Flora cadastre of vascular plants of Tatarstan (TACAF) has been worked out as a component of regional GIS, using information system "Flora" (Rogova & Prokchorov , 1998). Cadastre TACAF includes the following reference information: plant taxa reference list of more than 1500 items, vegetation formations - 19, landscape regions - 11, landscape morphological elements - 6. Information on areal, ecological and coenotic elements of flora, plant life forms is in preparation. Floristic plots (lists of species) and single finds of rare species are pointed on the electronic map (1:200 000). The source of information is indicated in the data base. Sources are contemporary field investigations, herbarium collections, published papers and references from the beginning of XX century. The cadastre information can be used for cartographic modeling of spatial distribution of species for the evaluation of tendencies of flora chorology, landscapes dynamics, monitoring of endangered species and flora diversity. By using GIS technology for flora analyses the authors have discovered specificity of biodiversity compound and structure of studied landscapes. Considerably significant for determination of the landscape and ecological flora specificity of studied region at the south boarder of boreal ecotone is the ratio of species number in families Asteraceae/Cyperaceae, Asteraceae/Fabaceae. Floras of valley landscapes, which include representatives of both boreal forest and forest-steppe landscapes, differ from others by high diversity. There are large number of ruderal, meadow and alien species in floras of all studied landscapes. Local species areals have pulse spatial structure.
Computerized database Gypaetus barbatus is an experimental version of one section of the regional Red Book, real tool to study and process the author's materials accumulated during last 10-15 years for 6 species of Kopetdagh Falconiformes birds: Circaetus gallicus, Aquila chrysaetos, Gypaetus barbatus, Falco cherrug, Falco pelegrinoides, F. peregrinus. Base of experimental databank for Gypaetus barbatus aureus Hablizl, 1783 and G.b. hemachalanus Hutton, 1838 is presented by five independent undersystem blocks: Introduction, Nomenclature's block, Block of subspecies with geographical and ecobiological blockettes, Nature Protection and Information blocks. Each block is supported by a virtual sample (graphic expressing) and schematic subregion distribution map of species, but without link to coordinates. Different parts of 56 Web-pages are bound inside by page references within a server. Images (photographs and drawings) prepared in JPEG format. Ecobiological blockette is saturated mostly by the original field material according to the hierarchical scheme: frequency, total number, main limiting factors, particularities of biology, which subdivided into dynamically developing undersystem blockettes. Filling of blocks by information is executed in the text HTML format (hypertext) on the base of author's and literature data (including Annals of Nature of Turkmenistan Reserves). Databank ensures searching in any field using different combinations of the key words, final results correspond to the database content at the time of query.
Significant volumes of data are accumulated during 25 years study of the Vacciniaceae species (Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, V. uliginosum, Oxycoccus palustris) in plain and mountain regions of Western Siberia. By now a lot of Vacciniaceae populations has been destroyed owing to economic activity. More than 90% of their populations in a southern taiga and about 60% - in a middle taiga was subjected to the negative anthropogenic transformation. For accumulation of assembled materials the local database and information system (IS) is created. IS gives an opportunity to reflect the coordinates-linked objects on the schematic maps of the region. Tools are created which give opportunities to realize updating of sets of databases, schematic maps of regions and to construct the inquiries (tabulated and spatial) and to conduct the analysis of the samples. This IS has features of GIS, however it does not require large memory, has the low system and hardware requirements. Such IS are actual, as there is the circle of scientific and practical problems for which solution a wide spectrum of GIS capabilities for the spatial analysis is not required. The database and information system form the necessary basis for monitoring and protection of natural populations of the Vacciniaceae species in Western Siberia.
The computer database "The Flora of the Komi Republic" is created on the basis of Herbarium of the Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Centre. It includes information about 1166 species of vascular plants, each is characterized by the index complex, united in several blocks. Taxonomic block includes Russian and Latin name of the plant and its synonyms. Geographical block contains information about species belonging to the geographical element (boreal, hypoarctic, nemorose, polysonal, etc.), areal type (holarctic, European-Asiatic, European, Siberian, etc.). The block includes data on the species frequency and its distribution map for the Republic territory. In the ecological block each species is classified to certain ecological group (mesophyt, hydromesophyt, hygrophyt, xeromesophyt, etc.). Coenotic indexes characterize species growth in different plant communities (forest, meadow, marsh, tundra, weed ecotope, etc.). Information system demonstrates the species diversity of vascular plants in the Republic and species desrtibution in the region. System gives an opportunity to get a selection of definite geographical, ecological and other characteristics.
Conjugated taxonomic-and-typological study may favor the theoretical explanation of biodiversity in general and in anthropogenically transformed ecosystems in particular. The DB (Foxbase) "Anthropogenic transformation of flora" (46 parameters for 1925 species; Burda, Ostapko, 1993) is aimed at taxa. DB is linked via the taxonomic block with the daughter DB "Population structure of species" (43 parameters for 341 topopopulations of 63 rare species) that has been developed to analyze the species population structure and its state depending on natural and anthropogenic factors; information may be used by any feature at the level of an individual topopopulation, a group of topopopulations, species or a group of species. Its logical addition is the DB "Quantitative features of synanthropic populations of plants" to compare a degree of similarity and difference between populations and species from different ecotopes according to morphological traits. It consists of blocks for entering and analysis of data which are connected with characteristics of species and topopopulations. It has been implemented for the complicated genus Oenothera L. Project of conjugated taxonomical-and-typological cadastre DB on phytobiota of the Ukrainian South-East is being developed. Polytomous multi-entry interactive key to Ukrainian species of the genus Artemisia L. has been developed. The DB (FoxPro 2.2) is based on relative links of four bases: species (34), rows of features (22), features (65 simple and complex mutually exclusive) and ties. The functions are: input, features editing, species identification.
