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Year 1981, Volume 15, Issue 1
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Issue 1
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Historical and evolutionary preconditions for the formation of landscape epidemiology. P. 3-9.
Origin of E.N. Pavlovsky's theory of natural nidality of diseases and one of the tendencies of native nature-study, determined by works of V.V. Dokuchaev, Y.I. Vernadsky and A.P. Vinogradov are put in connection. This connection is regarded as the first precondition of landscape epidemiology. Thesis about the leading role of anthropogene factors at the modern step of natural nidi evolution, in some biohelminthoses in particular, is suggested as the second precondition.
in Russian
Morphological and functional pecularities of the mouth-parts in larvae of the chigger mite Neotrombicula pomeranzevi (Trombiculidae). P. 10-20.
Gnathosoma of larvae of the chigger mite N. pomeranzevi is situated terminally on the trunk. The base of the gnathosoma is gnathocoxa represented by conglutinated coxae of pedipalps. Gnathocoxa narrows apically and passes into hypostome protruding up to the cheliceral blades. Lateral borders of the hypostome are bent dorsally thus forming a groove in which cheliceral blades are located. The cheliceral blades have a small groove in their internal surface. Larval chelicerae are free because their tactum is missing. Cheliceral apodemes which serve for the insertion of muscles, elevators of chelicerae, are jointed to the base of inner walls of basal cheliceral joints. Lateral gnathosoma bears five-jointed palps which have strong three-apical claws on tibia. Palps do not take part in the attachment of larvae to the host. The dorsal wall of gnathosoma is formed by the epistoma and caudal subcheliceral plate which further is branched into two cheliceral apodemes. Subcheliceral plate and apodemes serve as an attachment place of muscles, dilatators of the pharynx. The mouth opening is situated not far from the apical end of hypostome and goes into a large pharynx passing along the bottom of gnathosoma. On the whole, the mouth parts of larvae are adapted well for sucking liquid food.
in Russian
Fauna and ecology of gamasid mites of shrews from the southern taiga outpost in the Volga-Kama territory (Acarina, Gamasoidea). P. 21-26.
Within a period of 15 years (1961—1975) over 3000 shrews (Sorex araneus L., S. minutus L.) were examined in the Volga-Kama State Reserve from which 3134 specimens of gamasid mites belonging to 41 species were collected. The abundance of Hirstionyssus eusoricis Breg. on S. araneus (domination index 28.5) depends on the level of the host population stability during 2—3 years. The infection of various shrews with H. eusoricis differs: 87.2% of all mites were collected from the animals belonging to "subadultus" group. Study of morphometric variability of taxonomic characters of mites (H. eusoricis from shrews and H. talpae from mole) gives good grounds to regard them as two distinct sympatric species or an alternative of variability according to the host.
in Russian
Water mites (Sperchontidae), parasites of black flies (Simuliidae). P. 27-30.
In small streams of Donbass on pupae of black flies Odagmia ornata Mg. and Chelocnetha angustitarse Lundstr. occur the larvae of water mites Sperchon setiger S. Thor. and Sperchonopsis sp. n. which pass from pupae to imago during the emergence. The infection extensiveness of adult black flies amounted on the average to 18—20% and intensiveness — to 1—7 larvae. Larvae of water mites were not recorded from pupae and imago of Simulium argyreatum Mg. and of the genus Wilhelmia. Under laboratory conditions parasitism of water mites larvae on hungry adult black flies caused their quicker death (8—22 hours) as compared to noninfected individuals (1 to 2 days).
in Russian
Spatial distribution of fleas (Siphonaptera) in burrows of great gerbil in the south of central Kara-Kums. P. 31-37.
It has been established that only a negligible part of fleas occurs on animals while the main habitats where the greater part of micropopulation is concentrated from April to September are mouth, passages and food chambers situated at a depth up to 60 cm. In March, October, November and December fleas are restricted to the passages of burrows at a depth over 100 cm.
in Russian
The effect of temperature and relative air humidity on the preimaginal development of the flea Ctenophthalmus teres (Siphonaptera). P. 38-46.
The duration of the development and survival of preimaginal stages of fleas at a temperature of 5 to 30° and relative humidity of 60 to 90% was studied. Minimal average duration of the development and the highest survival rate at all stages were registered at a temperature of 20 to 25° and humidity of 85 to 90%. Under these conditions the whole cycle from egg to imago lasts on an average 23 days. The threshold of the development for different stages falls within the limits of 3 to 6°. The duration of the development of all stages was distinctly affected by temperature while the duration of larval development was affected as well by humidity. The survival of larvae was found to be affected by humidity while the survival of individuals in cocoons was considerably affected by temperature.
in Russian
Biological properties of Toxoplasma gondii producing oocysts (Coccidiida). P. 47-55.
