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Year 1996, Volume 30, Issue 3
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Issue 1
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A place of ixodid ticks (Ixodidae) in forest ecosystems. P. 193-204.
The ticks Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus are the dominant tick species in the forest ecosystems of the temporary zone of Euroasia. They occur within their areals in every types of forests except arid and marsh biotopes. The density of tick populations per square unit exceed many times those of dominant species of mammals and birds living in the same ecosystems. In optimal conditions the abundance of hungry larvae per 1 square km varies from hundreds of thousands to several millions, that of nymphes -from thousands to several hundreds of thousands, and that of imago counts several thousands. The number of larvae and numphes simultaneously feeding on rodents or shrews usually not exceeds several specimens. However, in case of 50-100% infection rate of hosts and long seasonal period of parasitizig the greater part of individuals in the main host population is repeatedly attacked by ticks and therefore supports a significant number of parasites. Despite of annual fluctuations of ticks and hosts abundance the parasitary systems formed by them are characterized by high stability in time and space. The high resistence of the tick parasitary systems to the influence of unfavorable factors is caused by several independent and duplicated systems of tick's interaction with their hosts and environment. The ticks and their hosts together with agents of the tick borne encephalitis, Lime desease, babesiosis and other trans-missive infections form the three component parasitary systems of higher rank. These systems are referred to as the natural foci of deseases and their geographical distribution in general lines coincide with species areals of I. ricinus and I. persulcatus.
in Russian
Geographic variation of adults of Ixodes persulcatus (Ixodidae). An experience of morphometric data bases application. P. 205-215.
The aim of the article is to estimate geographic variation of Ixodes persulcatus adults as a whole. Intraspecific variation of the females and males of Ixodes persulcatus Schulze, 1930 has been studied in eight geographical localities ("populations") of its distribution range (fig. 1.). The distance between western and eastern localities is more than 8700 km, between nothern and southern ones it is approximately 2900 km. Twenty five to thirty specimens of each sex were studied in each geographical locality. The following eleven characters were used (fig. 2, 3): legth of scutum (conscutum), width of scutum (conscutum), length of anal ring, width of anal ring, length of spiracular plate, width of spiracular plate, length of gnathosoma, width of gnathosoma, length of II—III articles of palps, length of hypostome, length of tarsus I. The multidimensional scaling method by means of software package SYSTAT was used for estimation of relationships between populations on the basis of morphometrical data.The differences between the populations were revealed only from absolute sizes of organs, whereas their propotions (i. e. shape) were constant in all geographical localities. Fig. 4, 1 shows that females from localities G (Primorski Territory) and C (Tien-Shan Mountains) occupy extreme positions. Fig. 4, 2 shows that males from localities G (Primorski Territory) and D (SW Altai Mountains) on the one hand and A, B (European) on the other one occupy extreme positions. Locality C (Tien-Shan Mountains) is similar to F (Western Sayan Mountains) and to European (A, B) whereas females of locality C differ from A, B and F. Taking into account the partial discrepancy of relationships between populations in sexes we have united the data on corresponding characters of both sexes in the aggregate data base (fig. 4, 3). This was possible owing to the multidimensional scaling method. Fig. 4, 3 shows isolated position of the population G (Primorski Territory), specimens of which are the largest in sizes. The populations D (SW Altai Mountains) and H (Sakhalin Island) are morphometrically most similar to the population G. The population C (Tien-Shan Mountains) is represented of the smallest specimens. The European populations (A and B) are closer to C. The largest sizes are typical of the populations G and D associated with relict Tertiary landscapes of Primorski Territory and SW Altai with which areas of ecological optimum of I. persulcatus coincide. The smallest sizes are observed in the European populations (A, B) near the north-western boundary of the distribution range of the species, as well as in the Alpine population of Tien-Shan Mountains, near the upper vertical boundary of the distribution range (2000-3000 m above sea level). Climatic conditions of the habitat in these areas are similar to those of the north-western part of the distribution range of I. persulcatus.
in Russian
On a validity of the feather mite genus Plicalioptes (Acarina: Analgoidea: Alloptidae). P. 216-222.
The feather mite genus Plicalloptes Dubinin, 1955 formerly considered as a synonim of the genus Alloptes Canestrini, 1879 is restored, a new diagnosis of the genus and a redescription of the type species Plicalloptes plegadis Dubinin, 1955 from the Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus (Ciciniiformes: Threskiornithidae) are given. A key to Plicalloptes species associated with the ibises (Ciconiiformes: Threskiornithidae) is proposed.
in Russian
The system „host - conditionally pathogenous protozoan". The frequency of mixed infections (Pneumocystis and Cytomegalovirus) in children living in areas polluted with radionucleids. P. 223-228.
