree of modification of the studied parameters was depended on influence of highly technological enterprises and waste is a specific and tissue-specific in nature.

Zooplankton community structure of Volzhsko-Kamsky National Nature Reserve

Long-term studies had been held on the lakes of the Volga-Kama State Natural Reserve (Russia). The aim of our research was to study the biodiversity of planktonic rotifers and crustaceans, zooplankton community structure characteristics and also water quality assessment with bioindication methods. 137 species of zooplankton were identified in our research. In all lakes rotifers were presented by highest number of species. The lowest number ofspecies was found for copepods. In general, the species composition of zooplankton is typical for eutrophic lakes of Middle Volga region. The species most commonly found in lakes are indicators of eutrophic waters. We also analyzed and compared the structure of zooplankton communities and taxonomic composition in different types of nature reserve lakes. It was shown that changing the relationship between taxonomic groups of zooplankton and increase of rotifers in the community is also a sign of eutrophication. According to the abundance rotifers dominated in most lakes. Drastic changes in quantitative indicators of zooplankton during the growing season, due to an increase in the abundance of one of the species were typical of eutrophic lakes of the reserve. Studies have shown that in meso-eutrophic and eutrophic lakes the indicators that reflect the structure of the zooplankton community are the most informative for the assessment of the water quality. Lakes Raifskoe and Ilinskoe were the least polluted, and characterized by the structure of communities of mesotrophic type. The rest of the lakes are more prone to eutrophication processes and community structure of zooplankton corresponds to eutrophic lakes type.

Quantitative characteristics of zooplankton and zoobenthos communities and water quality in the Nercha River in the conditions of Transbaikal Region

Studies on species diversity of zooplankton and zoobenthos communities were carried out at the Nercha River at the middle and lower parts of its waterway. The Nercha River located in Transbaikal region, belongs to the upper Amur basin. The Nercha River is second order tributary of the Amur river. In plankton community we had found 42 species of invertebrates belonging to 27 genera, 15 families, 7 orders and 4 classes. In plankton rotifers were characterized by the highest species diversity and presented by 24 species and subspecies. Cladoceras were presented by 16 species and copepods – by 2 species. In benthic community we had found 133 taxa of different systematic level belonging to 6 classes: Nematoda, Arachnidae, Clitellata, Insecta, Gastropoda, Bivalvia. The total number of taxa were distributed among 35 families, 52 genera, 65 species. Amphibiotic insects were dominating group in benthos. Abundance of zooplankton ranged from 0.02 to 1.53 thousands ind/m2. Benthic organisms abundance ranged from 0.12 to 6.30 thousands ind/m3. Zooplankton biomass varied from 0.01 to 40 mg/m3. Biomass of zoobenthos varied from 0.003 to 28.46 g/m2. Number of species of zooplankton in samples varied from 2 to 22. Number of benthic species in sampes varied from 4 to 39. The index of zooplankton species diversity varied from 0.5 to 4.2 bit/ind, zoobenthos – from 1.04 to 4.47 bit/ind. Majority of recorded pelagic and benthic species belong to widespread holarctic and palearctic types of distributio n. The water quality was characterized mainly by II and III classes: pure – the moderate polluted waters respectively.

Epiphyton structure peculiarities in the regions of Lake Pskovsko-Chudskoe with various degree of anthropogenic pollution

