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Eugene Kozminsky
Ph.D.
White Sea Biological Station
Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences
Universitetskaya nab., 1
199034, St.-Petersburg, Russia
Tel: +7(812) 7140097
Fax: +7(812) 7140444
E-mail: Kartesh@gmail.com


Research leader on Agreement of Scientific Cooperation between Kandalaksha State Natural Reserve and White Sea Biological Station ZIN RAS (2001 – present).
Research interests:  gastropods, biology, age determination, growth, development and inheritance of shell coloration, population structure dynamics, viable populations, ecological parasitology, host-parasite interactions
Education:
1984–1991 – Leningrad (St.-Petersburg) State University, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, MSc
1999 – St.-Petersburg State University, PhD in Zoology.
Membership:
Member ofSaint-Petersburg Society of Naturalists
Main research areas:
The study of mechanisms of the forming and the inheritance of molluscs shell coloration.
The mollusks are the popular object for the population genetic studies. In many cases, shell colour features are used as gene pool markers. But, the data on the inheritance of shell colour features are present only for the limited quantity species. The aim of this investigation is to the revealing of general rules of the forming and the inheritance of shell coloration, which should allow to extend data from genetically investigated species to other mollusk species.
At the present time, the detailed survey of mechanisms of the development and the inheritance of shell coloration was performed in model gastropods species - Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758) and L.saxatilis (Olivi, 1792). In order to reveal general rules, specific traits of the development of shell coloration in 18 species were studied and previous data on inheritance of shell colour features in 25 gastropods species was analyzed. Comparative analysis allows us to propose basic rules of formation and inheritance of gastropods shell colour. I have developed and currently maintain a website Classification of colour morphs in Littorina obtusata.
The study was supported by RFBR (¹05-04-48056) and Program of fundamental researches of RAS Presidium «Gene pool dynamics in plants, animals and humans».

The monitoring of population conditions and parasite invasion structures on the littoral molluscs.
The studies on population conditions and structure of parasite invasion by trematodes of the littoral gastropods Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792) and L.obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758) started in 1982 and supported by projects «Complex observations of the biodiversity, distribution and abundance of the key elements of the White Sea ecosystems» (State Reg. ¹ 01.0.40000734) and Agreement of Scientific Cooperation (WSBS and Kandalaksha State Reserve). Beginning in 2001, I am leader of this project from White Sea Biological Station.
Peculiarities of littorina’s distribution and their parasites on intertidal zone have been ascertained. The long-term observations on the trematode invasion (9 species) in the Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792) and L. obtustata (Linnaeus, 1758) are performed. Fluctuations of abundance and peculiarities of distribution littoral macroalgae Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum have been revealed. The change of phenotypic diversity in mollusk population is detected, which may be a result of the water salinity decrease after Nivskaya hydropower station outflow in 2007.

Determination of the individual age of gastropods.
The individual age of the mollusk is of the primary importance in the ecological and population studies. Two model species were investigated, Bithynia tentaculata (Linne, 1758) and Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758), and most important problems in the age determination were established (Kozminsky, 2003, 2005, 2006). The analysis of original and published (Abe, 1932; Fisher-Piette, 1939; Hunter, 1953; Franz, 1971; Gorbushin, 1993 and others) data allows to define key features, which it is necessary to take into account at the development of age’s determination techniques of the mollusk. Such techniques should be complex and based on the count of annual growth interruption lines on the shell, to take into account dynamics of growth, possibility of forming of shell’s structure defects, patterns of erosion and epibioses of shells, reproductive biology of species (Kozminsky, 2004).

The parasite capacity of the host population..
In many cases, a infection results in parasitical castration of host and, for population level, the decrease of reproduction of host population. Therefore, the estimation of parasitical pressure on the host populations is frequently required in parasitological investigations. The empirical values of prevalence of infection are commonly used for this, however the latter one as an estimation of parasitic pressure on the host population is insufficient: the same prevalence of infection can be insignificant for the population with high reproductive potential and excessive for the population with the low reproductive potential. Therefore the development of methods of an estimation of the parasitic pressure on the population, which take into account the features the host population, is necessary.
The methods of estimation of parasitic pressure on the host at the organism level are based on various individual viability parameters: longevity, resistance to difficult environment etc. The natural development of this approach for population level is the analysis of viability parameters of groups, namely, the changing of extinction probability of host population under the influence of parasites. Critical values of prevalence of infection should exist, above theme the host population dies out. The heaviest prevalence of infection, at which the probability of host population size decreases during the some period is less than probability of that increases or preserves, can serve as an indicator of permissible parasitic pressure on the host population. For its designation the term «parasite capacity of the host population» is proposed (Kozminsky, 2002). The real parasitic pressure on the host population should be estimated on the comparison with its parasite capacity.