The purpose of our study was to determine the influence of ionized radiation onto the frequency of mixed infections (P. carinii and Cytomegalovirus) in children inhabitants of the settlements affected with radionuclids after Chernobyl accident. Two groups of children were under survey. 1) 103 inhabitans of Novosybkov (Bryansk region, Russia) and 38 patients under observation in Moscow paediatric hospital from another affected villages (5-15 Ci/km2) were examined serologically by the diagnostic system „Pneumo-test" and „Cytomegatest" (Nyarmedic, Moscow, Russia). Cut-off titers for P. carinii were IgM - 1: 200, IgG - 1 : 20, for CMV IgG - 1 : 200. 2) Retrospective study of 563 patients with respiratory pathology and 1809 died children after acute pneumonia during 14 years period. Sputum and mucus of the patients taken by laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy were studied for P. carinii by microscopy, the section of lungs - histologically. The sediments of urina and saliva were examined for CMV by microscopy and section of different organs - histologically. Examinations were performed by one and the same highly qualified pathologist. The results of the study were as follows. 1. Of 563 children examinated for both P. carinii and CMV 186 (33%) were positive for P. carinii and 189 (33.7%) for CMV. Both pathogens were found in 46 children (8.2%), mainly among 1-2 and 6-12 month age (8.5 and 14.5%, respectively). Retrospective analysis of 1809 autopsy results shows, that in 73 cases (4%) were found only P. carinii, in 200 (11.1%) only CMV and in 24 (1.3%) two pathogens simultaneously. 2. Of 103 children surveyed serologically P. carinii monoinfection was found in 7 (8.8%), CMV - in 25 (24.3%) and coinfection in 55 (53.4%). Estimated frequency for coinfection (if combination of two infections were to be accidental) should equal 46.8%. In control group consisted of 30 children from clean Moscow region the rate of coinfection was 16.7% and estimated rate 15% (the difference between empiric and estimated rates are statistically significant, t >4). Thus it is clear that the rate of coinfection of P. carinii and CMV is always high either in clean or in affected by ionized radiation regions. This rate determinated by microscopy was higher in patients (8.2%) than in autopsy cases (1.3%) and much higher in children from affected region (53.3%) than in control (16.7%), being determined serologically. Seoarate interest present geometric mean titers found in the cases of coinfection. The titer for anti-CMV IgG in children from affected regions was rather high (5884 vs. 1246 in control) and on the contrary titers for anti-P. carinii IgM and IgG were lower than in control (512 vs. 1245 and 58 vs. 159 respectively). We are incline to interprete the results of our study as evidence of increased susceptibility to P. carinii and CMV in those children whose immune system was supressed by premorbid factors or ionized radiation and peculiar symbiotic relationships of P. carinii and CMV resulting in enhancement of their infectiousness.
in Russian
The fine structure of the male reproductive system and genital atrium of the bat parasite Allassogonoporus amphoraeformis (Trematoda: Allassogonoporidae). P. 229-235.
The male reproductive system of Allassogonoporus amphoraeformis includes two testes, two vasa efferentia, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct with pars prostatica, cirrus tube and accessory glands. Vas deferens and cirrus sac are absent. Testes are surrounded by thin basement lamina and sparse muscle layer. Two types of cells are evident within the testes: germinal and somatic supporting cells located in peripheral region of gonades. The male reproductive ducts except cirrus tube are lined with flat epithelial cells joined by septate desmosomes. Basement lamina around epithelium is underlined by the only circular muscle layer in vasa efferentia and seminal vesicle; and by circular and longitudinal muscle layers in ejaculatory duct and cirrus tube. In seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct (including pars prostatica) luminal plasma membranes of epithelial cells form elongate lamellae. These lamellae joined by numerous anastomoses occupy almost the whole lumen of ejaculatory duct. A bundle of cilia was revealed at the point where vasa efferentia open into seminal vesicle. A. amphoraeformis has two types of unicellular prostate glands. The glands of one type open into seminal vesicle, the glands of another type open into pars prostatica. Cirrus tube and genital atrium are lined with thin aspinose tegument. Tegument cytoplasm contains specific rod-shaped secretory granules produced by special subtegumental cells. The lining of genital atrium is penetrated by ducts of unicellular glands. Ciliated sensory papillae were found in the atrium epithelium and in tegument around the genital pore.
in Russian
Urceolaria kozloffi, an ectocommensal of brachiopods Hemithyris psittacea from the White Sea. P. 236-243.
