Contents of Proceedings of the Zoological Institute

Volume 326 (4), 2022

Date of publication — December 23, 2022

Frequencies of lateral morphs in different age classes of the flounder Platichthys flesus (Pleuronectidae) from the White Sea

In the populations of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), the proportions of left- and right-sided individuals vary widely, and possible causes of this variation remain little explored. The hypothesis of ecological segregation of phenotypical morphs in the European flounder relies primarily on observations of certain differences in morphology and foraging performance between the left- and right-sided individuals. The flounders of different sex and size/age, however, can differ in the character of biotic associations with the environment and other hydrobionts. We have examined the interaction of size/age and sex of the fish with the probability of encountering left-sided individuals in 4 populations of the European flounder from the White Sea basin. The results of the study have shown that the proportion of the reversed individuals did not differ among the flounders of various size and age in all the populations studied. The proportion of the left- and right-sided morphs in different size-age classes in all investigated populations did not depend on the sex of the fish. Revealed interpopulation diversity of phenotypic composition of flounder from the White Sea is not connected with the size/age and sex structure of compared samples.

On the composition of the type series of the Kashgar Racerunner, Eremias buechneri Bedriaga, 1907 (Sauria, Lacertidae)

The Kashgar Racerunner Eremias buechneri Bedriaga, 1907 is a member of the taxonomically most complicated group, i.e. E. multiocellataE. przewalskii complex, together with about a dozen of other species inhabiting predominantly arid landscapes of Central Asia. Eremias buechneri is one of the poorly studied representatives of this diverse group of species. This species was described in 1907 by Jakob von Bedriaga based on the study of specimens collected in Central Asia by N.M. Przewalsky and M.W. Pewzow. This species is practically not present in the collections of museums around the world and is known from a limited number of specimens. We clarify the composition of the type series used in in the original description of this species in accordance with article 72.4.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and we propose to consider as a type series the specimens mentioned by the author in his description of 1907, with catalogue numbers in the collection of the Zoological Museum (since 1931, the Zoological Institute) clarified from the results of the N.M. Przewalsky expedition reported by Bedriaga (1912) and thus to expand the type series to 59 specimens (1 lectotype and 58 paralectotypes). Of these, four paralectotypes are lost (ZISP 7264.9, 7279.6, 7089.4 and 7264.4) and four specimens are in very poor condition, almost destroyed (ZISP 8286.1–4). Thus, the actual number of specimens currently stored at the Zoological Institute is 55. The paratype E. buechneri ZISP 9131 has been genotyped. Molecular genetic identification of specimens in the type series from different parts of the range appears promising as a future avenue of research.

Geographic ranges and the hypothesis of the dispersal of the fishes of superfamily Congiopodoidea (Pisces: Scorpaenoidei) with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

The most probable habitat of the ancestor of the superfamily Congiopodoidea Gill, 1889 is the area of the modern Malay Archipelago and Australia; the paths of further distribution as well as places of origin of taxa of different ranks within the superfamily are shown here based on morphological data. The dispersal of Congiopodoidea most likely occurred via the cold Antarctic Circumpolar Current, while members of the sister clade, the family Synanceiidae Swainson, 1839, occupied new habitats primarily in a northerly direction. Fishes of both families of Congiopodoidea (Congiopodidae Gill, 1889 and Zanclorhynchidae Andriashev, 1993) occupied new habitats only eastward of Australia, thus Zanclorhynchus spinifer heracleus Zhukov et Balushkin, 2018 appeared at the modern distribution area in the Ridge of Hercules in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean after the ancestral forms had overcome more than a round-the-world migration. Six species of the genus Congiopodus Perry, 1811 have pairwise sympatric distribution ranges. They apparently originated on the shelves of Australia – C. leucopaecilus (Richardson, 1846), C. coriaceus Paulin et Moreland, 1979, and southern South America – C. peruvianus (Cuvier, 1829), C. kieneri (Sauvage, 1878), C. torvus (Gronow, 1772) and C. spinifer (Smith, 1839); moreover, the last two migrated further – to the southern point of the African continent. In the family Zanclorhynchidae, the monotypic genus Alertichthys Moreland, 1960 remained close to the place of radiation of the ancestral forms of the superfamily; its modern range covers seamounts and shelfs of islands south of New Zealand. The path of the ancestral forms of the second genus of this family, Zanclorhynchus Günther, 1880 was much longer. The most probable place of its origin is the waters of southern part of South America, from here the ancestral form migrated to the Prince Edward Islands in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean, where it differentiated into two species Z. spinifer Günther, 1880 and Z. chereshnevi Balushkin et Zhukov, 2016. Zanclorhynchus spinifer further continued to occupy more eastern shelfs of islands and seamounts within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, dividing into four subspecies: Z. spinifer armatus Zhukov, 2019, Z. spinifer spinifer Günther, 1880, Z. spinifer macquariensis Zhukov, 2019, and Z. spinifer heracleus. The hypothesis about the possibility of the distribution with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as a dispersive agent is confirmed by morphological data, when the sequence of occupation of modern habitats is considered through the degree of relatedness of the fish inhabiting them.