The paper presents the results of studies on the structural characteristics of epiphyton communities in Lake Pskovsko-Chudskoe (Lake Peipsi), carried out in July 2013 on 13 stations (Russian part). The purpose of the study was to identify changes in the epiphyton community caused by various degrees of anthropogenic pollution in different areas of the lake. In general, the level of pollution of Lake Pskovsko-Chudskoe is largely determined by the processes occurring in its catchment area and, above all, pollution of its basin. The main sources of pollution (insufficiently treated waste water) are located at the mouths of the Velikaya River and the Gdovka River. In total 279 taxa of algae with rank below genus were identified within epiphyton. The basis of systematic list was made up of three divisions: Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanoprokaryota. Number of taxa in the studied stations varied from 46 to 111. The structure of the biomass at all stations was presented by Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta. Values of attached algae total biomass ranged widely: from 0.5 to 6.8 g/m2. The Shannon diversity index values at most stations were high indicating considerable diversity of epiphyton communities. Index declined sharply in areas with highest level of pollution. Values of saprobic index were within β-mesosaprobic zone range, which corresponds to class III water quality (moderately polluted). At the stations with highest anthropogenic pollution the saprobic index value corresponded to α-mesosaprobic area of self-purification, class IV water quality (polluted). Comparative analysis of structural characteristics of epiphyton communities at “polluted” and “relatively clean” stations has shown that taxonomic diversity may both increase and decrease with the raise of anthropogenic pollution level. The abundance and biomass of epiphyton at “polluted” stations were significantly higher due to development of filamentous green algae and cyanoprokaryotes. Among the dominant species observed were species-indicators of high pollution. Their presence leads to an increase in saprobic index values that indicate the occurrence of α-mesosaprobic conditions.

Feeding of Russian spirlin Alburnoides rossicus Berg, 1924

Until recently, Russian spirlin found on the territory of the Udmurt Republic was indicated as a subspecies of the riffle minnow Alburnoides bipunctatus rossicus Bloch, 1872. According to osteological and morphometric parameters it is now isolated as an independent species – Russian spirlin Alburnoides rossicus Berg, 1924. Russian spirlin is a very important component of running water ecosystems. Gregarious is typical for this species – it form large clumps in rivers where it lives, outnumbering all other components of ichthyocenosis. The food spectrum of Russian spirlin A. rossicus from Cheptsa River in the Udmurt Republic was studied. It consists of 65 components, among them 9% are algae and higher plants, 86% – invertebrates, 5% – organic residues, detritus and mineral components. Two types of insects were found: benthic forms, and land-air ones. Recovered size of species of benthic invertebrates suggests that spirlin consumes all stages of aquatic insects – larvae of different ages, pupae and imago. According to food spectrum Russian spirlin may be considered a typical polyphage. The feeding habit of Russian spirlin from Cheptsa River is a high ecological plasticity. This allows it to use the various food items, in developing mass, regardless of their nutritional value and the location of the river channel (river bottom or the water column). In the absence of zooplankton or its low concentration, the juvenile spirlin uses drift of benthic invertebrates for food. Upon reaching sexual maturity spirlin mostly eats phytoplankton and zoobenthos. Due to this divergence in the diet of individuals Russian spirlin’s intraspecific competition for food is weakened.

Long-term changes of phytoplankton in the lake, not affected by anthropogenic impact (Lake Krivoe, North Karelia)

First studies of the lake ecosystem were performed in 1968–1969 in framework of the International Biological Program, as on a model lake for the observations on the natural dynamic processes. Further work had continued in 1972 and annually from 2002 to 2014. During all study period Cyanobacteria and Chrysophyta have been permanent representatives in phytoplankton. Cyanobacteria were mostly represented by small-cell species from Chroococcales, so their share in the total biomass was low, despite the high abundance. Algae from genera Dinobryon and Uroglena, had dominated in Spring and remained in the plankton during entire season. A distinctive feature of the lake plankton was a low development of diatoms (less than 10% in abundance and biomass) and the absence of the spring outbreak of diatoms in both: under ice and in open water. Cryptomonads (Cryptopyta), which also had been represented throughout of season, became practically new, fairly widespread group in lake phytoplankton. Detailed studies carried out in 2002–2014, have shown that the spring maximum of phytoplankton rarely exceeded the summer one and reached in average 0.46 mg/L. The percentage of each size class of algae in the total biomass of the plankton was determined. Algae with size to 40 microns, which are the most consumed ones by filter feeding zooplankton, constituted a significant share in the Spring time. However the most favorable trophic conditions for zooplankton were during the summer. The development of single-celled Cryptomonad, which reached about 30% of the total biomass, has increased the trophic importance of phytoplankton. Species composition and abundance of phytoplankton in the lake may indicate a conservation of the lake as a clean oligotrophic reservoir.

