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Year 1989, Volume 23, Issue 5
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Issue 1
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Certain peculiarities of the distribution of birds infected with haemosporidians (Sporozoa, Haemosporidia) during their autumn migration along flight waves. P. 377-382.
Chaffinches, infected with haemoproteids (Haemoproteidae) and leucocytozoids (Leucocytozoidae), are uniformly distributed in the ranges of each non-equivalent from the point of view of bioenergetics migratory wave. Extensiveness of infection of birds with leucocytozoids in autumn increases reliably at the time of late migratory waves as compared to early ones. The last flight wave, which is observed in the Kurish Spit in the second half of October, consists, in general, of chaffinches which have already gone through the leucocytozoosis. Concentration of infected birds at the end of the species migration flow can be regarded as a peculiar parasitic filter delaying the birds, which have been seriously ill, from flying away to wintering places at the most favourable periods. The thesis on different influence of haemosporidians on energetic balance of birds during spring and autumn migrations is substantiated. Hypothesis has been advanced on the causal relationship between high bird mortality during spring migration and the most high extensiveness and intensity of their infection with haemosporidians.
in Russian
Electron microscopical study of the flagellates Leptomonas jaculum in the midgut of a hemipteran, Nepa cinerea. P. 383-389.
In the midgut of Nepa cinerea, the flagellates Leptomonas jaculum, both attached to the epithelium and lying free in the lumen of the intestine, were studied. An electron microscopic study revealed that the attachment of L. jaculum to the epithelial cell was achieved through the strongly expanded flagellar sheath with irregular outgrowths on its surface. The expanded distal part of the flagellar sheath forms a continuous hemidesmosome with the plasma membrane of the epithelial cell, desmosome-like junctions with the plasmalemma of the parasite's anterior end and some desmosomes with expanded flagella of the adjacent specimens. The flagellum of attached L. jaculum contains a short axoneme, loose fibrillar intraflagellar matrix and lacks a paraxial rod. The flagellum of non-attached L. jaculum has usual form and structure (without enlargements and outgrowths) and is supported by a paraxial rod. The fine structure of the nucleus, the kinetoplast-mitochondrion complex, the Golgi apparatus, the glycosomes, the lipid inclusions, the multimembraned bodies, and some other cell components were studied in both attached and free L. jaculum.
in Russian
Changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of the crop contents of the females Hybomitra nitidifrons confiformis (Diptera, Tabanidae) within 24 hours. P. 390-394.
Analysis of the composition of crop contents in females of H. nitidifrons confiformis, caught on the 4th day in the period of hatching and emergence of the first imagos, was carried out. By the moment of catching all individuals did not complete a single honotrophic cycle, the number of ovarioles in ovaries was, on the average, 722±21, and the primary follicles were at the 2nd stage of development. The method of highly effective liquid chromatography was used. At the moment of attacking the cattle the crop of most individuals contains 0.13 to 8.94 mg of sugars, mostly glucose and fructose, galactose being found in 29% of females. Carbohydrates absorbed by tabanids from nectar are the main source of energy necessary for the active flight and vital activity.
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Peculiarities of the infection of Schizothorax intermedius with Paradiplozoon schizothorazi in the spring. P. 395-398.
Data are given on the distribution of Paradiplozoon schizothorazi on the gills of Schizothorax intermedius. It is shown that with attaining sexual maturity and in connection with egg production diplozoons give preference to different pairs of gills. Physiological state of the host is supposed to affect the developmental cycle of diplozoons. During the calendar year 2 generations of this species were found.
in Russian
Comparative immunochemical characteristics and serological activity of antigens from Cysticercus tenuicollis and Taenia hydatigena. P. 399-406.
