Instructions for Authors

Edited on: 20 January 2020
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1. General requirements

Articles in the journal Zoosystematica Rossica are published online in two issues which are also published on paper twice a year, at the end of June and at the end of December. All articles are registered in the Official Register of Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) and archived in the Zenodo repository. All nomenclatural acts become valid from the moment when the article containing them is published on the Internet.

Articles are published ander the following headings (rubrics): “Research article”, “Short communication”, “Review”, “Opinion”, “In memoriam”, etc. Monographs and collective volumes can be published as supplements to the journal regular volumes.

Manuscript submitted to Zoosystematica Rossica should not repeat previously published data. They may be submitted to a another journal only after the manuscript is rejected by the editorial board of Zoosystematica Rossica.

Publication of articles, including the printing of colour illustrations, is free. Publication of supplements is possible in agreement with the editorial board and is fully or partially paid by the authors.

Paper size is limited to 50 000 characters (without spaces) not including figures and tables. Larger manuscripts may be accepted with the preliminary approval of the editorial board.

The text should be written in English (the British spelling variant), using the vocabulary and phraseology typical for modern English-language publications in the corresponding field of zoology. Authors whose native language is not English should consult a native English speaker familiar with the topic of the research. Descriptions, keys and figure legends should be written in “telegraphic style”. The editorial board reserves the right to return manuscripts requiring extensive language editing. Translation services are not provided.

In all cases related to zoological nomenclature and name usage, the manuscript should meet the requirements and recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (4th edition, 1999, available in the Internet: https://www.iczn.org/the-code...).

The copyright to the published paper is owned by the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the authors of the corresponding articles. No printed copies of the papers are provided. A PDF of any paper published on the website of the journal may be used by the author(s) on a non-commercial basis, in particular for printing individual hard copies, distribution to colleagues, or posting on a personal website.

2. Submission of manuscripts and publishing process

The manuscript should be submitted electronically from the e-mail address of the first author (in case of a multi-authored paper) or the designated corresponding author. Printouts or typed manuscripts are not accepted.

Manuscripts should be sent to the editorial e-mail address: zoosystematica@gmail.com. Authors can use file sharing services to send big files, for example, WeTransfer: https://wetransfer.com/. Also, authors can request the editorial board for the data necessary for transferring files via FTP (recommended for authors who regularly publish their articles in the journal).

All manuscripts, including those submitted by members of the editorial board, will be reviewed by at least two anonymous experts. The authors may suggest the names and addresses of potential reviewers, as well as the colleagues whom they would rather not invite to evaluate the manuscript. The reviews and all the information relevant to the publication process will be sent to the address from which the manuscript has been submitted.

The author should send the emended manuscript (as well as, if necessary, a reasoned objection to the reviewers) to the section editor within a month after receiving the reviews. When the paper is accepted for publication, the proof will be e-mailed to the corresponding author as a PDF file, and the corrected version should be sent to to the section editor within one week of receipt.

3. Preparation and formatting of manuscripts
3.1. Structure of manuscript

The manuscript should consist of the following sections: the beginning of the article (title, names and addresses of the authors, abstract, and key words), the main text, Acknowledgements and References. The main text of research articles should be divided into the following parts: Introduction, Material and methods, Results, and, if necessary, Discussion; in the remaining rubrics, this division is not used.

The MS Word file containing the text of the manuscript should not include text tables and figures. Each text table and each table of figures should be presented as a separate file. The name of each graphic file should reflect the number(s) of the corresponding image(s): Fig1.tif, Figs2-6.ai, etc. Detailed technical requirements for graphic files are given in the section 5.3. Technical requirements.

The manuscript of the entire article, including the text, text tables and all figures, must also be submitted as a single PDF with reduced resolution, so that the file size does not exceed 15 MB.