Features of meiobenthos in Lake Krivoe (Karelia)

The paper presents the proportion of animals encountered in the coastal meiobenthos of Lake Krivoe (Karelia) which are typical for the majority of water bodies of the North-West of Russia: eumeiobentthic organisms – water mites, nematodes, cladocerans, harpacticoids, ostracods, benthic cyclops; organisms of pseudomeiobenthos – chironomids and oligochaetes. The main part in the biomass of meiobenthos in this zone accounts for water mites, chironomids and oligochaetes. In macrobenthos of this zone are registered: amphipods, larvae of caddis flies, mayfly larvae, larval Megaloptera, larval stoneflies, chironomid larvae, larval midges, also oligochaetes, leeches, bivalves, gastropods. Other groups of macrobenthic animals have almost equal low portions. Thus, the coastal zone of Lake Krivoe practically does not differ in composition of meiobenthos and macrobenthos from that of other water bodies of the North-West of Russia. Some features of meiobenthos community development in Lake Krivoe (Karelia) at depths of 9–32 m were found. In the coastal zone of the lake at the depth of 0.5 m meiobenthos has quantitative characteristics typical for regional mesotrophic water bodies. Deepwater meiofauna of Lake Krivoe is different from meiofauna of other deepwater lakes (Ladoga, Onega and Konstanz), where depths are inhabited by sufficiently rich, both qualitatively and quantitatively, meiobenthos. At greater depths we have discovered presence of the only species of nematodes (Paramononchus alimovi) in meiobenthos which was found in high numbers, both in abundance (6.8–93.0 thousand ind./m2) and biomass (0.044–0.596 g/m2). Structural and functional characteristics of deepwater meiobenthos Lake Krivoe varies greatly and are experiencing some impact of surface water temperature. The amount of seston sinking on the bottom increases in the middle of the vegetative season that probably leads to the sharp increase in the abundance and biomass of deepwater meiobenthos.

Cooperative effect of crude oil and low salinity on the digestive glands lipid composition of the White Sea blue mussels Mytilus edulis

The response of the organism to the pollutant impact is influenced by a variety of abiotic and biotic environmental factors that may have a synergistic or antagonistic effect on the biodegradation, accumulation, distribution and elimination of the xenobiotics. It is known that lipophilic organic contaminants including oil hydrocarbons can be accumulated in lipid-rich tissues of marine animals, thus causing changes in biosynthesis and transport of phospholipids and triacylglycerols, as well as in the physical state of biological membranes. The cooperative effect of crude oil and low salinity on digestive gland lipid composition of the White Sea blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. was studied in aquarium experiment. Low salinity (15‰) impact reflects on the lipid composition indicating high energy costs directed to acclimation of the mussels to new environmental conditions. However, the response of the lipid composition on the crude oil effect is almost not dependent on the ambient salinity, and is mainly determined by exposure duration to crude oil and its dose in aquarium water. On the third experimental day a significant increase in the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio and the subsequent its recovery to initial level possibly indicate the development of the protective compensatory mechanisms to provide low permeability of cell membranes in digestive glands under crude oil pollution. It was observed that the leading factor contributing the lipid composition modifications in blue mussel digestive glands is crude oil effect, mainly in its higher concentrations.

