Characteristic features of the ranks genus and subgenus, and an intercalary rank «species complex» in ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). P. 249-263.
The work was carries our from the standpoint of the morphological conception of species. Vast collections of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Science testify to the existence of hiatuses in both genera and subgenera of Palearctic ixodids at all active phases of their ontogenesis. The fact that the subgenera of Palearctic genera have been well studies is notes, and composition of the subgenera is presented. The question of a taxonomic intercalary rank "species complex" is considered in detail in the context of the coevolution between some complexes of closely related species of ixodid ticks and some closely related species (genospecies, strains) of pathogens. The question of the taxonomic rank "species complex" in ixodid ticks as a phyletic species association is postulated on the basis of comparative ontogenetic data. Nomenclature status of the intercalary association "species complex" is specified in conformity with the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Species composition of most studied complexes is presented. Some variants of morphological differentiation between species complexes within subgenus are considered. Significance of the taxonomic concept "species complex" for zoological, parasitological, and medical aspects of the ixodid ticks study was evaluated. Prognostic significance of the rank "species complex" for the study of the relationships between ixodid ticks and pathogens is discussed.
Variability of the life cycle duration in the taiga tick from mixed coniferous-broad-leaved forests of the Udmurt Republic. P. 264-270.
Seasonal cohorts of the unfed Ixodes persulcatus imago in the study area were found to consist of the ticks passed through three-, four-, and five-year life cycles, in the ratio 72.6, 26.4, and 2.0% respectively, on the base of mean long-term values. Such ratio is established if 91.7% of larvae and 79.9% of nymphs develop without diapause, while the rest of larvae and nymphs develop with diapause. Mean duration of the tick generation is 3.3 years, with the fluctuations in certain of the years within the limits of 3.15—3.36 years.
Adaptation of sensory systems of gamasid mites (Parasitiformes, Gamasina) to dwelling in different environment. P. 271-279.
The main complication sensory organs (the palpal organ and the tarsal sensory complex) of several species of gamasid mites were studied in scanning electron microscope. The species examined included permanent ectoparasites (Laelaps agilis, Laelaptidae), parasites of the nasal cavity and respiratory tract of birds (Sternostoma tracheocolum and Ptilonyssus reguli, Rhinonyssidae), dwellers of the sea littoral zone (Parasitus kempersi, Parasitus immais, Parasitidae), and mites found on soil and on plants (Amblyseius barkeri, Parasitidae). Similar sensillar types, including olfactory SW-WP sensilla, contact chemo-mechanosensory (SW-UP and DW-UP) sensilla, termo-chemo-mechanosensitive (DW-WP) sensilla of two types, and tactile (NP) sensilla were found in all these species, excluding endoparasites, where some sensillar types (in particular, DW-WP sensilla with slit-like pores) are absent. It was shown that the topography of olfactory SW-WP sensilla of the tarsal complex reflects taxonomic position and phylogenetic history of mite genera, whereas the number of certain sensillar types and the degree of their development reflect ecological specialization of species. The palpal organ is characterized by rather uniform structure in mites of different families, dwellers of different environments, except for the endoparasites of the family Rhinonyssidae, where this organ is strongly reduced.
Component parasite communities in the minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.) from ecologically safe and polluted reservoirs. P. 280-291.
A comparative analysis of the structure of component parasite communities in the minnow from ecologically safe or polluted to variable extent reservoirs was made. The analysis showed that the increase of the reservoir pollution by everyday drains, washings of fertilizers from the fields around and the dacha sections causes the change of dominant parasite species in the minnow, alteration of the sum of errors in the regression equation characterizing the spread of values of biomasses of the species forming the parasite community, and change of the "graphic" structure of the community. It is proved, that the high concentration of biogens has a destructive effect on natural systems, and at the same time causes the process of self-organizing, leading to the alteration of the community structure. As soon as even a small part of biogens is stopped to come into the reservoir, and the quality of environment is restored, the community restores its structure.
Trematodes of the genus Diplostomum Nordmann, 1832 from fishes of Lake Ladoga. P. 292-299.
Metacercariae of the genus Diplostomum Nordmann, 1842 from fishes of Lake Ladoga were investigated. Sixteen trematode species of this genus were found. The species D. parviventosum Dubois, 1932, known previously only in Lithuania, was for the first time recorded in Lake Ladoga. The description and figure of its metacercaria are provided. Data on the infestation of different fish species by diplostomids are also given. Changes in the infestation of fishes by the Diplostomum metacercariae for a long-term period are analysed.
Some aspects of the anthropogenic impact on fish parasite fauna in lakes. P. 300-307.
Anthropogenic influence on the fish parasite fauna in lakes is studied. Three types of the influence are considered, namely pollution by industrial effluent, anthropogenic eutrophication, and development of aquaculture. Their effects on the fish parasite fauna were found to be different.
Peculiarities of the longterm changes in the parasite fauna of the bream Abramis brama L. in eutrophicated lake. P. 308-317.
Data on the dynamics of parasite fauna if the bream Abramis brama for 50-year period are presented. The relation between trophic status of the reservoir, preferred type of the bream feeding, and the abundance of its parasites is shown. It was established, that the number of parasites developing in plankton organisms increases during the period of intensive eutrophication. Recent data on the parasite fauna of bream indicate preferred feeding of the host on benthic invertebrates, that is favourable to its growth. Permanent tendency to the increase of the bream invasion by the Diplostomum metacercaria could be a reliable parasitological indicator of the water body eutrophication.
Metazoan parasites of fishes from the Bug Rive. P. 318-324.
Results if the ichthyoparasitological investigation of the Bug River carried out in 1996—1999 are reported. Twenty-nine metazoan parasite species from 7 classes were found in fishes from the studied area, with the total infestation rate 63.9%. Thirteen of them parasitize fish at larval stages. Metacercariae of Opisthorchis felineus, which ate the agents of opisthorchosis in man and animals, were found in roach.
Parasite fauna of the snakehead Channa argus warpachowskii from Primorsky Krai. P. 325-329.
Parasite fauna of the snakehead Channa argus warpachowskii was studied in water bodies of Primorsky Krai. Thirty-one parasite species were recorded in this host from the studied area according to original and literary data. Most part of these species are host-specific parasites of snakehead originated from Chinese-Indian region or parasites having a wide host range and able to infest almost all freshwater fishes. Moreover, three brackishwater species of parasites were found in the fishes introduced into the rivers of the southern part of Primorsky Krai. The causes of this invasion are discussed.
Monogenea of the Chu River basin. P. 330-334.
Results of the long-term faunistic study of Monogenea from fishes of the Chu River basin are reported. Fauna of Monogenea in the studied area was found to include 51 species of 11 genera and 5 families. Thirteen parasite species occurred in the mountain part of the basin, and 40 species inhabit the valley zone, including 10 species of the Amur faunistic complex probably introduced to Kyrgyzstan together with acclimatized fishes.