3.2. Text
3.2.1. Technical requirements

The text should be formatted with Times New Roman font size 12 (may be reduced to size 8 in the tables), at one-and-a-half space. The beginning of a paragraph should not be marked with either indentation or tabulation. Consecutive paragraphs should be separated by an empty line. The text should be aligned on the left side without hyphenation. No other formatting of the text than indicated here and below can be accepted.

3.2.2. The head of the manuscript

The head of the paper should be formatted as follows:

● Title of the article.

● Initials and name of the author (in case of several authors: T. Smith, D. Johnson & H. Williams, withan asterisk [*] after the name of the corresponding author, if necessary).

● The full first name, initials of the middle name or additional names, the full surname, affiliation, work address (or, as an exception, home address), and the email address of each coauthor.

● Abstract, consisting of no more than 100 words for manuscripts of less than 18000 characters, and no more than 200 words for larger communications. The abstract should reflect all the nomenclatural changes proposed in the paper and list all the newly described taxa (or specify the exact number of such taxa if there are many).

● Key words in the following order: 1) words relevant to the context of study (other than Latin names of taxa); 2) Latin names of taxa, from order (a higher rank when necessary) to genus (the family is obligatory; other names should be provided if required by the taxonomy of the group in question);  3) word combinations “new species”, “new genera”, etc. (if the paper contains descriptions of new taxa). The full stop at the end of the paragraph with key words is not put.

The listing of taxa in the “Key words” section should strictly follow the nomenclature, hierarchy, and accepted classification, since this information will be entered in databases, in particular, during ZooBank registration of new names.

Example of formatting of the head of manuscript

A review of vertebral and fin-ray counts in the genus Alburnoides (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) with a description of six new species

[empty line]

N.G. Bogutskaya & B.W. Coad

[empty line]

Nina G. Bogutskaya, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Universitetskaya Emb., St Petersburg 199034, Russia. E-mail: nbogutskaya@rambler.ru

[empty line]

Brian W. Coad, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 6P4, Canada. E-mail: bcoad@mus-nature.ca

[empty line]

Abstract. [regular font].

[empty line]

Key words: freshwater fishes, morphology, axial skeleton, unpaired fins, Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae, Alburnini, Alburnoides, new species

[empty line]

ZooBank Article LSID:

3.2.3. Font

The diacritic signs can be added using the “insert symbol” command in MS Word.

The correct use of special signs, such as short dash [–], long dash [―], and nonbreaking hyphen [-] should be controlled (unless they are inserted automatically):

● The hyphen is used to connect parts of a compound word (for example, spear-shaped, re-examination, twenty-five, stage-related, in-depth, long-term, snow-white, ...).

● The short dash (n-dash, “–”) may be used to connect two nouns (for example, “in September–October”, “the Volga–Don Canal”). It is also placed between numerals to designate the range (also the pages in the References section), for example, “Tables 5–10, Fig. 10a–e”, “in 1992–2005”. Note the absence of spaces around the n-dash. Hotkeys for the n-dash in a full keyboard with a number pad are “Ctrl + minus”.

● The long dash (m-dash, “―”) is only used in rare cases to connect parts of a compound sentence. Hotkeys for the m-dash in a full keyboard with a number pad are “Alt + Ctrl + minus”.

● The double quotes [“...”] should be used as first-order quotation marks; the single quotes are used within the double ones [“... ‘…’ ...”].

The following should always be formatted in italics:

1) all zoological and botanical genus-group names and names of lower ranks (down to subspecies), including the names in the title, identification keys, and annotated lists of taxa; in these three cases, the names should be formatted in bold italics; but taxonomic names in the References section should not be italicised;

2)the abbreviations of wing veins and cells for insects, De Man indices a, b, c, c’, V, V’ for nematodes, and figure designations referred to in the text, for example: “.... (Fig. 1a, spho) ...” or “... (Figs 2–5, cto, iop) ...”;

3) the following subheaders: Holotype, Paratypes, Material examined, Type material examined, Additional material, Diagnosis, Description, Comparison, Etymology, Distribution, Bionomics, Habitats, Hosts and Remarks.

