Host specificity of homoxenous trypanosomatids. P. 3-17.
Some problems in a correct using of the term "host specificity" for parasitic protozoans and specifically for the trypanosomatids are discussed. Results of investigation the host specificity of the trypanosomatids obtained by traditional methods are summarized. Host specificity data of some insect-associated trypanosomatids based on the identification of parasites by means of molecular methods is discussed. The subjectivity is an immanent distinctive feature of host specificity investigation in parasitic protozoans — trypanosomatids, especially in parasites of insects and plants. There is a vicious circle, when the conclusions about specificity are related with the necessity of taxonomic identification of the parasites during the process of biodiversity and ecological studies. The taxonomic position of parasite is often determined based on a data of observed hosts specificity. This is quite common in cases, when reliable morphological characters are absent, and it indeed takes place in the homoxenous trypanosomatids. The using of molecular markers only allows to reliably identify and compare the parasites, without involving the properly taxonomic data, and finally to make more objective conclusions about their host specificity. A crucial question in this kind of investigation is an obtaining of adequate and wide set of laboratory cultures (isolates) correctly reflecting the diversity of the hosts. It is always necessary to take in attention a possibility of occasional infections, which could misrepresent obtained results. About 50 cultures isolated from different hosts (mostly Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and places (mostly North Russia) have been examined by means of RAPD, UP-PCR, MLEE and cross DNA hybridization. Some of them were placed in rRNA-based molecular phylogeny. As it was found out, none natural groups of homoxenous trypanosomatids (groups of similar genomes) demonstrated a clear preferential distribution on certain insect taxon of any taxonomic rank, — species, genera, family and even order. It is postulated that the host specificity of insect-associated trypanosomatids is extremely wide.
Interrelationships of ticks Ixodes persulcatus and tick-borne encephalitis virus with the red vole (Clethrionomys rutilus) in Western Siberia. P. 18-30.
Percentage of animals with antigemagglutitnins against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus. We discuss the role of demographic groups of voles as tick's hosts and their participation in the maintenance of TBE causative agent population. The estimation of spontaneous TBE infection rate in summer as well as in winter and early spring seasons, which have been made using a set of molecular-biological, serological and virological methods, demonstrates that a high proportion of red voles maintain non-pathogenic TBE causative agent over a long time, presumably, in the form of persistent infection.
New species of rhinonyssid mites of the genus Ptilonyssus (Gamasina: Rhinonyssidae) from passeriformes of Russia and neighbouring countries. P. 31-46.
Eight new species of the genus Ptilonyssus (Berl. et Troues.) (Gamasina: Rhinonyssidae) from nasal cavities of the passeriformes from territory of the former USSR are described: P. ammomani sp. n. from Ammomanus deserti (Alaudidae) collected in Turkmenistan; P. spini sp. n. from Spinus spinus (Fringillidae) of Kaliningrad district (Russia); P. ripariae sp. n. from Riparia riparia (Hirundinidae) and P. acanthopneustes sp. n. from Phylloscopus borealis (Sylviidae) collected in Tjumen district (Russia); P. pyrrhulinus sp. n. from Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Fringillidae) and P. anthi sp. n. from Anthus trivialis (Motacillidae) of Rjazan district; P. sylviicola sp. n. from Sylviae communis (Sylviidae) collected in Tatarstan; P. cyanosylviae sp. n. from Cyanosylvia svecica (Turdidae) collected from Novosibirsk district.
To diagnostics of Hyalomma (Hyalomma) aegyptium (Acari: Ixodidae). P. 47-59.