Data are given on immunochemical analysis and serological activity of different antigens from larval and imaginal forms of Taenia hydatigena. Considerable heterogenity and close antigenic affinity of the parasite's extracts under study both between each other and with the host's proteins, excluding the antigens from T. hydatigena, which has no common components with the latter, are established. In the homologous system in each extract under study there were recognised no less than 5 to 9 antigenal components. It is shown, however, by the method of adsorption of heterologous antibodies that the number of specific antigens in each of them does not exceed 1 or 2. All antigens happened to be serologically active, but the highest diagnostic efficiency was shown by extracts from scolexes of C. tenuicollis and T. hydatigena. Antiparasitic antibodies were followed by these antigens in the sera of experimentally infected sucking-pigs from the 10th day of the infection. They reached their maximum level on the 24th day and then was observed a gradual fall of the titre of specific antibodies, the level of which by the 115th day did not actually differ from initial values. The highest sensitivity and specificity in the immunoferment reaction under experimental conditions was displayed by the extracts from scolexes of C. tenuicollis.
in Russian
Peculiarities of the biology of the nematode Phaenopsitylenchus laricis (Sphaerularioidea, Phaenopsitylenchidae). P. 407-411.
The life cycle of the nematode Ph. laricis, a parasite of Phaenops guttulata, which develops by alternating parthenogenetic and bisexual generations, is studied. The first generation, the specimens of which have a neotylenchoid organization, reproduces in the larval passages of the host, while the second one, having specimens of spherulariod organization, reproduces in the body cavity of its pupae and imago. Freeliving individuals of both generations of the parasite stand wintering and the infection of Ph. guttulata larvae can take place as before so after wintering. Data are given on the extensity and intensity of the infection of Ph. guttulata with Phaenopsitylenchidae. The data obtained show that Ph. laricis is a highly pathogenic parasite of Ph. guttulata and can participate in the natural regulation of the population abundance of this forest pest.
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Maritrema murmanica sp. n., a new microphallid trematode with aberrant life cycle. P. 412-418.
The infection of the littoral mollusc Littorina saxatilis from the south-western part of the Barents Sea with daughter sporocysts of microphallides with strongly varying contents was recorded. Some individuals contained cercariae embryons and cercariae only, others contained cercariae and developing metacercariae, or cercariae and metacercariae both incysted and unincysted, or cercariae embryons, mature cercariae, developing metacercariae, mature incysted and unincysted metacercariae. The morphology of cercariae and metacercariae was investigated, their differential diagnosis with similar microphallid larvae, whose descriptions are available in literature, was conducted. The discovered form is most similar to the species Maritrema linguilla, from which it differs by a number of morphobiological features.
in Russian
Description of female and larva of the relic species Ixodes ghilarovi (Ixodidae). P. 419-422.
Ixodes (Exopalpiger) ghilarovi was found in 4 separated localities of the Great Caucasus at a height of 1000 to 2200 m above sea level. Female differs from palaearctic I. (Exopalpiger) trianguliceps in 4—4 pairs of setae of the anal valve, shape of scutum, longer setae of alloscutum, more round peritreme, correlation between the length of peritreme longitudinal diameter and the length of longitudinal diameter of the anal ring, presence of auricles and shape of palps. Larva differs from I. trianguliceps in longer setae of alloscutum, longer ventrolateral tooth of 1st palpal joint and longer medial tooth of coxae I.
in Russian
A new species, Simulium (Argentisimulium) dolini sp. n. (Diptera, Simuliidae). P. 423-427.
Female, male and larva of the new species of black flies, Simulium (Argentisimulium) dolini sp. n., are described. By its morphology the species occupies an "intermediate position" between S. nolleri and S. palustre. In the USSR the species was found in wooded and forest-steppe zones of West Ukraine.
in Russian
The rise of block formation ability of plague microbe in the organism of flea. P. 427-429.
During the stay of plague microbe in the organism of flea, under the effect of bactericid factor increases its ability to form the block of proventriculus in these insects. Thus, in fleas infected on white mice, which were infected in a natural way through blocked individuals, the block of proventriculus appears 2 to 3 times as often (59.5 and 34.0%) as in insects (15.02%) infected on animals, which were infected artificially.
in Russian
The effect of synthetic analogue of the juvenile hormone, ether-farnesol, on the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis. P. 429-431.