Hydro-chemical basis of biological productivity in the closing reservoirs of the Volga cascade

Long-term dynamics of organic matter and nutrients in the closing-reservoirs of the Volga cascade in the period 2004–2014 were studied. This period was characterized by changes in climatic conditions: reduce of rainfall, increase of summer temperatures, the negative trend in water discharge of the Volga River with the pattern of decline in indicators of water availability and floods. Organic matter and nutrients can be considered as the basic characteristics of the state of the aquatic ecosystems that determine the productivity and patterns of development. Organic matter (OM) in water of the Saratov and Volgograd reservoirs was evaluated with permanganate (PO) and dichromate (COD) oxidation, BOD5. Concentrations of three forms of mineral nitrogen, mineral phosphorus, dissolved iron and silicon were analyzed. During the study period negative trends of the allochthonous organic matter, easy oxidized organic matter and major nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) were recorded. It was shown that a long-term decline in water runoff was the possible reason of changes in quantitative values of these hydrochemical components in the studied reservoirs. Correlation between water runoff, permanganate oxidation and nitrogen concentration indicates a role of terrigenous sources in the balance of nitrogen mineral forms. Average seasonal fluctuations of the total OM concentration, maintaining synchronicity, in the Volgograd reservoir occur at a higher level than in Saratov reservoir. We have not find changes in total OM concentrations during our study period. In the Volgograd reservoir, flow velocity deceleration and more intense heating of the water mass provide higher potential of biological production. The values of autochthonous organic matter content in the Volgograd reservoir confirm this assumption.

Volume 320 (2), 2016

Date of publication — June 24, 2016.

Systematics of the American Katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Communication 6

The genera Topana Walker, 1869, Pelecynotum Piza, 1967, Grammadera Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1878, Ceraia BrunnerWattenwyl, 1891 and Anisophya Karabag, 1960 (Phaneropterinae) are considered. Topana, as a part of the subtribe Pycnopalpina Cadena-Castaneda, 2014, is tentatively included in the tribe Dysoniini. Pelecynotum is put in the subtribe Viadanina Cadena-Castaneda, 2012 (Phaneropterini) which is synonymized with the former subtribal name Pelecynotina Cadena-Castaneda, 2015, syn. nov. Eleven new taxa of this subfamily are described: Protopana subgen. nov., T. primitiva sp. nov., T. angulata sp. nov., T. truncata sp. nov.; T. media convoluta subsp. nov., P. comicum sp. nov., G. tricaudata sp. nov., G. hastata peruana subsp. nov., C. legitima divulsa subsp. nov.; C. amboro sp. nov., A. bolivia sp. nov. For G. steinbachi Bruner, 1915 and A. melanochloris (Rehn, 1911), some new data are given.

Review of Type Specimens of the Meadow Lizards Darevskia (praticola) Complex (Sauria: Lacertidae)  

The paper provides data on the current location of the type specimens of Darevskia (praticola) complex as of March 2016: Lacerta praticola Eversmann, 1834 (storage holotype place (on monotype) is unknown), Lacerta vivipara stenolepis Nikolsky, 1911 (holotype for monotypes – ZISP 7203, location unknown), Lacerta praticola pontica Lantz et Cyren, 1918 (lectotype – ZISP 22853, paralectotypes – ZISP 5279, 5280, 22847, 22852.1-2, 22854), Lacerta praticola hungarica Sobolewsky, 1930 (location lectotype and paralectotypes ZISP 9814 unknown, paralectotypes – ZMMU R 2538), Lacerta plicata Bartenef et Reznikova, 1931 (holotype (on monotypes) – ZISP 15204), Darevskia praticola hyrcanica Tuniyev, Doronin, Kidov et Tuniyev, 2011 (holotype – SNP 1473.5, paratypes – SNP 1473.0-19, ZISP 12301, 12630, 12632-12635), Darevskia praticola loriensis Tuniyev, Doronin, Tuniyev, Aghasyan, Kidov et Aghasyan, 2013 (holotype – SNP 1568.9, paratypes – SNP 1569.1-19, ZISP 17075). The history of description of all known forms of the complex is given. L. praticola pontica has been described in 1918, not in 1919.