New records of the rock lizards of the genus Darevskia Arribas, 1999 (Sauria: Lacertidae) in the Caucasus. Communication 2

Five new regional records of the rock lizards in Caucasus are described. The distribution of Darevskia alpina (Darevsky, 1967) on the northern slope of Mount Elbrus has been detailed: the species was found in the Emmanuel glade and in the gorge of the Kyzylkol River. The easternmost record of D. alpina is located in the upper stream of the Cherek Bezengi River in Kabardino-Balkaria. Darevskia caucasica vedenica (Darevsky et Roitberg, 1999) was first found on the territory of Dagestan in the area of the lake Kezenoyam and on the watershed of the Okholitlau and Khulhulau rivers. The existence of an isolated population of D. daghestanica (Darevsky, 1967) in the gorge of the Bolshaya Liakhvi River was confirmed, which is located in South Ossetia, on the southwestern border of the species range. When studying the collections of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, three specimens of D. dahli (Darevsky, 1957) were found from the village Alapars of the Kotayk region of Armenia collected in 1880. This locality is the southernmost and, moreover, the only record of the species in the Armenian volcanic highlands.

Muscle system of the penial complex in three species of Hygrophila (Gastropoda: Pulmonata)

The Hygrophila, a group comprising freshwater lung-bearing gastropods, have a complex copulatory apparatus, whose musculature has recently been shown to provide a number of phylogenetically informative characters that appear to concur with the results of molecular phylogenetic analyses. The number of hygrophilan species for which the male copulatory musculature is known, however, is still relatively small. We examined the muscle arrangement in the penial complex (penis and penis sheath) of three species of Hygrophila: Aplexa hypnorum (Linnaeus, 1758) (fam. Physidae), Kolhymorbis bogatovi Zatravkin et Moskvicheva, 1985 (fam. Planorbidae, tribe Segmentinini), and Planorbarius corneus (Linnaeus, 1758) (fam. Planorbidae, tribe Helisomatini) to explore whether the organization of the male copulatory musculature in these species is consistent with the previously proposed phylogenetic hypotheses. In A. hypnorum, the primarily glandular penis sheath has a three-layered musculature with outer and inner circular and intermediate longitudinal layers. The tubular penis also has a three-layered musculature, with the same sequence of muscle fibers as in the penis sheath. In K. bogatovi, the sequence of muscle layers in the penis sheath is essentially the same as in A. hypnorum. Penial musculature is also arranged in three layers, but the intermediate layer consists of small radial, rather than longitudinal fibers and the inner and outer layers are circular. In P. corneus, the boundaries between muscle layers in both penis and penis sheath are somewhat indistinct, but the circular muscles tend to lie close to their outer and inner walls, while the longitudinal fibers are concentrated in the interior. The comparison with other hygrophilan species, in which the copulatory musculature has been previously studied, shows that the male copulatory musculature of K. bogatovi is consistent in arrangement with that of other representatives of Segmentinini and that the phylogenetic lineage leading to P. corneus has probably diverged before the clade Planorbini + Segmentinini. The musculature of the penial complex of A. hypnorum is generally similar to that of another physid, Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805), but the penis sheath of P. acuta lacks an outer layer of circular muscle fibers, which may be explained by reduction.

Activity of catalase in overwintering females of mosquitoes Culex pipiens, Culex torrentium, and Anopheles maculipennis s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae)

Catalase, an antioxidant enzyme, is present in tissues of most organisms. In mosquitoes, such as Culex pipiens L., catalase maintains prolonged lifespan and fertility of hibernating females. The sibling species for Cx. pipiens, Cx. torrentium Martini, is more abundant and even prevalent over Cx. pipiens in regions with short growing season and cool climate. Females of Cx. torrentium are difficult to discriminate from Cx. pipiens by morphological traits and can be identified probabilistically using r(2+3)/r3 wing vein index. The present study shows that in Cx. pipiens/torrentium, there is a significant positive correlation between r(2+3)/r3 wing vein index and catalase activity (rho=0.606, p=0.0027), indicating that enzyme activity in Cx. torrentium, in general, higher than in its sibling species, Cx. pipiens. When overwintering females of Cx. pipiens and Anopheles maculipennis s.l. were compared, definitely higher catalase activity in A. maculipennis s.l. was found, and this is in good agreement with the observations that A. maculipennis s.l. females choose cooler hibernacula. Higher catalase activity in overwintering females of Cx. torrentium and A. maculipennis s.l. (in comparison with that of Cx. pipiens) may be considered a better adaptation of Cx. torrentium and A. maculipennis s.l. for stressful conditions during overwintering.

