System DIALOGIS is aimed to construct the database on taxa records in the geographic points (with supplemetary biological information) and for interactive creation of the vector maps of distribution of the separate taxa and taxa combination (including two-aspects map with a gradation of an additional parameter for each taxon) which are based on these data. From analogous systems the DIALOGIS differs in the following features: 1) Use the widespread format FoxPro 2.6 for DOS/Windows for DB tables (it ensures an easy import/export of data in other systems); 2) Use of the ZOOCOD standard for the taxa table which allows to reflect the biological hierarchic classifications with any number of the hierarchy levels (in relational DB); 3) Quality of topographic base which is high enough to reflect map with scale from 1:2000000 to 1:250000 on screen/paper; 4}Most simple way to place the records on map, without special manipulations and options choice; 5) Possibility to apply the taxa hierarchy and synonymy automatically during a query: for species with subspecies or for a taxon higher than the species level a map automatically compiles the records of the subordinate taxa, and for a taxon with synonyms a map generalizes the records of synonimized taxa. Support: RFBR, grants 96-07-89086 and 99-07-90315.
A computer database on fossil marine invertebrates PIN RAS includes information on geographical distribution of genera during different epochs. Geographical distribution is presented as a set of the following components: 1) squares with side length 2,5o, 2) squares with side length 10o, 3) regions (if genus was distributed widely in a paleobasin). Such information is suitable for different biogeographical tasks: to analyze the dynamics of areas in geological past; to study the taxonomic diversity in large paleobasins; to calculate different similarity indices for particular intervals of geologic time; to evaluate the level of endemism in the paleobasins; to analyze migration of genera and species and to determine the centers of diversification of different taxa. The software associated with the database makes it possible to fulfill all the tasks listed above. The locations of fossils during the specified time intervals can be shown on the maps as squares (side length 2,5o), or figures showing the number of genera in each square with side length 10o. The diversity dynamics, rates of origination and extinction, number of endemics in the selected regions are plotted as charts and/or tables. The information on migrant taxa, including places of their origin and time of occupation of different paleobasins, can be presented in the form of a table, as well as the arrays of similarity indices. Up to now the database contains complete data on following fossil taxa: archaeocyaths, Cambrian brachiopods, trilobites (Agnostoidea), Devonian corals (Rugosa), Paleozoic bryozoans, some orders of ammonoids, echinoderms, brachiopods.
Hydroecological database is created to estimate a level of pollution of the rivers of North of Western Siberia. Database contains an information on bioindicators of pollution and chemical compounds of water and bottom sediments. Database on zooperiphyton of reservoirs of Western Siberia is constructed (that includes about 900 files - samples) using the modified program "Water community" (WACO) developed in Institute of Hydrobiology (Ukraine). The database contains the following information on structure and functioning of communities: species composition, number, bioweight, total energy, consumption of oxygen in normal and percentage expression; Shannon index and smoothed on number, bioweight, energy and oxygen consumption. The program allows to carry out averaging of samples, calculate a coefficient of similarity between them, allocate of dominants, create the tables. The DB is based on research materials obtained from 11 lakes, 4 channels, basin-cooler and 22 rivers, including the large rivers - Ob', Irtysh, Taz, Tobol and Tura. Analysis of DB materials of base has allowed to allocate on the investigated basins more than 60 communities of zooperiphyton, and to detect their frequency. To study an environmental pollution, samples of bottom sediments were selected and the contents of heavy metals and hydrocarbons were analyzed. It is concluded, that the rivers proceeding through long maintained deposits - Ob' on the middle current, lower current of Agan, Vach, Vatinski Egan are most polluted. It is determined, that in the middle current of Ob' the larvae of trichopterans are an indicator of pollution. Hydrogeochemical data and parameters of total number, bioweight, consumption of oxygen, richness of species, the density of trichopteres larvas and Woodiwiss index were used to create a series of thematic electronic maps using software "Mapinfo".
Two-years complex inspections are conducted on the territory of "Strelna's shore" which is the state Nature Monument located on the southern coast of the Finnish Gulf of the Baltic Sea. This small strongly protected territory represents the standard community for the black alder (Alnus glutinosa) seaside swamps. At the same time the reserve was organized to protect a biodiversity of birds moving annually on the White-Baltic sea's migration path. In the time of data bases creation the software of Microsoft Access97 are used. The specific data bases BIRDS, LIST of PLANTS, PHENOLOGY, ANTROPOGENIC PRESS, GIDROLOGY and NATURAL DISASTERS were elaborated for keeping of observation outcomes about birds, rare and usual species of plants, their phenology, and also for accumulation of information about anthropogenic violations of the nature protection mode, about cases of nature acts and their consequences. To make thematic maps of birds plants spread on the territory of the Nature Monument, and also cases of violation of the nature protection mode, the cartographic data base and Geographical Information System (GIS) "Strelna's shore" were created by Idrisi for Windows 1.0. Results of inspections on quadrates of 625 m 2 are input into it with the link to cartographic basis: specific structure of woody, shrubby and grassy vegetation, density of trees krones and the black alder separately, characteristics of antropogenic influences and consequences of natural calamities.