The diagnostic characters of larval, nymphal and adult Hyalomma aegyptium (L., 1758) based on specimens from the territory of most part of the area are given. In the diagnoses of immature stages, was used the characters, which were formerly tested by the author for diagnostics of other Hyalomma species occuring in the former USSR. Commonly used characters and those which were revealed by the author as useful for the majority of Euhyalomma Filippova, 1984 and Hyalommina Schulze, 1919 species, have been used in the diagnoses of male and female. Differential diagnosis of Hyalomma aegyptium. Female: genital orifice as wide arch with straight posrerior margin (fig. 2, 5); vestibular part of vagina funnel-like, greatly swollen (fig. 2, 5); setae of alloscutum stick-like, tapering in apical one (figs 2, 3, 4); second segment of palps with proximal narrowing (figs 3, 1, 2); spurs of coxae I widely separated, triangular, wide, subequal in size (fig. 3, 5). Male: any grooves of conscutum absent, except short and pit-like cervical ones (fig. 4); punctation sparce and impressive (fig. 4); adanal shields short and wide, without inner branch, posterior part widened, anteromedian margin straight (fig. 5, 4); spurs of coxae I widely separated, triangular, wide, subequal in size (fig. 6, 5). Nymph: posteromedian setae of alloscutum stick-like and, as a rule, with indentated apices (fig. 7, 2); spurs of coxae I large, median spur as equilateral triangule and shorter than lateral one (fig. 7, 8); spurs of coxae II—IV well developed, with acute apices (fig. 7, 8). Larva: posterior part of scutum (behind the eyes) heavy elongated, its apex straight, postero-lateral incisions weakly developed (fig. 8, 1); spurs of coxae I as equilateral triangule in shape and with rounded apices, spurs of coxae II—III very large (fig. 8, 5).
Morphology and distribution of Salmincola stellatus (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) from the Sakhalin taimen Parahucho perryi (Salmonidae) from Promorye. P. 60-68.
The parasitic copepod Salmincola stellatus Markewitsch, 1936 is reported from the Sakhalin taimen Parahucho perryi which were collected in Primorye (Amgu River and Velikaja Kema River, october, 1998), near the type locality of this species copepod. The copepods were allocated in the buccal cavity of the fishes. Morphological peculiarities of female, host specific, geographical distribution of this poorly studied copepod species are briefly discussed. Description were based on the original material. S. stellatus was not found on the species of the another salmonid genera — Brachymystax, Hucho, Oncorhynchus, Salvelinus, Thymallus.
Infection of the mollusc Littorina saxatilis with parthenites of trematodes and their impact onto a shell form: analysis of populations inhabiting the littoral shore of the White Sea. P. 69-86.
12 rocky shore populations of Littorina saxatilis from three islands of Chupa Inlet (Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea) were examined for infection with trematodes. Morphometric characters (6 indexes of the shell and aperture shape) of molluscs were investigated for all these populations. Exposed and sheltered sites were considered at every island and high and low littoral samples were fulfiled at every site. Seven species of trematodes, Podocotyle atomon, Cryptocotyle lingua, Renicola sp., Himasthla sp., Microphallus piriformes, M. pygmaeus, M. pseudopygmaeus, were found. Uneven distribution of trematodes was confirmed by log-linear analysis. Sheltered populations of L. saxatilis have the greater infection prevalence than exposed ones. This is due to the heavy infection with M. piriformes and M. pygmaeus. The prevalences by these trematodes are up to 52.97% and 27.16% respectively in sheltered populations of the host. The prevalence of M. piriformes tend to be higher at the upper shore level of sheltered sites. In a contrast, the prevalence of M. pygmaeus is significantly higher at the low part of such sites. Factor analysis shows a significant association of the indices of L. saxatilis shell shape with three factors. The first one is associated with the "elongation" of a shell and reveals L. saxatilis from the exposed rocky shore to be more elongated than the molluscs from sheltered sites. The second one is connected with the "aperture shape" index. There is an association of this factor with the shore level position of samples. The third factor reflects the affect of trematodes on the shell shape. The molluscs infected with M. piriformes show "elongated" shell shape and relatively smaller aperture. Shall peculiarities of the hosts infected with M. piriformes and M. pygmaeus are somewhat different. The results of the factor analysis is justified by the series of analysis of variances on the values of shell indices (MANOVA) according to the factors "exposure", "shore level" and "infection".