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Year 1991, Volume 25, Issue 1
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Issue 1
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Tissue level of organization of the host-parasite system. P. 3-12.
The paper represents a review and analysis of different trends in the evolution of tissue parasitism. Data are given on different ways of departure of parasites from the host's immune response, inhibition of its immunity, antigenic mimicry, capsule formation. The paper considers in detail the mechanism of origin, structure and functions of capsules, which are induced by various groups of parasites in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Uniformity in the structure of capsules, which are formed in different host-parasite systems, suggests the universality of mechanisms ensuring their formation.
in Russian
The microsporidium Pulicispora xenopsyllae gen. n., sp. n. trom fleas of the genus Xenopsylla. P. 13-19.
The ultrastructure of the polysporous microsporidium Pulicispora xenopsyllae gen. n., sp. n. from Xenopsylla fleas is studied. Stages of late rnerogony and sporogony are limited by the amorphous, then double—layered coat of sporoforous vesicle. There is one type of sporogony. In the beginning of sporogony there is diplocarya. Sporophorous vesicles contain 8 to 32 spores. Oval-cylindrical spores have one horseshoe-shaped nucleus, large lamellar polaroplast and anisofilar polar tube. The number of thick and thin coiles of the tube is different: 5+3.5, 6+3.5, 7+3. Sizes of spores are 5.7 X 2.8 mkm (from X. skrjabini) and 4.6 X 3.0 mkm (from X. hirtipes).
in Russian
New data on karyotype of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae). P. 20-26.
Diploid number of chromosomes of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum was determined in 2010 cells of parthenites detected in 60 specimens of the molluscs Lymnaea palustris, L. corvus and 49 specimens of L. stagnalis. Karyometric analysis was carried out in 44 karyotypes made up from photographs of metaphase plate. Karyotype of the above species of trematodes includes 20 elements. Chromosome complex of parthenites (from L. palustris and L. corvus) consists of 2 pairs of acrocentric, 3 pairs of subtelocentric, 2 pairs of submetacentric and 3 pairs of the smallest metacentric chromosomes. In the karyotype of D. pseudospathaceum from L. stagnalis the third pair of elements belongs to subtelo-acrocentric type, the ninth being formed by submetacentric elements of genome. Microchromosomes and the elements of heteromorphism have not been detected.
in Russian
Ectoparasites of bats from the Far East of the USSR. P. 27-38.
6 species of fleas (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae), 7 species of flies (Diptera, Nycteribiidae), 17 species of gamasid mites (Aceosejidae, Macronyssidae, Spinturnicidae) and 1 species of argasid ticks (Argasidae) were collected from 11 species of 200 Chiroptera. Data are given on the adaptation of ectoparasites to species of bats in the Far East of the USSR.
in Russian
Arthropods of the nest complex in colonies of sand martin in West Siberia and South Kazakhstan. P. 39-47.
The paper presents the results of investigations conducted in southern tundra, northern forest-tundra, southern taiga, forest-steppe and steppe in the period 1981 —1987 and archives materials on northern taiga, southern forest-steppe and semi-desert. The analysis of the material has revealed that in all the zones the fauna of arthropods in the nests of sand martin is represented by specialized to a nest and (or) bird forms, absolutely dominating in the community, and by occasional and temporary inhabitants. The specific variety of the latter exceeds in the ranges of the zone that of characteristic species but the quantity, with few exceptions, is low. The composition and dynamics of the number of arthropods in sand martin's nests is defined by the conditions of microclimate in the nests, peculiarities of the natural zone and the nest isolation degree from the environment. Further north the composition of arthropods in martins' nests grows poor and the community structure gets simplified. In the external point, beyond the Polar Circle, the composition of arthropods is represented by widely specialized species (excluding fleas) which, however, due to nests isolation, form their own communities.
in Russian
On the necessity of unification of parasitological terminology. P. 48-52.
The analysis of the diversity and discrepancy of some parasitological concepts and terms concerning forms of parasitism as well as different categories of parasites and hosts is given. Their unified versions are suggested.
in Russian
On the estimation of parasitological situation in the region of location of the salmon farm (Kislaya Inlet, Barents Sea). P. 53-55.
36 species of parasites were found in cod, coalfish, goby and dab mostly often occuring in the region of location of the salmon farm. One case of infection with Lecithaster gibbosus and Anisakis simplex was recorded in salmon reared in the farm. Parasitological situation in the investigated region is comparatively satisfactory. However, 13 marine widely specific parasites can invade salmon. Of them Myxidium oviforme, Anisakis simplex l., Hysterothylacium aduncum and Echinorhynchus gadi are potentially dangerous for artificially reared fishes.
in Russian
Reproductive activity of Trichinella spiralis at early stages of cultivation in artificial nutrient media. P. 56-58.
Reproductive activity of mature Trichinella spiralis was studied during its cultivation in three nutrient media. Most active hatching of Trichinella larvae was observed in Erl's saline, less active in Eagle's medium and in the lactalbumin hydrolyzate medium. In Erl's medium the hatching of larvae accounted for 80% of their total mass for the first four hours of the experiment and the absolute number of larvae was 2.5 to 10 times greater than that in the two other media. The use of Erl's medium makes it possible to obtain a considerable number of Trichinella larvae in 4 to 6 hours of cultivation.
in Russian
Жизненный цикл Echinochasmus (Echinochasrnus) suifunensis sp. n. (Trematoda: Echinostomidae) из Приморского края. P. 58-63.
As a result of studies of the life cycle of Echinochasmus suifunensis sp. n. it has been established that molluscs of the genus Juga are the first intermediate host of this species, freshwater fishes are the second intermediate host and Anas plathyrhynchos dom. is a definitive host (in the experiment).
in Russian
Two types of cercariae of the trematode Phyllodistomum elongatum (Fasciolata, Gorgoderidae) from Pisidium amnicum. P. 63-68.
Two types of cercariae of the trematode Phyllodistomum elongatum (large and small ones) are described. Typical of the species are large larvae. Small cercariae differ from large ones in having poor swimming activity, short life span, lower extensiveness and intensity of incystment in molluscs.
in Russian
Neometadidymozoon tuberosum sp. n. (Didymozoidae, Trematoda), a parasite of Priacanthidae from the Indian and Pacific Oceans. P. 69-73.
Description, figures and differential diagnosis of a new species of didymozoids, Neometadidymozoon tuberosum sp. n. found on the internal surface of the gill cover, gill arch and in the body cavity of Priacanthidae in the Indian and Pacific Oceans are given.
in Russian
On ecology and biology of Eurycestus avoceti (Cestoda, Dilepididae). P. 73-76.
Dissection of 30 individuals of Recurvirostra avocetta L. (Central Kazakhstan, Tengyz Lake) has shown that they all were infected with cestodes Eurycestus avoceti Clark, 1954. Examination of Artemia salina inhabiting this waterbody has also shown that they were spontaneously infected with cysticercoids (to 2.8%). Repeated cases of exchange between Recurvirostra avocetta L. and Phoenicopterus roseus Pall., nesting on Tengyz Lake, with specific to them species of cestodes (Eurycestus avoceti and Flamingolepis dolguschini) has been noted that results from the community of feeding places and habitats of these birds.
in Russian
Chronicle. P. 77-80.
Summary is absent.
in Russian
Cestodes of the genus Diorchis from the collection of the Helminthological Laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences. P. 81-86.
The work deals with the species of the genus Diorchis and the volume of the material being kept in the collection of the Helmirithological Laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The collection comprises the material obtained during many All-Union helminthological expeditions organized in different regions of the country and includes almost the full species fauna of the given taxon in the USSR.
in Russian