New species Eutobrilus Gagarini sp. n. and a review of species of the genus Eutobrilus from graciliformis-group (Nematoda: Tobrilida, Tobrilidae, Eutobrilinae)

A new species of Eutobrilus gagarini sp. n. from the Leningrad region is described, which is included in the morphological graciliformis-group of the genus Eutobrilus and differs from other species of the group by a high coefficient "b" and a smaller ratio of the length of the spicules to the length of the supplementary row and the ratio of the length of the spicules to the length of the body. A key for determining the Holarctic species of the graciliformis-group is given and the composition and structure of this group as a whole are discussed. The expediency of isolating the morphological graciliformis-group is discussed. The synonymization of the genus Peritobrilus Gagarin, 1993 with the genus Eutobrilus Tsalolikhin, 1981 is confirmed.

Volume 326 (3), 2022

Date of publication — September 25, 2022

A new fish of the genus Krusensterniella (Zoarcoidei: Zoarcidae) from the Kuril Islands

A new species of prickled eelpouts of the genus Krusensterniella Schmidt, 1904 (subfamily Gymnelinae Gill, 1863) from the waters of the Kuril Islands (Western North Pacific) is described. Moppet eelpout K. infans sp. nov. differs from other species by a combination of characters. Vertebrae are numerous (124 versus 100–122), as well as all spiny rays of the dorsal fin (77 vs. 40–74); number of preoperculomandibular pores is reduced (6 vs. 7 in most species); pungent spines of the dorsal fin (X in number) are located posteriorly (D-fin formula 67 X 44). The holotype, a juvenile with a length of TL 83 mm, is found in the southern group of the Kuril Islands (Urup Strait) at a depth of 240 m. The ancestral form of the prickled eelpouts probably lived in the boreal Pacific waters near the Japanese Islands, where the generalized K. squamosa Chernova, 2022 is found. Other species with similar characters, K. maculata Andriashev, 1938, K. kurilensis Chernova, 2022, and K. pseudomaculata Chernova, 2022, with relatively low number of vertebrae and pungent spines, may have derived in nearby waters, the Sea of Japan and the southern Kuril Islands. Dispersion to the north (into the Sea of Okhotsk) led to the speciation of two pairs of prickled eelpouts. One pair is K. notabilis Schmidt, 1904 and K. infans with low number of pungent spines but numerous vertebrae (113–124); the other pair is K. multispinosa Soldatov, 1922 and K. pavlovskii Andriashev, 1955 with a relatively low number of vertebrae but multiple pungent spines (XV–XXV). This may mean that northward dispersion events could have occurred at least twice.

The first record of pectoral and pelvic fins deformity in the freshwater blenny Salaria fluviatilis (Pisces: Blenniidae) collected from Kızılırmak River, Turkey

The freshwater blenny Salaria fluviatilis (Asso y del Rio, 1801) is a freshwater species that favors demersal environments. Individuals of this species live in rivers and brooks of Europe, North Africa and Israel. Three specimens of S. fluviatilis (TL 80.82 mm, 60.98 mm and 64.14 mm) collected from Kızılırmak River – Kesikköprü Bridge, Turkey during July 2021 showed deformities in both pectoral and pelvic fins. Degeneration was noted in the pectoral fin rays particularly the last ventral two soft rays (soft ray no. 13 and 14 counting from dorsal to ventral). They also look smaller than those in the normal specimen do. The degeneration in the soft ray no. 13 is less severe than soft ray no. 14. The x-ray of the abnormal specimen showed no other pectoral fin rays were deformed and the pectoral girdle was normal. In both specimens of S. fluviatilis that showed pelvic fin rays degeneration, the whole left pelvic fin and the right pelvic fin were completely degenerated and no soft rays are present. The possible causative factors of these anomalies are discussed. Our finding highlights the need for closer monitoring of the freshwater environment and for the identification of the specific factor that caused these abnormalities.

Genus Diaparsis Förster (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tersilochinae) from Madagascar: a review of the species with interstitial vein 2m-cu

Five species of the genus Diaparsis Förster characterized by the fore wing with interstitial vein 2m-cu are found to occur in Madagascar. One species, D. apophis sp. nov., is described as new to science; three species, D. interstitialis Khalaim, 2013, D. inusitata Khalaim, 2013 and D. voluptuosa Khalaim, 2013, are recorded from Madagascar for the first time. Diagnoses, references and general distribution to the five reviewed Madagascar species are given. Partial identification key to the species of Diaparsis occurring in Madagascar is provided.Diaparsis apophis sp. nov. is widely distributed through Madagascar from extreme north to south of the island; it was collected from Diana, Antananarivo, Androy, Analamanga, Vakinankaratra and Vatomandry provinces. The new species is easily distinguished from its Afrotropical congeners by the combination of interstitial vein 2m-cu in the fore wing; first metasomal tergite evenly arcuate in lateral view, round in cross-section centrally and entirely smooth; and black antennal flagellum with 33–37 flagellomeres in female and 30–40 flagellomeres in male. It is a rather large species with body length about 6.8 mm and fore wing length 4.2 mm. The species name derives from Apophis, an Ancient Egyptian god of chaos.