Ultrastructure of Neoblasts in Turbellarian Geocentrophora wagini Timoshkin, 1984 (Lecithoepitheliata: Plathelminthes)  

Acoelomorpha and Plathelminthes have a unique system of stem cells (neoblasts), which is believed to represent a common proliferative compartment of somatic and germ line cells. Meanwhile, on the electron-microscopic level, these cells are not studied in most taxa of Turbellaria. In this study, I describe the ultrastructure of neoblasts in Geocentrophora wagini Timoshkin, 1984 (Lecithoepitheliata, Plathelminthes), an endemic turbellarian from Lake Baikal. The neoblast-like cells showed a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio. The cytoplasm revealed the features of undifferentiated cells. Particularly, there were free ribosomes and mitochondria, while other organelles were rare and did not occur in all the cells studied. Based on their cytoplasmic and nuclear organization, three main types of parenchymal neoblasts have been distinguished. In type 1, the nuclei had a complex, highly branched configuration. The peripheral heterochromatin was not developed. A large loose structure of fibrous nature and a tiny Golgi apparatus with several secretory granules could be observed in the type 1 neoblast cytoplasm. The nuclei of the type 2 neoblasts had much simpler outlines than those of type 1, despite some processes or invaginations. The poor development of peripheral condensed chromatin was observed and distribution density of the heterochromatin clumps tended to be slightly higher, as compared to type 1. A cluster of small dense granules or a little loose body occasionally could be seen in the proximity to nuclear membrane. Type 3 neoblasts had the most compact nuclei and their heterochromatin was seen as large, irregular clumps of extremely high electron density. Many of these clumps were connected with each other and with the nuclear membrane. The scarce cytoplasm contained only mitochondria and ribosomes. Undifferentiated cells in the gastrodermis were similar to the type 2 neoblasts in the parenchyma. For the first time outside Tricladida special structures were found in the neoblast cytoplasm. These loose fibrous bodies and clusters of granules are likely to be functionally identical to the planarian chromatoid bodies. The obtained results contribute to the comparative morphology of the stem cells in flatworms and basic Bilateria and confirm the heterogeneity of the proliferative compartment in Turbellaria.

Secrets of the Underground Vietnam: an Underestimated Species Diversity of Asian Moles (Lipotyphla: Talpidae: Euroscaptor)

A study of the Southeast Asian moles of the genus Euroscaptor based on a combined approach, viz. DNA sequence data combined with a multivariate analysis of cranial characters, has revealed a high cryptic diversity of the group. An analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and five nuclear genes has revealed two deeply divergent clades: the western one (E. klossi + E. malayana + E. longirostris from Sichuan + Euroscaptor spp. from northern Vietnam and Yunnan, China), and the eastern one (E. parvidens s.l. + E. subanura). The pattern of genetic variation in the genus Euroscaptor discovered in the present study provides support for the existence of several cryptic lineages that could be treated as distinct species based on their genetic and morphological distinctness and geographical distribution. The moles from southern China and northern Vietnam form three distinct groups. The specimens from Sichuan (including the one collected from the type locality of E. longirostris) were clearly distinct from the northwestern Vietnam and Yunnan samples that were previously attributed to this species. We argue that the real distribution of E. longirostris is restricted to Sichuan, northward of Yangtze River, whereas the populations occurring southward of this isolation barrier evidently represent a new species Euroscaptor orlovi sp. nov. (northwestern Vietnam and Yunnan, southern China). Moreover, Red River that divides the western and eastern parts of northern Vietnam beyond doubt separates the population of E. orlovi from the moles occurring in northeastern Vietnam (Vinh Phuc and Cao Bang provinces); the latter are described here as Euroscaptor kuznetsovi sp. nov. Yet, genetic data are in favour of a close affinity of E. subanura with E. parvidens. A combined analysis of both genetic and morphological data has revealed a strong geographic segregation of E. parvidens samples. The populations from Dalat Plateau (southern Vietnam), including the moles from Loc Bao, Bi Dup and Chu Yang Sin, form a well-supported clade and can be considered true E. parvidens. The specimens from central Vietnam (Kon Tum and Quang Nam provinces) are significantly different from them, yet their monophyly has been supported by the mtDNA only. The moles from central Vietnam have been described here as a new subspecies Euroscaptor parvidens ngoclinhensis ssp. nov. All the studied samples of E. subanura have shown a low genetic and morphological variability despite their wide geographic range.