The authors tested the effect of the analogue of juvenile hormone (AJH), ether-farnesol, synthesized at the Institute of Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of ESSR (the city of Tallin), on immature stages of X. cheopis. When testing the following doses of AJH (0.0025, 0.00025, 0.000025, 0.0000025 ml per lg of substrate, consisting of sand and dry bull blood, for feeding larvae) it was established that the dose of 0.0025 ml/g causes 100% mortality of insects on the 2nd day of the experiment. 10 fold decrease in ether-farnesol dose causes the mortality of the majority of larvae. Only 13.6% of them formed cocoons, which failed to produce mature individuals. A repeated 10 and 100 fold decrease of AJH caused mortality in 50.0 and 46.7% of insects, respectively. The effect of the preparation stipulated the disturbance of the normal course of metamorphosis (changes in the data of phases replacement and the mortality of insects during their moulting).
in Russian
Superpolygonadal cestode, Baylisia supergonoporis sp. n. (Cestoda, Diphyllobothriidae), a parasite of crabeater seal. P. 432-435.
A new species of cestodes from the intestine of crabeater seal, inhabiting the Antarctic waters, is described. A new subfamily, Baylisiinae subfam. n., which includes the species Baylisia baylisi Markowski, 1952, is erected for the new species. The new species is extremely polygonadal. In each proglottide of the strobile of different individuals there are from 149 to 307 sexual complexes. The length of hind proglottides is 4.3. to 18.5 cm. Unlike other polygonadal cestodes, sexual complexes of the described species are arranged in the proglottide in two longitudinal rows, alternating irregularly now from the left, now from the right side. The longitudinal axis of each sexual complex is directed transverse proglottide. Ovaries are groupped along the median line of the proglottide, and genital openings are approximately in the middle of lateral fields, on their ventral surface.
in Russian
On the morphology and biology of the cestode Schistotaenia srivastavai (Cestoda, Amabiliidae), a new member of the fauna of the USSR. P. 436-439.
In 1979 to 1981 larvae of the cestode Schistotaenia srivastavai (Cestoda, Amabiliidae), a new member of the fauna of the USSR, were first found in 8 species of damsel flies (Odonata, Zygoptera) from water bodies of the Kustanai (North Kazakhstan) and Tselinogradsk (Central Kazakhstan) districts. Adult cestodes were found in the red-necked grebe (Podiceps griseigena). Cysticercoid is described.
in Russian
Cultivation of adults of Microphallus pygmaeus (Trematoda, Microphallidae) in vitro. P. 440-443.
Adult forms of Microphallus pygmaeus were reared from metacercariae on three similar artificial media. Morphological description of hermaphrodite specimens at different stages of maritogony and sexual breeding was given. Maximum period of maintenance in vitro for M. pygmaeus was 9 days.
in Russian
Infective larvae of nematodes (the order Spirurida) from flies. P. 443-448.
A key for the identification of infective larvae is presented which has proved useful for epizootological studies.
in Russian
The effect of different concentrations of surface-active substances on the content of dry remainder of haemolymph of Planorbaris corneus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Bulinidae), infected with parthenites of Notocotylus attenuatus (Trematoda). P. 449-452.
The effect of different concentrations of surface-active substances (synthetic detergent "Lotos") on the content of dry remainder of haemolymph of Planorbarius corneus, infected with parthenites of trematodes, was studied. In non-infected animals the mass of dry remainder increases with SD of 10 mg.l-1 and decreases with SD of 50 and 90 mg.l-1. In individuals, infected with parthenites of trematodes, the mass of haemolymph dry remainder falls down with all concentrations of the toxicant.
in Russian
Chronicle. P. 453-454.
Summary is absent.
in Russian