A method for visualizing of reproductive organs in immature small mammals using Soricidae (Insectivora) and Cricetidae (Rodentia) as an example

The article is devoted to determination of sex of juveniles of small mammals. The definition of which is the most time-consuming part of anatomical research. The method of visualizing the sex of young animals by reproductive organs using 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 6% apple cider vinegar (CH3COOH) is used. Earlier in 2020, this method was successfully used on immature shrews (Sorex). The results of the study served as an impetus for the continuation of the study on juveniles of the hamster family (Cricetidae Fischer, 1817) and repeated testing on young individuals of the shrew family (Soricidae Fischer, 1814). The collection of material was carried out in 2021 in the central part of the White Sea-Kuloy Plateau. A total of 475 small mammals from three families were studied (Cricetidae – 291, Soricidae – 183, birch mice Sminthidae Brandt, 1855 – 1). Anatomical examination of biological material showed that 24% (n = 114) of young animals turned out to have indeterminate sexual characteristics. These juvenile individuals belonged to the families of shrews (15.8%) and hamsters (8.2%). As a result of the method, gender differences were found in 92.1% of juvenile individuals. During the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with blood catalase, in 35.2% of males (of the identified individuals), the spermatic ducts were elevated, and in 51.4% of them, seminal ducts and testes were discolored. In 43.8% of females, the horns and the body of the uterus increased in size by 2 times, and it turned white in 48.6%. In 7.9% of specimens, the sex has not been set due to postmortem damage to internal organs. The study proves that the method of visualizing sex by reproductive organs is effective for immature animals of Cricetidae and Soricidae. The method makes it possible to reduce the number of unrecorded juveniles and to obtain reliable information about the sex and age structure of the population.

Influence of biotic and economic-anthropogenic factors on the attendance of artificial salt licks and the sex-age structure of the flock of the European moose, Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758), in the conditions of the North-West of Russia

The relationship between the attendance of artificial salt licks by European moose, Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758), and biotic and economic-anthropogenic factors in the territory of the Leningrad Province was assessed. Data on the attendance of 19 mineral feeding sites obtained from automatic photo-video recorders (camera traps) were used in the analysis. Among the biotic factors that have a significant impact on attendance, the remoteness of the salt lick from the perennial water pool and the category of biotope according to the ground cover were revealed. Among the economic and anthropogenic factors – the remoteness of the salt lick from settlements with a population of more than 500 people. Similarly, the relationship between the sex-age structure of the registered moose flock with factors from the same categories was assessed. In addition, the effect of the recorded numbers of different sex-age groups on each other was assessed. A significant dependence of the registration of adult males on the area of wetlands and linear objects (power lines and gas pipelines) located within the boundaries of 1500 ha around the salt lick, as well as on remoteness from settlements, has been established. A significant dependence of the registration of yearling males on the area of wetlands around the salt lick and the number of registered adult males was established. A significant dependence of the number of registered adult females on the remoteness of the salt licks from a perennial water pool was noted. At the same time, the effect of any of the habitat groups on the recorded number of females has not been confirmed. Estimated population growth in sample areas depends on the sex ratio of registered individuals. The influence of limiting factors (predation, feed availability, hunting press) acting on moose populations in sample areas according to the methods used has not been revealed.

New and insufficiently studied morphological characters in species of the genus Dolichopus Latreille, 1797 (Diptera: Dolichopodidae)

The article discusses new morphological characters of species in the genus Dolichopus Latreille, 1797, which allow specific diagnostics of both males and females. For this purpose 244 Dolichopus species were studied. The identification of new diagnostic criteria, including these for females, is necessary, since diagnostics are often carried out using color characteristics that have extremely low value, it is difficult to identify females using existing tables, and for a number of species females have not yet been described. In particular, for the first time, such traits are discussed as the presence of setae on the haltere stem and processes on metepimerons. In a number of species of the D. planitarsis group, white claws on the tarsi were first detected. In addition, the variability in Dolichopus species was assessed for such features as setae on the mesonotum in front of the scutellum, the shape of the second and third male abdominal tergites, the setae on the postcranium, and groups of setae on the legs. Setae on mesonotum in front of scutellum are developed in both sexes and may serve to identify the entire group of D. latilimbatus species. Clusters of setae on the legs are also often developed in both females and males. For diagnostic purposes, the following characters can be used: the number of setae on the lower part of the head, the presence of a group of setae on the postgena, and the presence of flattened postocular setae.