The parentheses should always be given in regular font even if they are part of the Latin taxon name and separate the name of the subgenus.

The following should always be formatted in bold:

1) the abbreviations or full writings indicating the status of a new taxon or changes in the status of old taxa: sp. nov., gen. nov., gen. et sp. nov., subfam. nov., fam. nov., syn. nov., stat. nov., comb. nov., stat. (comb., syn.) resurr., status promotus and status demotus. Regular font should be used for the union “et”;

2) the titles of sections (Introduction, Material and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, etc), and also the names of taxa used as subheadings.

If the paper contains the descriptions of taxa (both new and previously described), the corresponding section should begin as shown in the example below (authors and years are not necessary for suprageneric taxa):

Order Orthoptera

Family Gryllidae

Subfamily Itarinae

Genus Itara Walker, 1869

Subgenus Itara Walker, 1869

Itara (Gryllitara) curupi sp. nov.

(Figs 1–5)

3.2.4. Transliteration

The Cyrillic names should be transliterated (romanised) using the following rules: е, ё, э = e; ж = zh; з = z; й, ы = у; х= kh; ц = ts; ч = ch; ш = sh; щ = shch; ь, ъ = ‘; ю = yu; я = ya. It is also possible to use the automatic transliteration function on some websites, for example,https://translit.net/ru/; in case of this service, select BGN (Geographic Names Board) in the drop-down list at the top of the page.

The above rules should not be applied to the following cases: 1) names of authors which have a firmly established alternative spelling (Brodsky, Kiritshenko, Kryzhanovskij, Lubischew, Lukjanovitsh, Trjapitzin ) or can be easily traced back to their original spelling in some European language (Bianchi, Schwarz, Schmidt, Jakubowski, Stackelberg); 2) geographic names having established English variants (Paris, Altai, Tien Shan, Baikal, Sea of Azov).

3.2.5. Abbreviations

The terminology of ICZN (4th edition) should be strictly followed. In particular, according to Article 16, the abbreviation “nom. nov.” should only be used to indicate a new replacement name, and “stat. nov.” should not be used to indicate that the former name of infrasubspecific essence is proposed for species or subspecies (Recommendation 16 A). To indicate a change in taxon rank, it is recommended to use the terms ‘‘status promotus’’ (promoted status) and ‘‘status demotus’’ (demoted status) (See: Alonso-Zarazaga M.A. 2007. Acalyptini C.G. Thomson 1859, correct name for a tribe in Curculioninae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and a comment on nomenclatural terminology. Coleopterists Bulletin, 61: 559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1649/0010-065x(2007)61[559:acgtcn]2.0.co;2).

The Latin union “et” should be used to separate the names of authors of taxa, for example:

Morphna clypeata Anisyutkin et Gorochov, 2001;

the ampersand sign [&] should be used in references, for example:

(Prozorova & Starobogatov, 1997); Eades & Otte (2009);

but “et al.” should be written when the list of authors is reduced, for example:

(Ribes et al., 2007); White et al. (2003).

The generic component of a binomen or trinomen should be abbreviated if the species/subspecies name is repeatedly mentioned in the text: “... the description of M. clypeata given above ...”. However, if the generic component of a binomen or trinomen starts the sentence, it should not be abbreviated.

Abbreviations “Prov.” (= Province), “Distr.” (= District), “Terr.” (= Territory), etc. should be used with names of administrative units. The modern names of villages and other small settlements should be accompanied by abbreviations like “Vill.” (= Village), “Settlm.” (= Settlement), to distinguish the settlement from another nearby object (mountain, lake, river, or city) with the same name, and also to refer to a settlement which has changed its name or ceased to exist.

The following abbreviations should be mostly used in descriptions of taxa and the material examined: I., Is. (= Island, Islands); Mt., Mts. (= Mountain, Mountains); coll., leg. (= collected by).

