Variability of the hard dorsal idiosomal tegument pattern and other phenotypic characters as a manifestation of microevolution in Dermacentor marginatus (Acari: Ixodidae). P. 369-387.
The pattern of male conscutum and female scutum in Dermacentor marginatus has been examined in 6 points of the East-European and Asian parts of its range (Fig. 1). A high rate of modification variability of the pattern has been recovered in each geographical sample. It is shown that populations differ reliably from each other by the length of the dark patches on the marginal flank of the conscutum (пкв, пркв, зкв); some samples also differ by the number of these patches, complexes of other patches of the scutum and conscutum, and as well (visually) by the color density of light fields and contrast between them and the dark background on the conscutum and scutum (Table 1, 2). Besides, the samples differ reliably at each stage by the complexes of morphometric characters (Table 3, 4). The sample from the Peter the First Ridge is most deviate from others by the color contrast and complex of patches both in males and females. However, by the patches of marginal flank and morphometric characters of both sexes and perimaginal stages this sample differ less from others. The sample from the Stavropol plateau having most variable pattern (Fig. 3, 1—9, 4, 1—3) is characterized by the greater number of statistically reliable differences by the patches (пкв, пркв, зкв) and morphometric characters of all stages of the ontogenesis from all other samples. Other geographical samples have intermedial position in regard to degree of differences from each other. The samples examined are considered as morphotypes; degree of differences between morphotypes is unequal. The phenotypic differences have mosaic dispersion among ontogenetic stages and do not show a coherent direction in comparing the morphotypes. Differential characters of the morphotypes and related tick species belong to different structures or their different parameters. Possible ways of morphotype's origin and geochronological characteristics of morphotypes are discussed.
Variability in Leptotrombidium europaeum and two new related chigger mite species (Acari: Trombiculidae) from Caucasus. P. 388-405.
Two new chigger mite species closely related to Leptotrombidium europaeum (Daniel et Brelih, 1959) are described from small mammals collected in Caucasus and Transcaucasia. L. alanicum sp. n. differs from L. europaeum in having shorter legs (Talll = 61—81, Ip = 734—927 versus 72—90, and 855—1017), shorter scutal and idiosomal setae (Dmin = = 30-45, Dmax = 48-67, H = 59, PL = 58 versus 40-52, 54-69, 64, 63), slightly smaller scutum (AP = 25, SD = 47, PW = 89 versus 28, 50, 91), and more numerous idiosomal setae (87 versus 81). L. montanum sp. n. differs from L. europaeum in having more numerous idiosomal setae (102 versus 81), longer scutal and idiosomal setae (AM = 61, AL = 44, H = 68, Dmax = 66 versus 56, 41, 64, 62), thicker legs (TaW = 19 versus 18), and broader scutum (PW = 95 versus 91). Exact identification of both new species is possible only using classification functions constructed by means of discriminant analysis. These three Leptotrombidium species expose sympatric distribution in Daghestan (Eastern Caucasus). L. alanicum and L. montanum also occurred together in Krasnodar Territory (Western Caucasus). Each of these species includes a number of local geographical forms precisely distinguished from each other. Morphometric differences between L. alanicum and L. montanum agree with eco-geographical rules being previously found in chigger mites from other genera. However, differences between local forms of these species show other tendencies directed controversially in part. Therefore it is probable that interspecific differences in this case correspond to the variability which took place in the process of speciation.
Molecular genetic methods for the identification of the urban mosquito Culex pipiens pipiens f. molestus (Diptera, Culicidae). P. 406-412.
Molecular genetic methods for the identification of two ecotypes, or forms (pipiens and molestus) of the Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes, which are known as active bloodsuckers and vectors of various agents of diseases, are proposed. For the DNA analysis, two populations of the urban mosquitoes (the molestus ecotype) from St. Petersburg and Moscow and two populations from the overground reservoirs in the Leningrad Province and neighboring areas of Moscow (the pipiens ecotype) have been studied. These ecotypes differ by six transitions among 247 nucleotide sequences of 3' part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), by the mtDNA fragments resulted from the restriction analysis and by the lengths of second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences in the ribosomal DNA.
Seasonal dynamics of the component community structure of parasites of the minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.). P. 413-425.