Stability of unique pattern of lateral line system of Baikal stone sculpin (Paracottus knerii, Cottidae) after colonization by this species of Yenisei River system

The study of the lateral line system in the stone sculpin Paracottus knerii (Dybowski, 1874) from Lake Baikal revealed pattern uniqueness and species specificity. This is demonstrated in autonomy of the supraorbital, infraorbital, and preoperculo-mandibular sensory canals, as well as in the presence of gaps inside them. The pattern of the lateral line differs significantly from that in the species of the genus Cottus Linnaeus, 1758, which is illustrated by the example of Cottus sibiricus Warpachowski, 1889. In this particular species, all sensory canals, except for the preoperculo-mandibular canal, are connected as a single system. The C. sibiricus pattern of the system is significantly different from the Baikal P. knerii. As a whole, in the individuals of P. knerii from the Yenisei River System, the Baikal pattern of the lateral line system is retained, containing autonomous sensory canals. Comparative analysis of transformations of the lateral line system in the Baikal and Yenisei stone sculpins showed that the transformations go in different directions. In the Baikal form, there is an increase in the number of gaps in the infraorbital sensory canal and the occipital commissure. This leads to an increase in the autonomy of separate segments of the sensory canal. On the contrary, in the Yenisei form P. knerii, number of breaks inside the sensory canals decreases, while preserving their autonomy. In Yenisei fishes (unlike the Baikal ones), the supraorbital canal does not have gaps in most cases, its pre- and post-coronal parts are interconnected. The supraorbital canals of the left and right sides do not connect in the form of a letter “V”, they are interconnected by a narrow coronal commissure, as is in species of the genus Cottus. The trunk canal (CLL) in most river sculpins is longer than in Baikal individuals. In the caudal part, the CLL has several autonomous segments, which is not found in Baikal fish.

The range of marsh frogs (complex Pelophylax ridibundus, Amphibia, Ranidae) in Kazakhstan: Progressive dispersal or cyclic fluctuations?

According to 2005 data, during the second half of the 20th century, the range of marsh frogs (Pelophylax ridibundus complex) in Kazakhstan almost doubled, which was facilitated by the unintentional introduction of these amphibians in the central and eastern regions of the country against the backdrop of favorable climate change. This paper analyzes the results of the next monitoring of the distribution of the marsh frogs in Kazakhstan in the light of the hypothesis of the ongoing dispersal of amphibians throughout the country. During the revision of literature, museum and archival materials over the past 15 years and the analysis of the authors’ field data for 2021, about 500 amphibian sighting points were collected, which is almost 2 times higher than previously known information. It has been established that the modern range of the complex occupies the territory of all major hydrographic basins of Kazakhstan: The Ural-Emba, Aral-Syrdarya, Nura-Tengiz, Balkhash-Alakol, Tobol-Ishim and Irtysh basins, of which only the last two belong to the area of oceanic runoff, the rest are the drainless inland. A chronological analysis of the data obtained for each basin made it possible to conclude that over the historical period the area of the marsh frogs’ range has changed, but mainly due to periodic reductions or expansions within the drainless inland basins, the level and mineralization of water bodies of which are determined by cyclic climate fluctuations. In a broad sense, it is proposed to talk about the constancy of the autochthonous range of the marsh frogs in the west, south and southeast of Kazakhstan. The phenomenon of “settlement” includes the movements of lake frogs within the Nura-Tengiz and Irtysh basins, where they did not live in the historical past. In geological retrospect, this process probably restores the boundaries of the Neogene distribution of representatives of the P. ridibundus complex. From the point of view of the genetic composition of the complex, one can speak of the dispersal or even expansion of the Anatolian P. cf. bedriagae, which has successfully advanced to all regions of Kazakhstan from the eastern borders of its autochthonous range in the Caspian Plain and the coasts of the Mangyshlak Peninsula.

Volume 326 (2), 2022

Date of publication — June 25, 2022

Early Pleistocene Caniformia from Palan-Tyukan (Azerbaijan)