The names of the months in description of the material should be given as follows: Jan., Feb., March, Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec, or months should be designated by majuscule Roman numerals: 6 March 1936 or 6.III.1936.

These abbreviations for the months and geographic objects should not be used in other parts of the text.

All other abbreviations and designations, including those of morphological structures, should be explained in the Material and methods section.

The signs ♂ and ♀ should not be used; the words “male (males)” and “female (females)” should instead be written in full.

3.2.6. Numerals

Cardinal numerals (whole numbers) from 1 to 12 should be written in words rather than figures, regardless of their position in the sentence: “We described five species” or “There are nine spots on the flank”.

The above rule may be neglected when similar structures are listed within the same sentence, for example: “Antennal segments 1–6 with 0, 3, 5, 4, 5, 1 sensilla”. In addition, the number of specimens in the Material section should also be specified in figures, not words.

All cardinal numerals starting the sentence should be spelled out, for example: “Twenty-six species were known to occur in the area”.

No superscript symbols should be used with abbreviated ordinal numerals: “the 5th” rather than “5th”.

Fractions should be spelled out in the text (for example, “two-thirds” but not “2/3”; “a half” but not “1/2”), with exception of the numerals designating meristic characters, for example, “8/4 branched rays.”

The point (not the comma!) should be used as the decimal separator.

3.2.7. Taxonomic names

All the generic and lower-rank names of animals should be accompanied by the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication when first mentioned in the text; the same is true for the main mention of the name. The author(s) and year should also be added if the name of the taxon precedes its description as a separate line. In the title of the paper, the name(s) of the author(s) and the year should be provided only in special nomenclatural or taxonomic cases, for example, if the manuscript contains nomenclatural acts related to homonymy. The names of the authors and the years should not be placed in keys; and the same can be omitted when plant names are mentioned.

3.2.8. Descriptions of species-group taxa

The requirements contained in Articles 16, 31, and 72.3 of ICZN (4th edition)) should be met.

When describing species (species-group taxa), please arrange your data in the following order:

1) name of species or subspecies;

2) references to all the relevant illustrations;

3) synonyms, with references to the original descriptions;

4) when needed, references to other publications (with pages) containing descriptions of the taxon; in this case the name of the cited author should be separated by a colon;

5) material: name-bearing (nomenclatural) types (the holotype, lecto-, neotype, or syntypes);

6) other material: paratypes, paralectotypes, and additional (non-type) material;

7) diagnosis; full description if needed;

8) comparative remarks;

9) etymology (required for new taxa);

10) distribution;

11) bionomics, habitats, hosts, etc.

3.2.9. Enumeration of the material examined

For the holotype when a taxon is described (also for the lecto- and neotype when they are designated): sex (if determined); country, province, other geographic data, biotope; date; collector(s) with abbreviations “leg.” or “coll.” (in brackets: deposition [abbreviated name, to be explained in Material and methods section] and number (if assigned). Country names are highlighted in bold; names of provinces, islands, etc should be italicised.

For the rest of the material examined, including paratypes and paralectotypes, the data should be provided in the same order, with addition of the number of specimens or preparations (with sex specified if necessary).

Material from each collection or region should be given as a separate sentence. If several localities are ituated in the same region, they should be listed after the country or province name and a colon, and separated by a semicolon. If records refer to one geographical point but differ in the dates or collectors, such records are listed after the name of the corresponding place and separated by commas. Countries should be listed in order from west to east and from north to south; if a different order is used, it should be specified in the Material and methods section. The abbreviation for the depositary of material may be placed at the end of the sentence or after the data of the corresponding locality.

Label data should be quoted only when necessary. Quotations from the labels should be put in quotes (inverted commas); comments should be enclosed in square brackets.

Examples of the material examined providing

Example (1):

Holotype. Female, Kazakhstan, Kyzylorda Prov., Tartugay, 3–15.VI.1929, A. Shestakov leg. (ZIN).

