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Year 1967, Volume 1, Issue 3
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Issue 1
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Zoogeographical characteristics of mixosporidians of freshwater fishes of the Ukraine. P. 185-190.
75 species of mixosporidians were found in water bodies of the Ukraine (Black Sea district of Ponto-Caspian-Aral province of Mediterranean subregion). The Danube is the most rich in species. Eastwards the fauna of mixosporidians undergoes impoverishment. Thus Lindberg's hypothesis is borne out on geohydrocratic ocean-level variations, conservation of ichthyofauna in the Danube basin in the Quaternary period and its subsequent spread into the basins of the Dniester, Dnieper, Don and Volga. Mixosporidians from water bodies of the Ukraine may be grouped into 6 faunistic complexes which completely correspond to Nykolsky's faunistic complexes of fishes. Two the most thermophilous complexes are dominating: the boreal-plain and ponto-caspian freshwater complexes. The ecology of mixosporidians belonging to different faunistic complexes depends on the ecology of their hosts.
in Russian
The experiments on the susceptibility of sand-flies to various strains of leptomonads. P. 191-199.
he experiments were undertaken on the compulsory feeding of sand-flies with leptomonad cultures obtained in the foci of zoonose-type cutaneous leishmaniasis in south-eastern Turkmenia. By means of this method the quantity of the consumed material can be taken into accout. Leptomonads are obtained: from leishmanioma of sick man (Leishmania tropica major), from 2 species of sand-flies (Phlebotomus papatasi Sc. and Sergentomyia arpaklensis Perf.) and from Caspian gecko (Gymnodactylus caspius Eich.). Two species of sand-flies cultivated under laboratory conditions were used for experiments: Ph. papatasi (♀♀ and ♂♂) and S. arpaklensis (♀♀). Sand-flies were fed by means of a modernized pipetting method with the use of vacuumholder, thus the number of leptomonads introduced may be accurately established. It is ascertained that the both species of sand-flies may be infested by all tested strains of leptomonads. Ph. papatasi is more sensible to L. tropica and to the strain of leptomonads obtained from sand-flies of the same species than to leptomonads from geckoes and S. arpaklensis. In the intestine of Ph. papatasi and S. arpaklensis L. tropica and leptomonads from Ph. papatasi occupy the "anterior position" moving to the side of proventriculus, oesophagus and pharynx. Leptomonads from the gecko and S. arpaklensis do not move to the side of proventriculus occupying the "posterior position". The similarity of behaviour of L. tropica and leptomonads from Ph. papatasi in the intestine of sand-flies from one side and leptomonads from the gecko and S. arpaklensis from the other indicates to the affinity in the ranges of these pairs.
in Russian
Free-living stages of the parasite of sterlet eggs (Polypodium hydriforme Ussov, Coelenterata) in the Upper Don. P. 200-206.
Free-living polyps of Polypodium hydriforme, i. e. dispersion stages of the life cycle of the parasite of sterlet eggs, have been found in July 1961 and July 1962 in the Upper Don. A morphological and histological characteristic of these polyps and of their gonads is given. Their similarity with the polyps cultured in aquaria is shown. The occurrence of the polyps in plankton samples indicates that they are not purely benthic organisms, but may drift down stream. This is an additional way of distribution of this parasite.
in Russian
Two new species of Dichoanotaenia (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea). P. 207-212.
The paper contains a description of two new species of Dichoanotaenia found on wood-pecks of Chukotka: D. ovifusa on Terekia cinerea and D. tundra on Macrorhamphus griseus. The description of the species is accompanied by a differential diagnosis and is illustrated with figures of scolex and proglottides. Two earlier known species Anomotaenia volvulus (Linstow, 1906) and Lapwingia reticulosa Singh, 1952 are reduced to synonyms.
in Russian
The life cycle of Porrocaecum semiteres (Zeder, 1800) (Nematoda: Ascaridata). P. 213-218.
