Spatio-temporal trends in changes of climatic conditions contributing the development of vivax malaria parasite (Plasmodium vivax) in Moscow region. P. 105-119.
The results of temporal and spatial analysis of climatic changes favorable for transmitting of vivax malaria in the Moscow region at the background of global warming and intensification of warmth grow in the city limits (warmth island) from 1977 to 2016 are given in the article. Changes in dates of the beginning of the main elements of malaria season and their duration are considered, long-term trends, are analyzed, and city environmental conditions are compared with the regional climatic background. Tendencies of the increase of summarized effective temperatures and of the duration of the season of effective infection of mosquitoes were established. Spatial irregularity in the distribution of mean indices and also of the speed of their changes in Moscow region were noted. The strongest changes of all the indices occurred since the middle of 1990ies, being consistent with the conclusion of the general warming of the climate in Moscow region. When the sufficient number of sources of the infection is present, the increase of the temperature regime may probably serve as a trigger mechanism for the development of disease outbreaks.
Ability of fleas Citellophilus tesquorum and Frontopsylla luculenta luculenta (Siphonaptera, Ceratophyllidae) to survive at negative temperatures during winter. P. 120-128.
Comparative research of the ability of two species fleas from different populations to survive at negative temperatures during winter time is conducted. It is shown that the share of Imago fallen considerably differs depending both on its species and population and sex belonging. Gtellophilus tesquorum significantly exceeded Frontopsylla luculenta fleas by the ability to survive at negative temperatures even at the territorial commonality ofits populations. Essential interpopulation distinctions in winter resistance were revealed in C. tesquorum from Tuva and Transbaikalia, F. luculenta from Olkhon area of the Irkutsk region and Transbaikalia. Males died more often than females in the majority of experiments. At the same time distinctions in number of the fallen fleas being at unequal absolute negative temperatures during the experiment were not revealed. It is suggested that the population ability to wintering in Imago phase is caused by the correlation of individuals that ancestrally and physiologically predisposed to survive at negative temperatures. Results of the experiments are compared with the data of field observations.
Recording of Aedes koreicus (Edwards, 1917) (Diptera, Culicidae) in the territory of Crimea. P. 129-135.
Mosquitoes Aedes koreicus were recorded from the territory of Crimea for the first time. Taking into account favorable climatic conditions of Crimea, biological features of A. koreicus, and also distribution of this species in the southern part of European Russia, formation and distribution of a stable population of A. koreicus in the territory of the peninsula is quite probable. Mosquitoes of this species are vectors of many diseases. It is necessary to conduct entomological observations devoted to the study of the population density, ecological features, and spatial distribution of this species in Crimea in order to optimize epidemiological surveillance and to clarify sanitary and anti-epidemiological (prophylactic) measures.
Prospect of the use of proteomic analysis on the base of MALDI-TOF MS for differentiation of nematodes with an example of protein profiles of ascarides and dirofillarians. P. 136-144.
This paper presents the results of investigation of the protein profiles of nematodes that are relevant for the south of Russia (dirofilaria and ascaris) using the proteomic method MALDI-TOF MS. Analysis of protein extracts of dirofilarians and ascrides showed spectra with high-intensity peaks in the range of 2-20 kDa, the quality of the spectra and the intensity of the spectral peaks were consistent in all samples of the same species. The profiles of the spectra of Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis differed in eight major peaks. The spectra profiles obtained from A. suum and A. lumbricoides proteins differed in 5 out of 8 major peaks. MALDI-TOFF MS makes it possible to differentiate one species of nematode from another according to the protein profile. So the method of mass spectrometry can be an effective taxonomic tool in parasitological studies.
Species richness of parasite assemblages in the chinese slipper Perccottus glenii Dybowski, 1877 (Actinopterygii) in the host's native and non-native ranges. P. 145-158.
Species richness of parasite communities in the Chinese sleeper Perccottus glenii was studied in its natural habitats and regions where this host had been introduced. Species richness of parasite infracommunities in both the native and acquired parts of the host's range is sufficiently described by Gamma distribution except for the introduced populations with species-poor (< 2) infracommunities. The resampling method was applied to estimate the statistical significance of differences in coefficients of the power-law equation s = anb, where a is the expected species richness in the first host individual examined, and b is the rate of species accumulation in parasite component communities (s) related to the increase in the number of examined host individuals (n). The species richness of infra- and component parasite communities in the Chinese sleeper was found to be significantly higher in native than in introduced habitats. Nevertheless, the rates of species accumulation in component parasite communities did not differ between the native and non-native ranges in spite of the differences in the taxonomic composition of parasites.
Nestlings of passerine birds in the subarea of the Yenisei River infestated with larvae of Trypocalliphora braueri (Diptera, Calliphoridae). P. 159-163.
Long-term studies demonstrated that 10 species of passerine birds were registered as hosts of Trypocalliphora braueri larvae in the subarea of the Yenisei River in Siberia. The main hosts of Tr. braueri were Sturnus vulgaris, Motacilla cinerea, M. alba, M. personata, Sylvia curruca, and Phoenicurus phoenicurus. The intensity of infestation was higher in anthropogenic landscapes. The intensity of infestation also depended on spring temperatures and usually did not exceed 5 larvae per nestling. The average infestation rate was 5.6 %, but it could reach 18.5 %. The research determined a clear correlation between the infected nests locations and the distance from the Yenisei riverbed.
New data on sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the Crimean Peninsula. P. 164-171.
Sticky traps and an aspirator were used to determine species composition and abundance of sand flies (Phlebotominae) in fourteen populated localities and their surroundings in the Crimean Peninsula. Sand flies were found only in four localities: Parkovoe, Gurzuf, Sudak, and Kurortnoe. A total of 965 specimens belonging to five species (P. papatasi, P. similis, P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi, and P. longiductus) were collected. The highest species diversity of sand flies has been observed in Kurortnoe and Parkovoe localities where the following four species were trapped in each locality: P. similis, P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi, and P. longiductus. Phlebotomus neglectus and P. perfiliewi were the most abundant species with maximal population density (4.25 specimen per trap) detected in Yalta Mountain-Forest Nature Reserve. PCR methods are recommended for more accurate species identification of sand fly species belonging to the Larroussius and Adlerius subgenera, rather similar in morphological characters.
The high activity of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the south of the Voronezh Region (Russia) in 2018: causes and sporadic event. P. 172-176.
An exceptionally massive attack of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) on people and domestic animals was observed in May 2018 in the southern areas of the Voronezh Region (Russia). The species Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) was the absolute dominant in the collections. A. sticticus was previously considered a rare species in the region. Abiotic factors, the frequency of the mass attack of bloodsucking dipterans in the conditions of the region and the possibility of prediction are discussed in the report.