Example (2):

Holotype. India, “Deulali [not far from Mumbai], 1 Oct. 1915, coll. N.B. Kinnear” [identified by Chopard as Calyptotrypus maindroni], female (BMNH).

Example (3):

Paratypes. ZIN 58100, 16 specimens, 47.0–56.4 mm SL, Russia, Daghestan, Darvakhchay Riv., Gerzhukh Settlm., 42°08′04.8″N 48°01′51.6″E, 17 June 2004, coll. A. Naseka.

Example (4):

Additional material examined. Without locality designation, Jakovlev leg., 2 females (ZISP). Morocco, without locality designation, Puton leg., 2 males, 2 females (MNHN). Azerbaijan: Disar near Ordubad: 20.VII.1933, Znoyko leg., 1 female, 5.V.1934, Ter-Minassian leg., 3 females; Elisavetpol [Gyandzha]: 24.I.1905, 6.VIII.1906, Jakovlev leg., 3 males, 4 females (ZISP). Iran: southern slopes of Elburz Mts, Tadzhrish [Tajrish], 25–30.VI.1928, collector unknown, 1 male, 1 female (ZMUM); “Shachkuh superior” [southern slope of Elburz Mts, Shakh-Kukh Mt.]: 15, 18–22, 25, 29.VI, 1–5.VII.1914, Kiritshenko leg., 22 males, 33 females (ZISP). Kazakhstan: West Kazakhstan Prov.: Dzhanybek [Zhanibek] Settlm., 26.VI.1961, Kerzhner leg., 1 male; Kalmykovo [Taypak] Settlm., 17.VI.1909, Uvarov leg., 1 male; Atyrau Prov., Inder Lake, 23, 24.VI.1951, Steinberg leg., 1 female (ZISP).

3.2.10. Geographic coordinates

In sections with material listing, for geographical points that are difficult to find on maps, it is highly desirable to give geographical coordinates. All coordinates in the manuscript should be presented in a single notation, preferably in degrees [°], minutes [′] and seconds [″]: 59°56′33.9″N 30°18′18.0″E. To indicate minutes and seconds of arc, the symbols “prime” [′], unicode U + 2032, and “double prime” [″], unicode U + 2033, respectively, should be used, and not apostrophes [‘], single or double quotes, two prime symbols for seconds [‘,’, “,”, ′′], etc.

3.3. References
3.3.1. In-text citations

In-text citations should be formatted as follows: for one author: Ivanov (1995) or (Ivanov, 1995); for two authors: Ivanov & Smirnov (1999) or (Ivanov & Smirnov, 1999); for three or more authors: Petrov et al. (1998) or (Petrov et al., 1998).

Papers by the same author published in the same year should be designated by letters a, b, c, etc., both in the text and in the references. Papers with the same first author and year but with different sets of authors should also be designated by letters, for example: Petrov et al. (1998a, 1998b) or (Petrov et al., 1998a, 1998b). In-text citations should be arranged in chronological order, and those published in the same year, in alphabetical order (Gorokhov et al., 1998; Aver’yanov et al., 2005; Mironov et al., 2005). A communication may be cited as “in press” if the author has been officially notified that it is accepted for publication. Manuscripts not yet accepted for publication (submitted or in the process of reviewing) cannot be included in the references. Citations of unpublished data, for example: (Ivanov, unpubl.) or (Petrov, pers. comm.) are allowed but should not be included in the references.

3.3.2. Formatting of the list of references

The list of references should include all (and only) the publications cited in the text.

The names and initials of the authors and the numbers of volumes (but not issues!) of periodicals and serial editions should be given in bold. The names and initials of editors of collective volumes should be listed (if specified) and given also in bold. The titles of monographs, serial editions, and periodicals should be given in italics. The scientific names of genera and lower-rank taxa should not be italicised.

The titles of periodicals (journals) should not be abbreviated but given in full in the original spelling.