Possible the Future of the Aral Sea Residual Water Bodies Fauna

The Aral Sea, a large saline terminal lake in Central Asia, since 1960 dries quickly, and by September 2009 it had separated into four residual water reservoirs. The maximum water level decline exceeded 26 m, the surface area has decreased by 88% and water volume by 92%. Salinity increased by more than 20-fold. Prior to the modern recession, the Aral Sea experienced a number of water level declines and subsequent recoveries over the last 10 millennia. The main causative factor until the 1960s was the periodic westward diversion of the Amu Dar’ya towards the Caspian Sea by both natural and human forces. Modern regression is the result of irrigation development and has caused many severe problems. To restore the Aral Sea to its present state would be very difficult, if not impossible, in the foreseeable future. However, a partial restoration of its separate parts is possible. Completed in 2005 project has allowed to raise the level of the Small (northern) Aral Sea and further reduce its salinity. In the paper are discussed plans for further rehabilitation of the Small Sea and possible restoration of some parts of the Large (southern) Aral Sea.

Volume 320 (1), 2016

Date of publication — June 24, 2016.

L.S. Glickman (instead of the foreword)

Этот номер «Трудов Зоологического института» посвящен Леониду Сергеевичу Гликману (1929–2000) – советскому палеоихтиологу и зоологу.

The life and scientific heritage of Leonid Sergeyevich Glickman (1929–2000)  

This paper consists of biographical data for well-known Soviet palaeoichthyologist Leonid S. Glickman (1929–2000). His life is divided into several stages: a childhood and evacuation during WWII (1929–1945), life in Saratov (1945–1950), Leningrad stage (1950–1970), working in the Russian Far East (1970–1982) and his life in Leningrad / Saint Petersburg (1982–2000). The Leningrad stage (1950–1970) was his most productive time in a scientific sense. During that time he carried out extensive field work, laid a basis of the largest collection of fossil shark teeth in the USSR (now deposited in the State Darwin Museum in Moscow) and wrote 60% of his scientific publications including the monograph “Sharks of Paleogene...” (1964a) and a section on Elasmobranchii in the volume of “Fundamentals of Paleontology” (1964b). In total, Glickman had published 42 papers (excepting dissertations, his thesis and an archive report), including two major monographs (1964a, 1980), two collective ones (1964b, 1987) as well as 33 other scientific papers. He had described nine families, 27 genera and more than 50 species and subspecies of elasmobranch fishes (mainly Lamniform sharks) from the Cretaceous and Cenozoic deposits of territory of the former Soviet Union. His large collections and his ability to think innovatively, allowed him to make some radical changes in shark systematics as well as to demonstrate their use in regional and global biostratigraphy. Four genera and four species of fossil sharks and rays as well as one species of Tertiary hamster from the Aral Sea region have been named in his honour.

An annotated bibliography of the Soviet palaeoichthyologist Leonid Glickman (1929–2000)  

The paper presents a short biography and an annotated bibliography of the well-known Soviet palaeoichthyologist and evolutionary morphologist Leonid S. Glickman (1929–2000). His bibliography consists of 46 titles, including 2 monographs, 3 book chapters, 33 research papers, 4 popular papers, and 4 unpublished research reports and dissertations, devoted mainly to Cretaceous and Cenozoic elasmobranchs (principally Lamniformes). The publications cover a period of time between the years 1952 and 1998.

