New problems in Myxozoa investigations. P. 369-374.
The life cycle scheme of Myxosoma cerebralis, an organism which was formerly known as a representative of separate class of Myxozoa — Actinosporea, had been proposed by Wolf and Markiw (1984) concerning a role of intermediate hosts (Oligochaeta). This point of view was supported by several investigators. On the other hand there are a few new works, in which the direct cycle has been proved for some myxosporeans species. This discordance in experimental data suggests the necessity of an experimental verification of life cycle in different Myxozoa species. It is necessary to understand, that to accept the assumption of two host cycle scheme even for a part of Myxozoa, it would require a great change in taxonomy of the Myxozoa phylum, would require a revision of theoretical views on the evolution of Myxozoa, on the time of their representatives had appeared, on the adaptation of parasites to the biology of their hosts, a revision of profilactic and treatment methods against myxosporeosises. An attempt to estimate the new "combined" cycle on the basis of cytological and karyological data has been made. The immediate and long-term prospects (i. e. the application of cytological and molecular-biological methods to establish the genetic relationships of definite Actinosporea and Myxosporea species) are discussed.
A ramicerc in the life cycle of three species of the genus Aploparaksis (Cestoda) — parasites of waders. P. 375-384.
The life cycle of three worm species, Aploparaksis orientalis Spassky et Bobova, 1961, A. penetrans (Clerc, 1902) and A. rissae Schiller, 1951, parasiting on waders in North-West Chukotka was studied in experiments. Metacestodes belong to the morphological modification of cysticercoids referred to as ramicerc. A postembryonal development of all examined species goes on by similar scheme with a few variations in intermedial hosts, which are oligochaetes of different taxa.
The first data on the biology of Philonema sibirica (Nematoda: Philometridae) — a parasite from the body cavity of whitefishes. P. 385-390.
Philonema sibirica was found in the body cavity of whitefishes in one of lakes in the North-West of Chukotka. Its development was studied in intermedial hosts. Cyclops gr. scutifer and Heterocope borealis were basic intermedial hosts of the nematode. The latter molted twice in the haemocoel of copepods. Three larval stages are described.
The influence of the mermetid Paramermis tabanivora on the lipid state of horse-fly larvae. P. 391-395.
The lipid state of horse-fly larvae was studied by means of thinlayer and gas-liquid chromatographies. The significant decrease of lipid content took place in larvae of horse-flies infected with mermetids. The decrease of lipid contents in the body of infected larvae was put into effect mainly by the decrease of stock lipids (triacylglycerines) and in lesser degree by structure lipids (phospholipids). Changes in the ratio of some phospholipid fractions have been observed. A lower content of the phosphotidilcholine and lower content of the lysophosphatidilcoline were observed in infected larvae of horse-flies. Also, there are differences in a fat-acid content. In the infected larvae the relative content of indispensable fat acids (namely arachidone, linole and linolene acids) is decreased, and the content of the saturated fat acids (palmetine, oleine and stearine acids) is increased.
Adenosine triphosphateses of trematodes parasitizing in the cattle and effect of some anthelmintic preparations. P. 396-403.
Activities and properties of adenosine triphosphatases in mitochondrial and microsomal fractions of trematodes Eurytrema pancreaticum and Calicophoron ijimai were studied. The highest ATPase activity was observed in mitochondrial fractions. The effect of anthelmintic preparations on activity of enzyme was investigated. Trichlorophene, bitionol, oxinide, G-937 and G-1028 turned out to be the most effective preparations.
Trematode invasion and sulphate zinc impact upon physics-chemical properties of haemolymph of coil-flats of the genus Planorbarius (Mollusca, Bulinidae). P. 404-409.
A trematode invasion and an impact of different concentrations (200, 500, 800 mg/l) of sulphate zinc on physics-chemical properties of haemolymph of coil-flats have been investigated. Both non-infected and molluscs infected with the concentration 200 mg/l got an acute poisoning, a depression stage. With the concentration 200—800 mg/l the haemoglobin security of the total body, and soft body and the active reaction of haemolymph were progressively decreased. A clinic toxication picture in the individuals toxicated with the concentration 500—800 mg/l was more patent and a pathological process was completed with a lethal end much earlier than in case of the animals, which were free of invasion.
New taxa of the feather mite subfamily Pteronyssinae (Analgoidea: Avenzoariidae) from passerine birds of Vietnam. P. 410-418.
Three new feather mite species and one new subgenus are described basing on materials of the mite subfamily Pteronyssinae, which had been collected from different passerine birds in the Vietnam. The subgenus Holonyssoides subgen. n. is established within the genus Pteronyssoides Hull, and it differs from the nominal subgenus by the greatly reduced ventral membrane of tarsus I in both sexes and by big one-piece hysteronotal shield in females. Diagnoses of the new and nominal subgenera are given. Three new feather mite species are described as follows: Pteronyssoides (Holonyssoides) timaliae sp. n. from Red-capped Timalia Timalia pileata (Timaliidae), P. (H.) pycnonoti sp. n. from Black-capped Bulbul Pycnonotus aurigaster (Pycnonotidae), Sturnotrogus albicolli sp. n. from White-throated Fantailed Flycatcher Rhipidura albicollis (Muscicapidae).
A range of attack, distance and character of daily flying of horse-flies of the genus Hybomitra (Diptera: Tabanidae). P. 419-426.
The experiments on the capture-recapture of horse-flies of the genus Hybomitra at different distance from a single pasturing cow have been conducted in the Pskov region in fields with sections of forest. A chaotic flying away of horse-flies was observed; presence or absence of a direct visibility of an object did not influence on the number of horse-flies coming to it from a distance more than 150 m. The search flight of horse-flies has a complicated trajectory, that increases the probability to find a host in 2.5 times approximately, as compared with a straightforward one. In the case of distance less than 50 meters a quota of horse-flies flying towards a cow can reach 100% (this conclusion derives from the assumption that all horse-flies, which have discovered host, are sure to attack it). Mean value of daily flying about is approximately 1 km, maximum is about 2 km.
On the discovery of Ixodes persulcatus tick larvae (Parasitiformes: Ixodidae) associated with necrophilous piophilid flies (Diptera: Piophilidae) in South Yamal. P. 427-429.
In course of mass collecting of necrophilous flies by means of cage traps with a bites of dead small mammals in South Yamal, at latitude 67° North, 3400 dipterans were caught and examined on mite phoresy. Among them two piophilid specimens with two attached Ixodes persulcatus larvae have been recovered.
Gordionus annamensis sp. n. (Nematomorpha: Parachordodidae) — a new species of gordian worm from Central Vietnam. P. 429-432.
Gordionus annamensis sp. n. been found in free living state in mountain stream in Khanh-Hoa province of Vietnam is described. A morphology of cuticular surface has been studied under light and SEM microscopes. G. annamensis is similar to G. kaschgaricus Camerano, 1897 from Northern Asia but differs from it by the shape and measurements of areola, and by tail dimensions of male.