The titles of papers published in a non-Latin alphabet should be given in English translation only, with the original language of publication specified in round brackets in the end of the reference. The titles of monographs and collective volumes published in Cyrillic alphabet should be transliterated (according to the rules specified above) and followed by an English translation in square brackets. The titles of all works (papers, monographs, collective volumes, etc) published in Latin alphabet but not in the main international languages (English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, Portuguese or Latin) should be translated into English in square brackets.

When the names of journals and collective volumes are quoted, as well as the Cyrillic names of the journals are transliterated, nouns are written with a capital letter, and adjectives (except proper names and some exceptions), unions, articles, etc are written in lower case letters. When the titels of books, collective volumes and other non-serial editions are quoted, nouns, like other words, are usually written in lower case letters.

The name of the publisher should be included if it is specified in the original. For large international publishing houses, if the city (country) is not specified or a long list is given (“London-Sidney-Paris- ...”), only the name of the publisher should be included in the reference.

Websites, separate web pages and other Internet resources should be cited in the text in the same way as printed publications. In the References section, they should be presented in the format given below, in accordance with the international standard ISO 690: 2010. In all cases, the names and initials of the authors (or editors) should be in bold, the name of the resource (website) should be in italics, with the word “online” in square brackets. The date when the resource was updated is indicated as fully as is known. The date of viewing must be specified with no exception.

For a website: Author (or editor). Year of creation or update. Name of website [online]. Place of publication: name of publisher. URL [updated; ... viewed ...].              

For a separate web page: Author (or editor). Year of creation or update. Title of web page. Name of website [online]. Place of publication: name of publisher. URL [updated ...; viewed ...].

3.3.3. DOI

In references, DOI (Digital Object Identifiers) should be given for all sources that currently have this identifier. DOI is placed at the end of the reference, without brackets and any formatting. DOI should be presented as a full URL in the unified format: https://doi.org/10.31610/zsr/2018.27.2.268; writing http://dx.doi.org/... should be corrected for https://doi.org/... The full stop at the end of the URL is not put.

To search for DOIs, the Crossref service can be used: https://www.crossref.org/SimpleTextQuery. To do this, place a complete list of references, in which each source is a single paragraph without a line breaks, in the search form and click the “Submit” button. All DOIs should be checked for validity: when clicking on such links, the pages of the required publications should be correctly opened on the websites of the respective editions.

3.3.4. Examples of formatting
Paper in a journal

Efremenko V.N. 1989. Larvae of the white-blood fishes of the family Channichthyidae from the East Antarctic. Voprosy Ikhtiologii, 29: 589–595. (In Russian).

Gapon D.A. 2007. Structure, function, and morphological conformity of the male and female genitalia in the true bug genus Pyrrhocoris Fall. (Heteroptera, Pyrrhocoridae). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 86(4): 729–741. (In Russian; English translation: Entomological Review, 2007, 87(9): 1099–1108. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0013873807090011).

Heiss E. 2013. New Aradidae from Ecuador (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Aradidae). ZooKeys, 319: 137–151. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.319.4755

Pesenko Yu.A. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the family Halictidae revised (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of the Kansas entomological Society, (1999), 72(1): 104–123.

Paper in a collective volume or a monograph

Lantsov V.I. 2012. New data on taxonomy, ecology and behaviour of craneflies of the genus Hexatoma Latr. (Diptera, Limoniidae) of the Caucasus. XIV s’ezd Russkogo entomologicheskogo obshchestva. Sankt-Peterburg, 27 avgusta – 1 sentyabrya 2012 g. Materialy s’ezda [XIV Congress of the Russian Entomological Society. St Petersburg, August 27 – September 1, 2012. Abstracts]: 193. St Petersburg: Galanika. (In Russian).

Szépligeti G. 1914. Insectes Hyménoptères. IV. Braconidae. In: Alluaud C. & Jeannel R. (Eds). Voyage Ch. Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique Orientale (1911–1912). Résultats scientifiques: 167–198. Paris: Garnier.