The Early Pleistocene site of Palan-Tyukan (MNQ18, ca 1.85 Mya) is located in Transcaucasia, northwestern Azerbaijan. In total, more than 300 mammalian bones were collected there by M.V. Sablin in 1986 and 1990. The remains were laid close to each other in a 25 m2 lens-like accumulation, in a stratum of normally magnetized (the upper part of the Olduvai subchron) yellowish-grey Lower Apsheron loams. No any excavations have been carried here out since. The present study is based on the analysis of the Caniformia remains. The occurrence of raccoon dog in Palan-Tyukan provides knowledge about the Eurasian stratigraphic range of this taxon: it represents one of the latiest records of the species Nyctereutes megamastoides (Pomel, 1842) in all of Europe. The bear tooth (was found earlear by N.A. Lebedeva nearby) is ascribed here to the species Ursus etruscus Cuvier, 1823. The taxonomic scenario of the Plio-Pleistocene tribe Galictini of Eurasia is intricate and has been debated since the beginning of the last century. The dispute arose mainly due to the scantiness and the sparse nature of their fossil record. The main conclusion about the Pannonictis nestii (Martelli, 1906) remains from Palan-Tyukan was reached after a detailed morphological and metrical analysis. Palearctic badger remains were assigned to the species Meles thorali Viret, 1950 – the ancestor of the European and Asian badgers. The occurrence of M. thorali in Palan-Tyukan represents one of the latiest records of the species. The otter material from Palan-Tyukan is here referred to Lutraeximia cf. umbra Cherin et al., 2016. A Caniformia community of the Palan-Tyukan presents evidence of the wider variety of environments ranging from wooded areas with bodies of water to scrub and even savanna landscape in a relatively humid subtropical climate. The fauna of Palan-Tyukan is an important biostratigrafic reference fauna for mammal zonation in Europe. New discoveries can also help to clarify the taxonomic status of many of these extinct forms.

Review of type specimens of fish and mammals from the paleontological collection of the Stavropol State Museum-Reserve

The review of type specimens in the paleontological collection of the Stavropol State Historical, Cultural and Natural-Landscape Museum-Reserve named after G.N. Prozritelev and G.K. Prave is given. Fish: syntypes of Clupea stauropolitana Bogachev, 1933; lectotype and paralectotypes of Mugil chadarini Bogachev, 1933; holotype of Mugil minax Bogachev, 1933; holotype of Mugil radobojanus var. gracilicosta Bogachev, 1933; holotype of Sarmata prozritelevi Bogachev, 1933; mammals: holotype of Anacharsis orbus Bogachev, 1956; holotype of Megaloceros stavropolensis Titov et Shvyreva, 2016; holotype and paratype of Archidiskodon garutti Maschenko, 2010. Localities, collector’s names and dates of capture of the type specimens are clarified.

Regional-scale movements in three migratory passerine species on the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea during autumn migration

Much evidence suggests that some passerines during seasonal migrations can perform regional-scale movements, both in the migratory and in the reverse direction. The scale of such movements exceeds the scale of typical stopover movements, but is usually smaller than most migratory flights. We studied regional-scale movements during autumn migration in short-distance migrants of three passerine species: European Robin (Erithacus rubecula Linnaeus, 1758), Goldcrest (Regulus regulus Linnaeus, 1758), and Long-tailed Tit (Aegithalos caudatus Linnaeus, 1758), by analyzing ringing and recapture data from 7 sites on the southeastern Baltic coast at a distance of 11–132 km from each other. The number of birds involved in regional movements varied significantly between species. Long-tailed Tits migrate during the day, and the proportion of birds performing regional-scale movements was one to two orders of magnitude higher than in European Robins (nocturnal migrants) or Goldcrests (migrants with a mixed migratory rhythm). In all three species, the average dates of their regional-scale movements over short distances did not differ significantly between individuals that moved in the migratory and the reverse direction. Regional-scale movements often occurred under headwinds, which suggests that these movements could be caused by aborting migratory flights and (or) by drifting in such winds.

The relationship between fish length and otolith size and weight of the two nearly threatened siluriformes species Ailia coila (Ailiidae) and Ompok pabda (Siluridae) collected from the Ganga River at Narora, India

Relationships between fish length and otolith length, width and mass were investigated in the two nearly threatened silurid species (Siluriformes) Ailia coila (Hamilton, 1822) and Ompok pabda Hamilton, 1822) collected from the Ganga River at Narora, India. The relationships between otolith length (OL) and fish total length (TL), otolith width (OWd) and TL, and otolith weight (OWe) and TL are expressed by linear regression models; for A. coila, OL = 0.0291 TL + 0.8541, OWd = 0.0306 TL + 0.2241, OWe = 0.0246 TL + 0.8595, and for O. pabda, OL=0.0643 TL + 1.3848, OWd = 0.0377 TL + 0.7358, OWe = 0.0461 TL + 0.6761. This study symbolizes the first reference available on the relationship of fish size and otolith size and weight for A. coila and O. pabda in the Ganga River at Narora, India. The data obtained are useful for studying the feeding ecology of these fish, whose numbers are declining due to overfishing.