The identity of Porrocaecum heteroura (Creplin, 1829) with P. semiteres (Zeder, 1800) and validity of P. ensicaudatum (Zeder, 1800) and P. semiteres are confirmed. Experimentally the whole life cycle of P. semiteres was carried out. Mature eggs were collected from the uterus of nematods found in Vanellus vanellus (L.) and Philomachus pugnax (L.). Eggs developed in vitro. On 28th—30th day the larvae formed in eggs moulted and reached the invasional stage (larvae II). Earthworms Eisenia foetida (Savigny) and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister were infested with invasional eggs. In a month invasional larvae (III) were found in them, which were fed to Sturnus vulgaris L. In another series of tests S. vulgaris was infested with larvae of P. ensicaudatum. The birds were dissected after different intervals. Larvae of P. semiteres were found to be viable and started to develop in the organism of unusual definitive host. But they had wrong localization and the dominating majority died it the larval stage. P. semiteres is a specific parasite of Charadriidae and cannot reach sexual maturity in Passeriformes.
in Russian
On progenesis in trematodes of the genus Proctoeces Odhner, 1911. P. 219-221.
The paper deals with the progenetic development of metacercariae of the genus Proctoeces maculatus (Looss, 1901) in gastropodes Rissoa splendida Eichw. from the Tuapse region (the Black Sea coast). A detailed description of the metacercariae structure at different stages and consideration on the life cycle of these worms are given.
in Russian
On the specificity of Eurytrema pancreaticum (Jansen, 1889) (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) to their intermediate hosts, terrestrial mollusks. P. 222-226.
During experiments miracidiums of Eurytrema pancreaticum hatched out in the intestine of different species of mollusks but their further development took place only in four species of the family Bradybaenidae: Bradybaena lantzi, B. almaatini, B. phaeozona and Cathaica plectotropis.
in Russian
Passive migrations of fleas in colonies of the great gerbil in sites of permanent plague epizootia. P. 227-232.
Passive migrations of fleas in colonies of the great gerbil in the plain of the Emba river basin (north-west Kazakhstan) change with season. In spring, the period when the epizootic process is most intensive, the least intensity of fleas migrations was recorded. This may be assumed to be a favourable condition for the development of epizootic process as far as it promotes a longer stay of fleas infected with plague in the rodent's burrows. This, in its turn seems to effect favourably the longer existence of microfoci and preservation of plague in colonies of the great gerbil.
in Russian
On interspecies ectoparasitic contacts of some species of mammals in colonies of great gerbils. P. 233-237.
During depressions of the number of great gerbils (the main vectors of the plague agent in the north-western Kizil-Kum) some areas are preserved with more or less higher density of various species of rodents and predatory animals as compared with neighbouring localities. In such areas interspecies ectoparasitic contacts often take place resulting in the spread of infected fleas over the territory. The experiment with the use of radio-active indicators has enabled to ascertain that "infected" ectoparasites may be transferred not only by great gerbils but also by some other mammals (midday gerbils, polecat, etc.), which in some cases account for more than 20% of all "infected" fleas.
in Russian
The role of Sicista betulina Pall. as host of ectoparasites, vectors of transmissive diseases. P. 238-242.
229 specimens of Sicista betulina Pall. were examined (investigations were undertaken in the Volga-Kama state reserve during 1961—1966). In all, 1714 ectoparasites were collected. 80% of S. betulina was unfested with various Arthropods. Index of abundance — 7.4. 22 species of ectoparasites were recorded: chiggers — 1 species, ixodid ticks — 2 species, gamasid mites — 8 species, fleas —11 species. The data are given on annual and monthly variations in the number of ectoparasites and on the infestation rate of animals from different biotopes. Among ectoparasites found the specific parasites of S. betulina are lacking; the ectoparasites found usually parasitize on other small mammals (common redbacked vole, mices or insectivores). The majority of dominating species of ticks, mites and fleas are vectors of transmissive diseases (Ixodes ricinus, Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ceratophyllus turbidus), i. e. in those parts where S. betulina is abundant it is of great epidemiological significance.
in Russian
Vertical distribution of Ixodes trianguliceps Bir. in the northeastern Altai. P. 243-245.