Tobias V.I. 2000. Subfam. Cheloninae. In: Lehr P.A. (Ed.). Opredelitel’ nasekomykh Dal’nego Vostoka Rossii [Keys to the insects of the Russian Far East], 4(4): 426–571. Vladivostok: Dal’nauka. (In Russian).

Monograph, dissertation, or collective volume

Amyot C.J.B. & Serville J.G.A. 1843. Histoire naturelle des Insectes Hémiptères. Paris: Roret. lxxvi + 675 + 6 p. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.8471

Cherednikov S.Yu. 1996. Osobennosti formirovaniya zhivotnogo naseleniya pochv bayrachnykh lesov stepnoy zony yuga Rossii [Specific features of animal population formation of ravine forest soils in the steppe zone in the south of Russia]. Candidate of sciences (biology) dissertation. Rostov-on-Don State University. 151 p. (In Russian).

Chopard L. 1969. Grylloidea. The fauna of India and adjacent countries. Orthoptera, 2. Calcutta. 421 p.

Elton C. 1960. Ekologiya nashestviy zhivotnykh i rasteniy.Moscow: Inostrannaya Literatura. 230 p. (In Russian; translation of: Elton C. 1958. The ecology of invasions by animals and plants.London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-7214-9).

Illies J. (Ed.). 1967. Limnofauna Europaea.Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag. xv + 474 p. https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1968.13.1.0208c

Hribar L.J.F. 1989. Comparative morphology of the mouthparts and associated feeding structures of biting midge larvae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). PhD dissertation. Auburn, Alabama: Alabama State University. 216 p.

Problemy izucheniya, ratsional’nogo ispol’zovaniya i okhrany prirodnykh resursov Belogo morya [Problems of study and conservation of natural resources of the White Sea]. 1998. Materials of the 7th international Conference, Arkhangelsk, September 1998. St Petersburg: Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. 302 p. (In Russian).

Tuzovskij P.V. 1987. Morfologiya i postembrional’noe razvitie vodyanykh kleshchey [Morphology and postembryonic development of water mites]. Moscow: Nauka. 172 p. (In Russian).

Internet publications

Albrecht A. 2010. Atlas of the aphids of Finland [online]. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, Finnish Museum of Natural History. http://koivu.luomus.fi/elaintiede/kirvat/atlas.htm [updated 15 June 2010; viewed 15 May 2014].

MolluscaBase [online]. 2019. http://www.molluscabase.org [viewed 24 March 2018].

Ravara A., Rizzo A.E. & Lana P. 2018. Nephtyidae Grube, 1850. In: Schmidt-Rhaesa A. (Ed.). Handbook of Zoology Online [online]. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. https://www.degruyter.com/view/Zoology/bp_029147-6_30 [updated 11 Sept. 2018; viewed 12 Sept. 2018].

Rider D.A. 2008. Scotinophara Stål, 1868. Pentatomoidea Home Page [online]. North Dakota: North Dakota State University. https://www.ndsu.edu/faculty/rider/Pentatomoidea/Genus_Podopinae/Scotinophara.htm [updated 4 January 2008; viewed 24 September 2009].

Electronic monographs, databases or PC programs

Yu D.S., Achterberg van C. & Horstmann K. 2005. World Ichneumonoidea 2004: taxonomy, biology, morphology and distribution [CD-ROM]. Vancouver: Taxapad.

4. Text tables

Each table should start on a separate page and be numbered with Arabic numerals (for example: Table 1). It is recommended to use portrait rather than landscape orientation of tables. The final size of a table should not exceed 170 mm by 220 mm. The smallest font size allowed in tables is 8.

Example of a table legend: Table 1. Number of branched anal-fin rays in Alburnoides.

References to tables in the text should appear as in the following examples (note the capital letter): Table 1; Tables 2, 3; Tables 1–4.