Morphological variability and diagnostics of two sculpins Icelus bicornis and I. spatula (Cottiformes: Cottidae) from the Arctic

The morphological variability of Icelus spatula Gilbert et Burke, 1912 and I. bicornis Reinhardt, 1840 was studied in order to clarify the diagnostic characters of these poorly studied fishes. Allometry, geographic variability and sexual dimorphism of species were evaluated by statistical methods based on 24 counts and 30 morphometric indices. Samples from 5 Arctic regions were studied: southwestern Greenland, Spitsbergen, Barents Sea, Laptev and East Siberian seas. An analysis of the variability of diagnostic characters showed that the following can be used to identify species with high certainty: 1) the shape of the urogenital papilla (males); 2) the presence/absence of spinules on the lower-posterior margin of scales of the lateral line below the pore of the canal and the degree of development of spinules on the dorsal margin of these scales; 3) the presence of scales at the base of the caudal fin; 4) presence/absence of bony granules on the skin between the lateral line and dorsal row of scales. Other characters (the number of scales in the lateral line and in rows on the body behind the base of the pectoral fin, the length of the nuchal spines) are more variable. No clinal changes in meristic characters were found over the studied areas of ranges of the two species. Greenland population of I. bicornis differs markedly from the samples from the Barents and Laptev seas, which suggests the possibility of the existence of groups of subspecies rank in these waters. An updated key for identification of juveniles, females and males of I. bicornis and I. spatula is provided.

New crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) from the mountain forests of South Africa

A new material on the genera Prolandreva Gorochov, 2005 (Landrevinae: Prolandrevini), Stalacris Desutter-Grandcolas, 2013 (Phalangopsinae: Phalangopsini) and Parametrypa Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1873 (Podoscirtinae: Podoscirtini) from the mountain forests of the Limpopo Province (South Africa) is considered. The following new taxa are described: the subgenus Urolandreva subgen. nov. (inside the first genus); Prolandreva (U.) irisovi sp. nov. (Wolkberg Mts); P. (U.) spinula sp. nov. (Soutpansberg Mts); S. oskolskyi sp. nov. (Wolkberg Mts); Parametrypa dentata curvitibia subsp. nov. (Soutpansberg Mts). A previously unknown male of the nominotypical subspecies of the latter species, P. d. dentata Gorochov, 2021, is also described. Some data on the ecological characteristics of these taxa and on the historic geography of South Africa and adjacent territories are briefly presented. These data allow us to propose a hypothesis that the distribution of the above-mentioned genera along the coast of the Indian Ocean from Eastern Cape to Swaziland and in the isolated mountain forests of the Limpopo Province, located rather far from this coast, could have appeared as a result of partial aridization of the former large forest area, which occupied a significant territory of South Africa (and some nearest countries) and had a similar endemic fauna of crickets.

On colour variability of the common green grasshopper Omocestus viridulus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in northwestern Russia

The diversity of colour forms in the common green grasshopper Omocestus viridulus (Linnaeus, 1758) in 19 localities of the Leningrad, Novgorod and Pskov provinces and adjacent districts of the Vologda and Tver provinces is studied. It has been established that the common green grasshopper is represented by three colour forms: rubiginosa (top and sides of brownish or greyish tones), hyalosuperficies (green top, greyish or brownish sides) and viridis (green top and sides). The most characteristic form for males is rubiginosa, for females is hyalosuperficies, while females of the form rubiginosa and (especially) males of the hyalosuperficies form are extremely rare. The proportion of specimens of the form viridis does not depend on sex, does not depend on the natural zone in which the locality is situated, and nowhere exceeds a quarter of the total number of recorded specimens. To the east of the conventional line passing through the town of Chudovo and the settlement of Kresttsy, Novgorod Province, individuals of the form viridis are practically not found, there is only a single record of such a male. At the same time, the representation of the form viridis on different sides of the above-mentioned line is statistically significantly different. The data obtained are consistent with the results of our previous study carried out at 10 localities in the Novgorod and Pskov provinces. In addition, in terms of the representation of the form viridis, our data for northwestern Russia differ statistically significantly from the literature data published in the 1940s for the Scandinavian and British populations of the same species.

Two new species of the genus Mongolabis Zacher, 1911 (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae) from Vietnam

Two new species of the genus Mongolabis Zacher, 1911 are found in Vietnam. Detailed morphological descriptions of Mongolabis abramovi Anisyutkin sp. nov. from North Vietnam (Phansipan Mountain, Hoang Lien National Park) and M. cattienensis Anisyutkin sp. nov. from South Vietnam (Cat Tien National Park) are given. Both species have a protrusion, which articulates the scapus and pedicellus. The holotypes of the new species are deposited at the collection of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg.