A DataBase (DB) in the system of Data Ease has been developed on the basis of 305 paleobiological and archeological sources. The DB contains information on 3217 osteological and 3025 palinological finds. It also comprises the source of information, site of find, name of location, age according to the geochronological and archeological division into periods, the radiocarbon dating, etc. Using the above DB a GIS realized in the system ArcView has been developed. Now 933 sites of animal and 340 sites of plant remains have been mapped. The ArcView has enabled us to map the sites of 25 animal and plant species. Four time periods were analyzed: the late Pleistocene and the old Holocene (late Paleolit), the early Holocene (Mesolit), the middle Holocene (Neolit and Bronze) and the late Holocene (the Iron epoch). The analysis of the material has enabled us to characterize the anthropogenic transformations of the key species areas. In the early Holocene mammoth complexes were destroyed mainly. In the middle Holocene forest and steppe zones were formed, with natural grazers replaced by domesticated animals. We proposed that intensive development of agriculture in the late Holocene resulted in the formation of the tundra and subdivision of the forest zone into broad-leaved forests and taiga.
The regional GIS of Republic of Tatarstan includes layers of electronic vectoral geographical, geomorphological, geobotanical, relief, soil, landscape and other maps (1:200 000) and data bases of attributive information (functional zones and land use planning, population density, remote sensing data, species records, etc.). On the base of cartographic analysis information models are used for evaluation of flora and vegetation diversity connections with eco-geographical and socio-economical region indices. Spatial analysis can be applied for different operational area units: landscape regions, geographical regions, administrative regions, etc. Analytical maps and cartographic interface are supported in MapInfo. Spatial information import is automatically subject for verification for discrepancies and compliance to GIS standards. It lets to exchange spatial information with non-topological systems (MapInfo, AcrView). Supporting such system allows to fulfill exact coordinates attachment of geobotanical plots and species records, takes an opportunity of the cartographical analysis of biochorological diversity dependence on different factors, allows to monitor the state of regionís landscapes and their components.
The objective of the work was to develop methods of spatial analysis and of forecasting plant dynamics of the reserve "Kaluzhskie zaseki." The system includes forest inventory and vegetation sample plots data bases, digital elevation model (DEM), which consists of elevation, slope and aspect maps. Visualization of the information from data bases with the taken into consideration biological properties of species being has enabled us to develop a series of thematic vegetation maps. Prognoses maps have been develop using the methods of population and demographic analysis of the vegetation taking into account seedling growth data. The vegetation maps were compared with DEM to determine the relationships between types of communities and relief parameters. This comparison have resulted in following: 1) birch tree communities occur on flat surfaces, indicating the former plough areas; 2) oaks and aspen communities dominate on the steep slopes, characterizing them as long-term forest lands; 3) there are no strong relationships and correlations between the relief parameters and vegetation cover characteristics, what is due to the high ecological tolerance of species and large vegetation patterns in reserve; 4) according to prediction maps the pine communities will disappear in future; the aspen and birch communities will be reduced; oak communities will be replaced with coniferous, broad-leaved and mixed forests. The reserved territory is predicted to have almost uniform contour, including mixed, coniferous and broad-leaved communities.
From the beginning of 60's System of NPA's has been created in the Komi Republic. At present NPA's System includes 287 objects: zapovednik, national park, reserves and nature monuments. In 1996 the information about NPA's System was generalised in Computer DB. DataBase is represented by connected table forms. Each form is the unit of structurized information about definite subject. There are following units of information in the DB: general characteristics of the objects; list of the lows and decrees as an legal instruments of NPA's System function; list of prohibited and permitted activities; co-ordinates of objects; list of organisations, which have been protecting, using and studying NPA's; acts of NPA's inspections. Date selection is realised by any type of the information and type of the field, except fields of "General" type. Integration of the DB on such operations as an addition, deletion, renovation of registration is controlled. DB connects with electronic Map (scale 1 : 1 000 000) of NPA's System of the Komi Republic. The base of electronic Map was Map "Nature Protected areas of The Komi Republic" , which had been prepared by Institute of Biology specialists, Syktyvkar, and printed in 1996. GIS GeoDraw/GeoGraph (Geography Institute, Moscow) were used to construct the electronic Map. Combination of the DB and electronic Map makes it possible to use them as information-inquiry system and a tool for the management of information about NPA's.
The estimation of a biological diversity was
carried out at three levels: 1) the floristic diversity of
phytocoenoses; 2) the floristic diversity of landscapes; 3) the
phytocoenotic diversity of landscapes. Electronic maps
(geobotanical and landscape) created in the GIS-programs GeoDraw
and GeoGraph were used. The floristic diversity of
phytocoenoses was estimated within the limits of groups of
plant associations, the floristic and phytocoenotic
diversity of landscapes - within the limits of types of
landscapes. Coefficients of the floristic and phytocoenotic
richness were developed.
The objective of this project, funded by the UK Royal Society, is to make a CD-ROM of electronic distribution maps of Ukrainian fungi and plants. The source of information is an enlarged and enhanced version of the database used for "Fungi of Ukraine" (a preliminary national checklist produced through an earlier project funded by the UK Darwin Initiative). That database currently contains over 84000 observations in Ukraine of living organisms, mostly fungi. In almost all of these observations the oblast (county) of origin is identifiable, and in well over half it has been possible to allocate latitude and longitude co-ordinates of sufficient accuracy for mapping. Maps have been prepared using national and oblast boundary data derived from Ukraine, with GIS software provided by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology. When complete, these maps will show the distribution (as currently known to the database) of over 5000 species of fungi, and their over 1700 species of associated plants. By highlighting species and areas insufficiently recorded, the work is a major step towards a rational conservation strategy for Ukrainian fungi.