5. Figures (illustrations)
5.1. References to figures

References to figures should appear as in the following examples: Fig. 1; Fig. 1a; Fig. 1a–c; Figs 2, 3; Figs 1–3. The figures should be numbered consecutively in each paper. Each picture (group of pictures) has its own number. Several objects may be grouped into one figure, in which case they should be designated by Latin letters.

5.2. The figure legends

The figure legends should be placed after the references. The figure numbers and Latin letters designating parts (separate objects) of figures should be given in bold. The abbreviations used in the figures should be given in italics.

Examples

Fig. 1. Segmentina oelandica,diagrammatic representation of copulatory apparatus(a) and diagrams showing eversion of copulatory organs(b, c). f – foot; fl – flagellum; pa – papilla; pe – penis; po – preputial organ; pr – preputium; ps – penial sac; r – retractor; t – tentacle; vas – vas deferens. Scale bar: 1 mm.

Figs 58.Trendella graciliformis sp. nov., female. 5, anterior body end; 6, setation; 7,claw; 8,tail. Scale bars: 0.3 mm (5), 0.2 mm (6, 7), 0.1 mm (8).

Figs 1–11. Emuncator spp., males. 1–3, E. sorbens (holotype); 4–6, E. spinirostris sp. nov.; 7–9, E. hyperboreussp.nov.; 10, 11, E. domesticus sp. nov. Genitalia, dorsal view (1, 4, 7), ventral view (2, 5, 8, 10), and lateral view (3, 6, 9, 11). Scale bars: 2 mm.

Figs 8–14. Brittonema gen. nov. 8–11, B. mandibulare gen. et sp. nov.; 12–14, B. pygidiale gen. et sp. nov. Paratype, male with length 15.3 mm (8, 9), paratype, male with length 12.3 mm (10), paratype, female with length 13.0 mm (11), paratype, male with length 8.3 mm, (12), paratype, male with length 7.6 mm (13, 14). Body, dorsal view (8, 12); mouthparts, ventral view (9); head, dorsal view (10, 13); head, ventral view (11, 14).

5.3. Technical requirements

Figures are accepted only in electronic form and completely prepared for publication. Raster images should be in the Grayscale, CMYK (not RGB!) or Black and White color mode and, if possible, saved in PSD format, with unfused layers containing separate images, designations, numbers of figures, etc; or in the LZW-compressed TIFF; or in JPEG with the compression level of at least 12. For vector images, AI format rather than CDR is highly desirable. The resolution in the files should be at least 1200 dpi for the Bitmap and 600 dpi for color and grayscale images. Illustrations of poor quality will be returned to the authors and will result in a delay in the review and publishing process.

The authors should pay special attention to correct evaluation of the final size of figures. The largest possible dimensions of the printed figure are 82 x 230 mm when it is placed in the width of one column and 170 x 230 mm when the figure matches the width of two columns (Fig. 1). The height is indicated here given the possibility of placing the figure legend on the next page of the broadside or in the adjacent column, but this is permissible only as an exception. It is desirable to estimate the size of each plate of figures so that its legend is placed under the plate. The authors should take into account that in the layout, one line of the legend includes on average 50 symbols with gaps for the width of one column, and 114 symbols with gaps for the width of two columns.

Empty blank forms (in PSD) for creating plates of figures, corresponding to the maximum size of the print area, can be downloaded from these links:

for width of one column (82 x 230 mm); for width of two columns (170 x 230 mm).

Any text symbols in the figures and tables of figures should be in Arial font, regular (not bold) for the numbers of separate images, and italic for designations. The size of lettering should match the proposed size of the figure. The smallest font size allowed in the figures is 9, the biggest size is 16. The length of the scale bar, if needed, should be specified in the figure legend.Dimensions in the legends as a magnification used (for example, x20) should not be indicated, since the size of the figures in the article may differ from that in the original images.

Fig. 1. Scheme of a journal page and formatting for figures