Volume 326 (1), 2022

Date of publication — March 25, 2022

New and little known taxa of the genera Gymnogryllus and Macrogryllus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllinae) from Indo-Malayan and Papuan Regions

A new material on the genera Gymnogryllus Sauss. and Macrogryllus Sauss. is considered. Three new taxa from the Indo-Malayan and Papuan Regions are described: G. egorovi sp. nov. (Indonesia: Maluku Utara Province); G. vietnamensis mada subsp. nov. (Vietnam: Dong Nai Province); M. canorus sp. nov. (Malaysia: Pahang State). The first species is distinguished from all the other congeners by a few distinct features of the male tegminal venation and some important characters of the male genitalia; the second new taxon differs from the nominotypical subspecies of the same species almost only in small details of the male genitalia; and M. canorus sp. nov. is different from the only other species of Macrogryllus mainly in the male genitalia with a very characteristic shape of the ectoparameres. The male genitalia of M. ephippium ephippium (Saussure, 1877) are firstly examined, and previously unknown male of M. bicolor Chopard, 1930 is also described; for the both latter taxa, some new localities are recorded; and for M. bicolor, its calling burrow is firstly found (this burrow is very characteristic, in the shape of a ground cone with an almost vertical tunnel leading to the underground cavity, where the male is hiding during its calling song).

Report on the incidences of skeletal anomalies in three fish species from Bonny tributary (Niger delta), Nigeria

Three cases of skeletal anomalies in fishes Elops lacerta Valenciennes, 1847 (family Elopidae), Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cichlidae) and Arius latiscutatus Günther, 1864 (Ariidae) collected in the Elechi Creek, a tributary of the Bonny River (Niger delta) were reported for the first time in the present study. The anomalies are pugheadness, complete absence of pelvic fins and deformed dorsal, pectoral and pelvic fins. Three specimens of E. lacerta have shown the case of pugheadness but at different levels of severity. The specimen of O. niloticus showed a complete absence of the pelvic fins. Externally, the area where the bases of the pelvic fins should be found (underneath the pectoral fins) showed a normal scale covering (in scale form and size). Internally and by using radiography, no trace of the pelvic fins and the basipterygia were observed. The specimen of A. latiscutatus showed severe deformation of the finrays of the dorsal, pectoral and ventral fins. The spines of the pectoral and dorsal fins were also deformed. Pollution from Port Harcourt appears to be causing the skeletal deformities described.

The taxonomic status of Lacerta agilis var. orientalis Kessler, 1878 (Sauria: Lacertidae)

The paper provides data on the location of the type specimens of Lacerta agilis var. orientalis Kessler, 1878: 7 syntypes were identified in the collection of the Laboratory of Herpetology of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ZISP). The belonging to the type series is clearly indicated by the dates of their collection, localities and collectors. It is shown that according to the “International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature” (4th edition) this published valid name should be considered for L. a. brevicaudata Peters, 1958 and L. a. grusinica Peters, 1960 as the senior subjective synonym, and for L. a. exigua Eichwald, 1831 as the junior subjective synonym. To preserve the stability of the nomenclature, we designate specimen ZISP No. 22902 from Pyatigorsk as the lectotype of Lacerta agilis var. orientalis. From this point on, this trinomen should be regarded as a junior subjective synonym for L. a. exigua, which complies with recommendation ICZN Art. 74A “Agreement with previous restriction. In designating a lectotype, in order to preserve stability of nomenclature an author should act consistently with, and in any event should give great weight to, previously accepted taxonomic restrictions of the application of the name”. A description of the external morphology of the lectotype and its photograph are given.

Overview of the fish fauna of the Chaunskaya basin – the area of the natural reserve "Chaunskaya Guba" and the port of Pevek (East Siberian Arctic)

The fishes of the Chaunskaya Bay and its Basin have been little studied. Part of the coast of this vast Arctic estuary (about 9 thousand km2) is included in the state nature reserve “Chaunskaya Guba”; at the entrance to the bay there is the seaport of Pevek, a transit hub of the Northern Sea Route. The area has been identified as one of the priorities for the protection of biodiversity in the seas of the Russian Arctic. Solving the problem of biota conservation begins with an inventory of the fauna. The paper presents the results of summarizing data on the species composition of marine, anadromous and freshwater fishes in the Chaunskaya Bay and its basin. The updated list includes 36 species of 28 genera, 16 families and 10 orders. In marine waters there are 31 species (18 marine, 13 anadromous and semi-anadromous fish), in rivers and lakes there are 5 freshwater (and 13 anadromous and semi-anadromous) species. The Muksun Coregonus muksun (Pallas, 1814) and the pike Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758, which were absent in the fauna lists, are added. The lamprey Lethenteron kessleri (Anikin, 1905), the Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes, 1847, and the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus, 1758), which were previously recorded, are not confirmed by reliable findings. The marine fish community of the Chaunskaya Bay is an impoverished shelf fauna of the East Siberian Sea and includes species adapted to desalination. The freshwater ichthyofauna of the basin differs from the fauna of the neighboring Kolyma River region in the loss of a number of freshwater species, which are believed to have been extinct because of the Holocene cooling. A significant part of the fish complex consists of elements of the North Pacific fauna that spread to the East Siberian Sea in the postglacial period.

 

 

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Last modified: January 10, 2023