The fine structure of Urceolaria kozloffi Bradbury, 1970 (fam. Urceolariidae), an ectocommensal of brachiopods Hemithyris psittacea has been investigated with the use of transmission (ТЕМ) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. Compared with literary data on the structure of ciliates of the family Trichodinidae, the result of reseach has shown the absence of principal differences in the organization of urceolariids and trichodinids. The body of U. kozloffi is barrel-shaped (80-50 mkm). Adoral spiral of cilia which consists of polykinets and haplokinets, describe a circuit of 400°. The aboral ciliature consists of three ciliated girdles: the upper, the middle and the lower. The kinetosomes of the upper girdle are organized in one row. They produce massive long marginal cirri which are directed upward and orientated in parallel to the body surface. The middle girdle is situated below the marginal cirri. Its kinetosomes form 9 rows and arranged in a chess-board fashion. The lower girdle is situated directly above the border membrane. Its kinetosomes form one row. The girdles are separated from each other by septums. Between the lower and the middle girdles a short and thick septum is located. Its alveolar layer is wellpronounced. No supporting structures of microtubules organized in rows have been observed. Between the middle and the upper girdles a larger septum is situated, below the alveolar layer of which a row of microtubules is located. Well-discemable filamentous roots leave the kinetosomes in the middle and the lower girdles. They are connected with the skeletal elements of the sucker. The adhesive disk is fastened with the skeletal elements of the cytoplasm: with a ring of denticles and radial stripes. The number of denticles in the ring varies from 12 to 14 (n = 50). The denticles are thin, smooth, 5-10 mkm long and 2 mkm wide. The rings diametre is 14-17 mkm. There are about 7 radial stripes (6-10) for each denticle, forming the radially lineated sucker's periphery. Radial stripes are connected with more delicate and numerous pins of the border membrane which forms a border between the adhesive disk and trochal ciliature. Macronucleus is H-shaped, micronucleus is oval and lies in the vicinity of one of the macronucleus branches. U. kozloffi occurs on the tentacles of the lophophore of H. psittacea brachiopods. The member of urceolariids makes up to several hundred of specimens. 112 brachiopods were dissected; out of this number 61 were infected and the rest 51 were not. Correlative analysis between the brachiopods' size and their infection rate has shown (r = 0.5475, p < 0.05) that the older the host the more probable his infection by urceolariids is. Experiments on jount keeping of sterile and infected brachiopods has demonstrated the absence of effective transmission mechanism of ciliate from one host to the other.
in Russian
An influence of different magnesium sulphate concentrations on physical and chemical characteristics of Planorbarius haemolymph (Mollusca: Bulinidae) in a normal state and under trematode infection. P. 244-249.
The changing of physical and chemical characteristics of Planorbarius corneus haemolymph under the influence of different magnesium sulphate concentrations (2000, 5000, 8000 mg/1) were observed. The volume of haemolimph increased, while its pH changed from low acid to neutral or alkaline. The increase of toxin concentration caused the decrease of haemoglobin concentration in the haemolymph and provision with haemoglobin the total body and soft tissues. These changings were more distinctly expressed in individuals infected with the echinostome trematodes (low and mean rate of infection) than in individuals free of parasites.
in Russian
The microsporidiosis of the crickets Gryllus bimaculatus (Gryllidae) caused by the microsporidia Nosema grylli (Nosematidae). P. 250-262.
The data on the location of the microsporidia Nosema grylli in the host body and its influence on the cricket host Gryllus bimaculatus are given.
in Russian
On a taxonomic separation of Anoplocephaloides spp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) with the serial alteration of the genital apertures. P. 263-269.
The mutual dispositions of the genital apertures in the anoplocephalidean strobila and their taxonomical significance were considered. The irregular alternations of single genital apertures from the alternations of its seria on the proglottid margins could be distinguished. The serial alternation as an intermediate type in the transformation from the irregular to unilateral dispositions of the genital apertures were considered. The conclusion about the Anoplocephaloides spp. with the serial alternations of genital apertures as a separate taxon was presented. The validity of the genus Gallegoides was renewaled. New genus Paranoplocephaloides gen. n. and a new species P. schachmatovae sp. n. from the voles Microtus oeconomus were described. Diagnoses on these taxa were given. A new combination Paranoplocephaloides rauschi comb. n. was designed.
in Russian
Two species of the genus Cephaloidophora (Eugregarinida: Cephaloidophoridae) - parasites of Black Sea crabs. P. 270-274.
Two species of the genus Cephaloidophora Mawrodiadi, 1908 from the Black Sea decapods were found. C. rhithropanopei sp. n. was found in the gut lumen of Rhithropanopeus harrisi tridentata and C. conformis - in the Pachygrapsus marmoratus (it was found in the Black Sea for the first time). The descriptions of the gregarinids, information about prevalence and intensity infections are given.
in Russian
Pseudascarophis tropica sp. n. (Nematoda: Spirurina) - parasite of South Chine Sea fishes. P. 274-276.
The description, figures and differential diagnosis of the new nematode Pseudascarophis tropica sp. n. from the fish Parupeneus chrysopleuron are given.
in Russian
Chronicle 1. P. 277-279.
Summary is absent.
in Russian
Chronicle 2. P. 280.
Summary is absent.
in Russian