Invasional, pathogenic and immunoserological properties of endogenic and exogenic stages of development of two strains of T. gondii were studied on mice, rabbits and chicks. After the parenteral infection cysts and oocysts represented more pathogenic stages. At the peroral infection of animals oocysts were found to be more pathogenic as compared to cysts. The earliest immunological response and the highest titres of antibodies were obtained from animals subjected to peroral administration of oocysts. Trophozoites had weak antigene properties especially after the peroral injection.
in Russian
A new species of udonellids from the coast of East Murman. P. 56-61.
A new species, Udonella murmanica sp. n., a commensal of Caligus curtus Müller, parasite of Gadus morhua L., is described. The new species differs from U. caligorum Johnston, 1835 by a larger size and a number of morphological characters. U. caligorum is assumed to be a collective species. The necessity to revise the family Udonellidae is discussed.
in Russian
Chromosomal disarrangement and immunoreactivity of golden hamsters infected with Opisthorchis felineus. P. 62-68.
Opistorchosis of golden hamsters causes the disarrangement of the number and structure of chromosomes of bone marrow cells 15 days after the infection. Analogous changes take place in man's leucocytes under the influence of water-salt extract from adult trematodes. The injury of the chromosomal apparatus advances with the increasing period of the infection and is coordinated with modified immunoreactivity of the organism.
in Russian
On taxonomy and nomenclature of some representatives of the genus Ascarophis (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae). P. 69-75.
A comparative analysis of morphological and morphometric characters has shown that Ascarophis curilica Zhukov, 1960 is a synonym of the species A. pacifica Zhukov in Spassky et Rakova, 1958. A description and figures of studied specimens are given.
in Russian
On the fauna of argasid ticks from Checheno-Ingushetia (Argasidae). P. 76-78.
Six species of argasid ticks are reported from Checheno-Ingushetia as follows: A. reflexus, A. vulgaris, A. persicus, A. vespertilionis, Al. lahorensis and O. verrucosus. The above species belong to three genera Argas, Alveonasus and Ornithodoros. A. persicus, A. vespertilionis and Al. lahorensis are dominant species amounting in collections to 20.9 and 94.7% . The species A. vulgaris and O. verrucosus are small in number and A. reflexus belongs to rare species.
in Russian
Neomyxobolus olae sp. n., a new species of myxosporidians (Myxosporidia, Neomyxobolidae) of the minnow. P. 78-80.
When studying parasitological material from freshwater fishes of the Crimea collected in the period from 1971 to 1978 a new species of the genus Neomyxobolus was discovered. The description, figure and differential diagnosis are given; the sites of finding and localization are indicated.
in Russian
Cases of hyperparasitism of metacercarians Tetracotyle sp. in pertenites of trematodes. P. 80-83.
Cases of parasitism of metacercarians Tetracotyle sp. in sporocyst Stiygea sp. I and in rediae of echinostomatids are described. Ecological analysis of the facts observed, the description of hyperparasite and "hosts"-sporocysts and rediae are given.
in Russian
Nematodes of the family Hoplolaimidae in western Kazakhstan. P. 83-86.
A new species, Helicotylenchus conicus, and three known species of the family Hoplolaimidae found in the near-root soil of Medicago sativa L. are described. The new species is close to H. australis Siddiqi, 1972, H. cornurus Anderson, 1974, H. conicephalus Siddiqi, 1972, H. digonicus Perry, 1959. The new species differs from the related species in having an isolated narrow-conical labial region and incisures of the lateral area not closing on the tail's termination.
in Russian
The history of Charles Nicoll's discovery of the louse-borne typhus infection ways. P. 87-91.
In 1909 French microbiologist, director of the Pasteur Institute in Tunis Charles Nicolle discovered the ways of the louse-borne typhus infection. With his numerous experiments on apes he proved that body louse is a transmitting agent of louse-borne infection. This great discovery which has formed the basis of modern concepts of the disease epidemiology and led to its profilaxis has become a lasting contribution to the history of medical science.
in Russian
Book review 1. P. 92-94.
Summary is absent.
in Russian
Book review 2. P. 94-96.
Summary is absent.
in Russian
Chronicle 1. P. 97-99.
Summary is absent.
in Russian
Chronicle 2. P. 100.
Summary is absent.
in Russian
Chronicle 3. P. 100-103.
Summary is absent.
in Russian