The Turanian Basin in the Eocene: the new data on the fossil sharks and rays from the Kyzylkum Desert (Uzbekistan)

Geological fieldwork to investigate the stratigraphic context of Dzheroy-2, fossil shark and ray location in the Kyzylkum desert (Case et al. 1996), resulted at the discovery of the new location, Dzheroy-3, consisting of three fossiliferous horizons, at different stratigraphic levels: in the base of Suzak Formation, in the middle of the Alay and at the base of Turkestan Formation. A total of over 450 shark and ray teeth were collected by a combination of surface prospecting and bulk sampling. From the lithology and the faunal composition of the individual assemblages it was possible to deduce the age and depositional environments of the new fossil fish-bearing horizons. Faunal analysis indicated full marine conditions of the including sediments with bottom-anoxic conditions of the two lower levels and more oxygenated in the upper one. All sequence of beds with fossil elasmobranches including Dzheroy-2 demonstrates a succession of sea shallowing. The vertebrate locality Dzheroy-2 has been placed in a stratigraphic context with its maximum age as NP16 – Late Middle Eocene, upper Lutetian or Bartonian. Lithostratigraphic description of the Dzheroy Sand Member is given.

New data on the Cow Shark teeth (Hexanchiformes) from the Cretaceous deposits of Sakhalin Island (Russia)  

The tooth of cow shark of the genus Hexanchus (Hexanchidae) from the Cretaceous (Lower Campanian) deposits of southern Sakhalin Island is described. It is most similar with the teeth, described as Hexanchus microdon (Agassiz, 1835) or H. cf. microdon from the Upper Cretaceous of Japan. Previously shark teeth from the Cretaceous deposits of the Russian Far East not described.

Osteological characters of the axial skeleton and pectoral girdles in some species of the Euroasian freshwater fishes of the family Cottidae

The structure of the pectoral fin, its girdle and osteological details of the axial skeleton and a skeleton of the caudal fin, including the structure of unpaired fins were studied in three species of three genera of the family Cottidae: the genus Cottus: European species C. koshewnikowi Gratzianov, 1907 and two species of Fareastern monotypic genera: Trachidermus fasciatus Heckel, 1837 and Mesocottus haitej (Dybowsky, 1869). The species well differ in structure of the pectoral girdles and pleural ribs. Mesocottus haitej is characterized by absence of the interradial and coracoid fenestrae and by considerable reduction of pleural ribs in the abdomen part of the vertebral column. Сottus koshewnikowi and T. fasciatus have backwardly directed pleural ribs (3 pairs of ribs in M. haitej). Trachidermus fasciatus is characterized with the most number of plesiomorphic features: the presence of branched rays in the pectoral fin, greater numbers of vertebrae, rays in the second dorsal, anal and pectoral fins, big anteanal distance and by number of preural vertebrae, supporting the procurrent rays. In C. koshewnikowi, the first dorsal fin occupies the most anterior position: aID 32.6–38.0% SL vs 35.7–38.7% SL in T. fasciatus and 36.4–40.8% SL in M. haitej.

Late Pleistocene Felidae remains (Mammalia, Carnivora) from Geographical Society Cave in the Russian Far East  

Fossil remains of felids from Geographical Society Cave and neighboring localities (Tigrovaya Cave, Malaya Pensau Cave, and Letuchiya Mysh Cave) in the Russian Far East are found to belong to four species: Panthera tigris, P. spelaea, P. pardus, and Lynx lynx. In Geographical Society Cave, the felid fossils are confined to deposits of the warm stage of the Late Pleistocene (MIS3). The simultaneous presence of Panthera tigris and P. spelaea seems to be unusual, the tiger remains being numerous whereas those of the cave lion are scant. There are differences between the Late Pleistocene tiger and the recent tiger in dental characters. P. tigris, most probably, migrated twice to Russian Far East from southern regions: in interstadial MIS3 and, subsequently, in the Holocene.

Description of four new species of the genus Phytodietus Gravenhorst, 1829 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae) from the Eastern Palearctic region

Four species of the genus Phytodietus are described from material in the Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences: Ph. belokobylskii sp. nov. and Ph. melanopus sp. nov. from South Korea, Ph. intermedius sp. nov. from south of the Russian Far East and Ph. dauricus sp. nov. from Russian Transbaikal Territory. Key to 4 new and 6 related species is given.



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