The material represented by 75 specimens of minnow of the age 2—2+ was collected according to the standard technique in the Chovju River (tributary of the Vychegda River, a region of the settlement Nizniy Chov, district of Syktyvkar town) during the period June—September 2000. The quantitative estimation of the structure of the component parasite communities was performed by calculating errors of the equation of regression for each species group separately, with subsequent summarizing of means of errors by all parasite groups comprising the community (Dorovskikh, 2001 б; 2002 в). In order to have a possibility to get data complementing each other, the calculation of variety indexes and other indexes have been made for metazoan parasites only and for the whole community, including the protozoan parasites. In both cases, i. e. considering only metazoan parasites and the whole composition of parasite species, three states of the component parasite community have been recognised: the formed community (June), the community in destroying (July and August), the community in the process of formation (September). In the course of working on the total species composition we recorded the beginning of community destroying on 30th of June, and the beginning of community formation in August. Considering only the metazoan parasites, the community is defined (after: Pugachev, 1999) as the mature (balanced) one in June, while in July, August and September, it was unmature (off-balance) by its characteristics. Regarding the protozoan parasites, the community in June, August and September was characterized as the mature one based on indices of parasite biomass, and as unripe one based on the number of parasite individuals; however in July, both groups of indices allowed to refer it to the unripe state. However, these unripe states are essentially different. In July, it is the result of dieing out the parasites of the past generation; in August and September, it is the result of the appearances of new generations. Therefore we recognise three states of parasite community named above. Considering the whole species composition of parasites we noted the greater difference of index values based on the parasite specimen numbers and their conventional biomass, that was in the case of the metazoan parasites only. It is particularly noticeable in the middle of the June, in the period of the formed community. This fact, together with high errors of the equations of regression and the presence of the high number of Apiosoma, points to the disturbance in the structure of component parasite community in the minnow from the Chovju River. This is easily explicable, because the Chovju River is the polluted reservoir, and pollution comes from agricultural fields, Verhny-Chov settlement, pigsties and cow-sheds. The pollution is a seasonal factor here. The most powerful pollution was noted at May—June, and then it decreased along the beginning of rains in the end of August; in September it increased again. It is important to point out that the monitoring of the metazoan parasites only allows to reveal the general dynamics of the community during the period of observation, but does not allow to catch the beginning of its destroying and developing and to notice possible disturbances in the community structure caused by pollution of reservoirs, particularly, if this pollution is a seasonal factor as in the Chovju River. Three named states of the component community of the fish parasites take place in other periods of year than this observed in the intestional parasite communities of fish helminths of the temperate climate zone. The developing of parasite communities of the intestinal helminths of the Anguilla anguilla in England (Kennedy, 1997) and of Leuciscus idus from the Rybinsk reservoir (Zhohov, 2003) starts in the beginning of summer. In May, their species diversity is minimal and in August is maximal. In conditions of the middle stream of the Vychegda River, the species diversity of parasite community associated with the minnow is maximal in June and minimal in August, when it only begins developing.
Phylogenetic analyses of the family Tetraonchidae (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea). P. 426-437.
A phylogenetic reconstruction of the monogenean family Tetraonchidae was carried out by methods of parsimony-based cladistics. The analysis included 20 species of tetraonchids and two out-groups (Sundanonchus tomanorum and Dactylogyrus amphibothrium) and was based on 34 morphofunctional characters. Software PAUP 4.0 and Winclada were used for the phylogenetic reconstructions. Obtained results allow proposing a preliminary phylogenetic hypothesis of the family Tetraonchidae along with the discussion of host-parasite association. According to the current taxonomic view, the family Tetraonchidae included two genera. Cladistic analysis showed a monophyly of the family and the genus Tetraonchus Diesing, 1858. Two representative of the former genus, Tetraoncus monenteron and T. borealis, parasitize the pikes (Esocoformes: Esocidae) and the grayling (Salmonidae: Thymallinae) respectively. The genus Salmonchus Spassky et Roytman, 1958 has a complicated structure and its intrageneric relationships were not completely resolved; in general, the analysis allows to recognise several species groups: Salmonchus oncorhynchi — the parasite of the Oncorhynchus masou smolt living during the first year of life in fresh water; four species (S. variabilis, S. gussevi, S. grumosus, S. alaskensis) inhabiting specifically the whitefishes (Salmonidae: Coregoninae); all reminder of Salmonchus species occurring on the salmons (Salmonidae: Salmoninae). The bootstrap test gives a support only for the following clades: family Tetraonchidae (75%), genus Tetraonchus (88%); a group of Salmonchus species associated with the whitefishes (93%) and grouping of four species (S. huhonis, S. pseudolenoki, S. skrjabini and S. lenoki) from the lenoks (Brachymystax) and taimens (Hucho) (61%).