The first data base to process the data of floristic and geobotanical diving research works of seaweed of the Southern Sakhalin was created in Russia. The data base includes the information on 93 sublitoral transects, 320 diving stations, and 2900 records and quantitative characteristics of 180 species of macrophytes and sea grasses. Data base ALG is developed for compiling of maps for species areals, lists of local floras, tables of depth distribution of species. It provides opportunity to draw the borders of geobotanical districts on the coast by method of community coefficients. Besides, it automatically calculates the total biomass of algae. This data base describes the vertical zonality of phytocenoses and takes into account the allocation of the algae to the layers. There are three groups of algae (red, brown and green algae). One of the data base functions is to calculate the ratio of species belonging to these three groups as a basic phytogeographical index of local flora. Use of such data bases in the similar algological researches will allow to unify and consolidate the data from other regions into the global data base of sea flora and vegetation.
The database was developed in Access 7.0 for Windows-95. For viewing the results and making queries there are four forms: "The main menu", "Data viewing", "Making queries" and "Input and editing". Data viewing. In the left part of the form the family (123 in the database), genus (510) and species (1245) are consequently selected. In the central part the information on the selected species (the family, the Latin and the local name, the synonyms, the rarity degree according to the IUCN classification, the species occurrence in the certain nature zones (11 in the region) and in the administrative districts (38 in the region), ecological information and utilization possibilities. Viewing of the morphological description and the picture is possible for every species. Making queries. The application allows to make queries according to any individual criteria as well as to their arbitrary combinations. For making a selection query the necessary criteria (the rarity is selected from the list, and all other categories are marked with selection marks in the corresponding windows) are selected with the cursor. All the selected criteria are displayed in the right hand bottom corner for control. For any query the number of families, genera and species is counted. In case a certain species is selected, a more detailed information can be retrieved in the first form. The query results can be displayed for viewing or printed. Input and editing. Here the input and deletion of families, genera, morphological descriptions (from the keyboard or a file), pictures can be done. The nature zones, districts, ecological characteristics, economic use can be selected by marking with the cursor in the corresponding windows.
Initial phytosociological data accumulated in research institutes are stored as phytosociological releve collections or as phytosociological tables , sometimes in an electronic form created in various DBMS. Standard computer form will expand the range of applications and make easy the use of multivariate methods (classification and ordination) in the description and ecological interpretation of plant communities.. Here is proposed to use the international DBMS TURBOVEG (Hennekens, 1994, 1995) designed for input, processing and presentation of phytosociological data, for the classification of plant communities in Russia. On the base of TURBOVEG the data bank of phytosociological releves is being developed in Komarov Botanical Institute. From the mass of initial data the most typical plant community releves were selected. They contained the main characteristic features of the bog and mire vegetation of Northern and North-Western Russia, the desert vegetation of Northern Eurasia, the forest nature reserves vegetation and the plant cover of the river valleys of Tuva. On the base of these releves the local databases have been generated, which differ in the special supplementary fields but similar in the list of species corresponding to the latest nomenclature compilation (Czerepanov, 1995). Standard releve forms have been used. Concrete plant community releves were encoded and input, with some data restructurization. More than 900 releves were input into the optimized local DBs: 600 releves of bogs and mires, 200 - of deserts, 100 - of river valley vegetation. Plant community classification was tested by means of TURBOVEG.
The inventory of flora in the Dilijan Reserve organized in 1958 in the north Armenia, was made in 1988-1994 by stationary and mobile methods. For the first time the list of flora of the Reserve was created based on the identification of collected herbarium material and the herbarium collection kept in the Reserve since its formation. To make the the list more complete the herbarium collections of the Institute of Botany (ERE) and of Chair of Biology of Yerevan State University (ERCB) have been studied. The herbarium samples of new collection is kept in the Reserve and in ERE herbarium. Dublicates were transferred to ERCB. With connection of the publication of article on floristic records in the Dilijan Reserve (Khandjian & Sharbatian, 1997) the dublicates of rare species were transferred to the Herbarium of Botanical Institute RAS (LE). First published list of flora of the Dilijan Reserve (Khandjian & Sharbatian, 1999) includes multilateral information on the Reserve including historic-geographical data, alphabetic list of Latin, Russian and Armenian names of 902 species of vascular plants, data on of their distribution frequency and ecological conditions of each species, information on taxonomic analysis of flora in general and dendroflora in particular, data on new and rare floristic records, data on species included in Red Books of the former USSR (1984) and Armenian SSR (1989), etc. Besides the above-mentioned informational assistance of herbarium collection of the Dilijan Reserve a Database for multipurpose and mass use (official, public, educational, etc.) is being established which based on accumulated information. The aim of the author is to establish a centralized Database on all specially protected territories of Armenia that include Databases of 5 Reserves, 1 National Park and 22 Reservations.