The paper deals with the adaptation of Ixodes trianguliceps to conditions of definite landscapes. The number of these ticks increases from forest-steppe foothills to low-mountain aspen- fir forests and then sharply decreases in higher zones. In altitude landscapes this tick was not recorded. The zone of 1200 m above the sea level was found to be the highest point of occurrence of I. trianguliceps.
in Russian
On the forecasting of the abundance of Ixodes persulcatus P. Sch. and the morbidity with tick-borne encephalitis in the Leningrad region. P. 246-249.
5-year observations undertaken in the focus of tick-borne encephalitis results in establishing the dependence of the tick abundance and sick rate on the number of small forest mammals. The abundance of ticks and sick rate increased in a year after the increase of the number of animals and decreased respectively after the reduction of their number. The data obtained have enabled us to bind the forecasting of the abundance of the vector and sick rate with the number of small mammals, the most important hosts of the most numerous larval phase of the tick under the conditions of the Leningrad region.
in Russian
Ist stage larvae of the bloodsucking midge Lasiohelea sibirica Bujan. (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). P. 250-256.
Newly hatched larvae of Lasiohelea sibirica obtained in the vicinity of Krasnojarsk were studied. Larva cylindrical, orange-brown. Body consists of 12 distinct segments (3 thoracic and 9 abdominal) bearing a great number of hairs, spines and tubercles. Head hypognathous, somewhat elongated, convex dorsally and flattened ventrally. Antennae two-jointed; eyes large, convex, nearly ball-shaped, bright-red. No less than 13 pairs of setae, spines and sensorial pits present on head, of which 9 pairs are similar to those described by Saunders (1924) for the allied genus Forcipomyia. One pair of setae behind the eyes, under the name "q" in the scheme of Saunders, is described by this author only for adult larvae of the genus Forcipomyia. In Ist stage larvae of L. sibirica this pair of setae is distinct. The general pattern of the structure of mouth parts wholly corresponds to the scheme given by Saunders (1924) for larvae of Forcipomyia. Larvae of L. sibirica are characterized by the presence of pseudopodium on 1st thoracic segment and rudiment of pseudopodium on the anal segment. Thoracic pseudopodium looks like conical projection armed with 4 pairs of large stout hooks and with 8 raws of small spines. The pseudopodium of the anal segment is a ring-shaped enlargement bearing two raws of 7—8 hooks. Larva has 4 small anal gills. Larva of L. sibirica differs in structure from those of Culicoides and Leptoconops in having a worm-like shape and belonging to the vermiforme group. Due to larva of L. sibirica being provided with thoracic and anal pseudopodiums, it is to be referred to the intermedia group. Owing to their structure larvae of L. sibirica differ from those of Leptoconops and Culicoides by the mode of moving. Larvae of L. sibirica move veil on wet substratum clutching at it with hooks of thoracic and anal pseudopodiums. They are helpless in water as compared with the vermiform larvae of Culicoides and Leptoconops.
in Russian
Hyphomycetes as helminthophags. P. 257-262.
A number of tests were undertaken on the activity of "predatory" fungi of the genera Arthrobotrys and Dactylaria in relation to Elaphostrongylus panticola Lubimov, a causative agent of cerebral helminthosis of maral (Cervus elaphus Gray). The effect of fungi was tested at the larval stage of the parasite, during its stay in the intermediate host, Succinea granulosa Lind.
in Russian
On spontaneous infection of Severtzov's jerboa (Allactaga severtzovi Vinogradov) with Leishmania tropica v. major. P. 263-264.
Among animals tested for cutaneous leishmaniasis (Uzbek SSR, Shirabad region of Surkhandarya district) Severtzov's jerboa was found to have tumors on the ears and tail. Leishmanias were detected in the scraping from the tumor on the ear, strain was obtained from the tumor on the tail.
in Russian
On the work of the parasitological section of the Scientific Conference of zoologists of the Volga-Kama territory. P. 265-266.
Summary is absent.
in Russian
On the formation of the Soviet Committee on Zoological Nomenclature. P. 266.
Summary is absent.
in Russian
Instructions for authors. P. 267-268.
Summary is absent.
in Russian