Polymorphism and structure of the population of Proteocephalus longicollis Zeder, 1800 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) in the vendace Coregonus albula L. P. 438-447.
Polymorphism and phenotypic diversity of a hostal ecoform of Proteocephalus longicollis from its typical host, the vendace, Coregonus albula L., were studied. A complex phenotypic structure of the parasite population and presence of morphologically different groupings were revealed. We distinguished four groupings based on the external characters and three groupings based on the feed and reproduction features; among latter groupings one has very specific variations of features. We conclude that P. longicollis has high intraspecific and intrapopulation heterogeneity, and the host plays a stabilising role in the parasite species formation.
The population dynamics of the water shrew Neomys fodiens (Mammalia, Soricidae) and its helminthes fauna in the Northern Baraba. P. 448-456.
The water shrew population was studied in Ust-Urgulca (Novosibirsk Province) in 1978—1990; abundance, sex and age structure, reproduction rate of this animal and its helminth fauna were examined. It was found that the abiotic factors (in particular the water level of habitat areas) influenced on the water shrew populations. The number of water shrews increased when the high water level increased. In these conditions, the population of the water shrew rejuvenated and the numbers of females increased with some increasing their fertility. In the helminthes fauna associated with the water shrew, predominated the parasite species developing in water invertebrates or ones living near water basins. When water habitats dried out, the number of water shrews decreased and individuals retained only in some areas and the population became old.
Microsporidia of the genus Parathelohania (Microspore: Amblyosporidae) from blood-sucking mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) from the South of the West Siberia. P. 457-469.
Five new microsporidian species of the genus Parathelohania have been found in the fat body of blood-sucking mosquitoes collected in various water basins in the South of West Siberia: Parathelohania divulgata sp. n., P. formosa sp. n., P. sibirika sp. n., P. teguldeti sp. n., and P. tomski sp. n. Processes of merogony, sporogony, and ultrastructure of spores was were investigated by means light and electronic microscopy.
The description of Wallaceina vicina sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) from the water strider Gerris rufoscutellatus Latreille, 1807 (Hemiptera: Gerridae). P. 470-476.
A new homoxenos trypanosomatidae, Wallaceina vicina sp. n., is described from the digestion tract of the water strider Gerris rufoscutellatus. The laboratory culture of W. vicina has been obtained. Flagelated have been studied with ТЕМ.
Crepidulospora — nomen novum for the junior generic homonym (preoccupied generic name) Crepidula. P. 477-478
Crepidulospora nom. nov. is a replacement generic name for the genus Crepidula Simakova, Pankova et Issi, 2003 based on the type species Crepidula beklemishevi Simakova, Pankova et Issi, 2003 (Microsporida) from Anopheles beklemishevi. The name proposed by Simakova et al., 2003 is a preoccupied name, because it was already used for the gastropode Crepidula Lamarque 1899 (Echinospirida, Calibraeidae), a parasite of Mytilus. A valid name of the type species of the genus is now Crepidulospora beklemishevi (Simakova, Pankova, Issi, 2003) comb. n. Crepidulospora Simakova, Pankova et Issi nom. non. Type species: Crepidula beklemishevi Simakova, Pankova, Issi, 2003. Diagnosis. Sporogony is octosporoblastic. Sporogonal stages are in direct contact with host cell cytoplasm. 8 uninucleate spores, 4.2 x 2.2 mkm, are sandals-like. Polar tube is anisofllar, with 6—7 coils (2 + 4—5). Polaroplast is three-partite, with broad vesicular, vesicular and lamellar compartments. Microsporidia ilnfects larval adipose tissues. Type host: Anopheles beklemishevi (Diptera, Culicidae).