Rolf G. Beutel, Ignacio Ribera, Olaf R.P. Bininda-Emonds
A genus-level supertree of Adephaga (Coleoptera).
Organisms, Diversity & Evolution, 7 (2008): 255-269.
On-line version: www.elsevier.de/ode
(Institut fuer Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, FSU Jena, Germany;
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain)
Received 14 October 2005; accepted 17 May 2006
A supertree for Adephaga was reconstructed based on 43 independent source trees - including cladograms based on Hennigian and numerical cladistic analyses of morphological and molecular data - and on a backbone taxonomy. To overcome problems associated with both the size of the group and the comparative paucity of available information, our analysis was made at the genus level (requiring synonymizing taxa at different levels across the trees) and used Safe Taxonomic Reduction to remove especially poorly known species. The final supertree contained 401 genera, making it the most comprehensive phylogenetic estimate yet published for the group. Interrelationships among the families are well resolved. Gyrinidae constitute the basal sister group, Haliplidae appear as the sister taxon of Geadephaga+ Dytiscoidea, Noteridae are the sister group of the remaining Dytiscoidea, Amphizoidae and Aspidytidae are sister groups, and Hygrobiidae forms a clade with Dytiscidae. Resolution within the species-rich Dytiscidae is generally high, but some relations remain unclear. Trachypachidae are the sister group of Carabidae (including Rhysodidae), in contrast to a proposed sister-group relationship between Trachypachidae and Dytiscoidea. Carabidae are only monophyletic with the inclusion of a non-monophyletic Rhysodidae, but resolution within this megadiverse group is generally low. Non-monophyly of Rhysodidae is extremely unlikely from a morphological point of view, and this group remains the greatest enigma in adephagan systematics. Despite the insights gained, our findings highlight that a combined and coordinated effort of morphologists and molecular systematists is still required to expand the phylogenetic database to enable a solid and comprehensive reconstruction of adephagan phylogeny.
2007, Gesellschaft fuer Biologische Systematik.
Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
See also supplementary material in the online edition at doi:10.1016/j.ode.2006.05.003
Keywords: Adephaga; Cladistics; Phylogenetic systematics; Safe Taxonomic Reduction; Supertree construction