Color measurement method..
The characteristic of colours of the shell coloration elements of mollusks are usually quite subjective. Group of authors (Atkinson, Warwick, 1983; Wolda, 1969; Cain, 1988) suggested using Munsell or Oswald colour diagrams (Munsell, 1965; Streller, 1939), but in this case the characteristic of colours is qualitative, too. The special calorimetric measurements are too complicated to be applied widely. The simple method of quantitative measurement of colours was invented by us (Kozminsky, Lezin, 2006), which consist in computer analysis of shell digital images by Image Tool software. The method based on the using of RGB color coordinate system and allows to measure as shell colour in general as colour of separate parts of shell pattern. Shell digital images are obtained by color scanner with high resolution and enough depth resolution. The comparison of the shell coloration of common phenotypes of Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758) and check of efficiency of use visible pattern of shell coloration for division of L.obtusata phenotypes were by using this method (Lezin, Kozminsky, 2008). As the obtained results showed, color characteristics of shell background pattern varied in the wide range and can not be used as unequivocal criteria for phenotypes division. For unequivocal division of L.obtusata phenotypes it is necessary to take into account patterns of pigments distribution in the shell is made. The investigation was supported by RFBR (¹05-04-48056).
Publications
  • Exploration, sustainable use and protection of natural resources of the White Sea. Proceedings of the XIII conference, Saint Petersburg, Zoological Institute RAS, 2017, 290 p. (In Russian).  Download
  • Kozminsky E.V., Rolán-Alvarez E. 2017. Maintenance of a shell color polymorphism in natural populations of Littorina fabalis from the White Sea. In: Exploration, Sustainable Use and Protection of Natural Resources of the White Sea. Proceedings of the XIII Conference on the White Sea, Saint Petersburg, Zoological Institute RAS, 2017, p. 110-111. (In Russian).  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminskiy E.V. 2016. Inheritance of longitudinal white stripes on the shell of mollusks Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia). Genetika, 52(8): 991-995 (In Russian)  Abstract  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E., Kraeva N., Ishemgulova A., Dobáková E., Lukes J., Kment P., Yurchenko V., Votypka J., Maslov D.A. 2015. Host-specificity of Monoxenous Trypanosomatids: Statistical Analysis of the Distribution and Transmission Patterns of the Parasites from Neotropical Heteroptera. Protist. V.166: 551–568.   Abstract  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E. V. 2014. Inheritance of the Background Shell Color in the Snails Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Littorinidae). Russian Journal of Genetics Vol. 50, No. 10.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2013. Effects of environmental and biotic factors on the fluctuations of abundance of Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) . Hydrobiologia, 706: 81-90.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2012. Effect of Trematode Partenite Invasion on the Growth Rate of Mollusk Bithynia tentaculata (Linne, 1758). In: Proc. Intl. Sci. Conf. "Contemporary Problems of Modern Parasitology" (Moscow, Oct 30 – Nov 1, 2012). – Moscow: Rosselkhozakademia, p. 165 – 169. (in Russian).  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2012. Effect of Trematode Invasion on the Fecundity of Bithynia tentaculata (Gastropoda: Bithyniidae). Biological Sciences in Kazakhstan. ¹4. 45-53. (In Russian).  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E. V. 2011 Inheritance of Longitudinal Shell Bands in the Snails Littorina obtusata and Littorina saxatilis (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia). Russian Journal of Genetics, 47: 987-993.   Abstract  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminskii E.V. 2010. Longevity of local hemipopulations of trematodes in mollusk Bithynia tentaculata (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Biological Sciences of Kazakhstan, 3: 54-62.  Download
  • Kozminskii E.V., Lezin P.A., Fokin M.V. 2010. A Study of Inheritance of White Spots on the Shell of Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia). Russian Journal of Genetics, 46 (12): 1455-1461.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
  • Lezin P.A., Kozminskii E.V. 2008. Color characteristics of Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) shells and their use for distinguishing its phenotypic groups. Zoologicheskij Zhurnal (Russian Journal of Zoology), 87(1), pp. 29-35. (In Russian)  Abstract  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V., Lezin P.A., Fokin M.V. 2008. A methodology of studying the inheritance of shell color in mollusks of the genus Littorina (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia). Zoologicheskij Zhurnal (Russian Journal of Zoology), 87(5): 614-619. (In Russian)  Abstract  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2007. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792) and L. obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758) populations and structure of parasite invasions in these species in Yuzhnaya Inlet, Ryashkov Island, 2006. Koryakin A.S. (ed.). The Chronicle of Nature by the Kandalaksha Nature Reserve for 2006 (Annual report). - Kandalaksha, Book 52, 2: 110-121. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V., Lezin P.A. 2007. Forming of polymorphic shell coloration in Littorina obtusata (GASTROPODA: PROSOBRANCHIA). In: E.N. Egorova et al (Editors). Proceedings of the Seventh (XVI) conference on molluscan studies. St-Petersburg. ZIN RAS: 129-131. (In Russian with English summary)  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V., Lezin P.A. 2007. Distribution of Pigments in the Shell of the Gastropod Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758). Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 33(4): 238–244. (In Russian)  Abstract  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2006. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792) and L. obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758) populations and structure of parasite invasions in these species in Yuzhnaya Inlet, Ryashkov Island, 2005. Koryakin A.S. (ed.). The Chronicle of Nature by the Kandalaksha Nature Reserve for 2005 (Annual report). - Kandalaksha, 51, 2: 100-114. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E. V. 2006. Determination of age in Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) Zoologicheskii Zhurnal. 85, 2: 146-157. (In Russian with English summary)  Request for a reprint
  • Lezin P.A., Kozminsky E.V. 2006. Investigations of Littorina obtusata (L., 1758) shell polymorphism using the method of color measurements. In: A. B. Tsetlin (Editor). The collected articles on materials of Xth scientific conference of WSBS MGU. Moscow, Grif and K.: 111-114. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminskii E.V., Lezin P.A. 2006. Method of color measurements of the elements of color in gastropod shell. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 32(5):. 316–318. (In Russian)  Abstract  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2005. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792) and L. obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758) populations and structure of parasite invasions in these species in Yuzhnaya Inlet, Ryashkov Island, 2004. Koryakin A.S. (ed.). The Chronicle of Nature by the Kandalaksha Nature Reserve for 2004 (Annual report). - Kandalaksha, Book 50, 2: 152-163. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2005. Growth and the use of dimensions data for determination of individual age of Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) Proceeding of the conference “The study, sustainable use and conservation of natural resources of the White Sea”, Petrozavodsk: 146-150. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
  • Skirnisson K., Galaktionov K.V., Kozminsky E.V. 2004. Factors influencing the distribution of digenetic trematodes infections in a mudsnail (Hydrobia ventrosa) population inhabiting salt marsh ponds in Iceland. J.Parasitol. 90: 50-59.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2004. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792) and L. obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758) populations and structure of parasite invasions in these species in Yuzhnaya Inlet, Ryashkov Island, 2003. Koryakin A.S. (ed.). The Chronicle of Nature by the Kandalaksha Nature Reserve for 2003 (Annual report). - Kandalaksha, 2004, Book 49, 1: 343-356. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2004 Determination of individual age of gastropods Proceedings of All-Russian conference «Siberian zoological conference», Novosibirsk, 15-22 September 2004ã.: 268. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2003. Seasonal dynamics of reproduction and reproductive parameters of Bithynia tentaculata (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) Zoologicheskii Zhurnal.82, 3: 325-331. (In Russian with English summary)  Abstract  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2003. Growth, demographic structure of population and determination of Bithynia tentaculata (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) age. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal. 82, 5: 567-576. (In Russian with English summary)  Abstract  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2003. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792) and L. obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758) populations and structure of parasite invasions in these species in Yuzhnaya Inlet, Ryashkov Island, 2002.Koryakin A.S. (ed.). The Chronicle of Nature by the Kandalaksha Nature Reserve for 2002 (Annual report). - Kandalaksha, Book 48, 1: 175-182. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2002. The parasite capacity of the host population Parazitologiya. 36, 1: 48-59. (In Russian with English summary)  Request for a reprint
  • Ataev G. L., Kozminsky E. V., Dobrovolskij A. A. 2002. Dynamics of infection of Bithynia tentaculata (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) with trematodes // Parazitologiya.36, 3: 203-218. (In Russian with English summary).  Download
  • Kozminsky E.V. 2002. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792) and L. obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758) populations and structure of parasite invasions in these species in Yuzhnaya Inlet, Ryashkov Island, 2001.Koryakin A.S. (ed.). The Chronicle of Nature by the Kandalaksha Nature Reserve for 2001 (Annual report). Kandalaksha, Book 47, 1: 184-196. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E. V. 1999. Populational analysis of Bithynia tentaculata (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) – trematodes community / PhD Thesis - Sanct-Petersburg: 314 P. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
  • Slepjan E.I., Voloshko L.N., Dzyuba O.F., Krupkina L.I., Maulini I.A., Rivkina O.A., Smekalova T.N., Shavrina I.I., Gudkova I.J., Solnzeva M.P., Kozminsky E.V., Anakina R.P. 1997. Plant life of Nevsky avenue Life and safety, Saint-Petersburg.2-3: 406-424. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
  • Slepjan E.I., Voloshko L.N., Dzyuba O.F., Krupkina L.I., Maulini I.A., Rivkina O.A., Smekalova T.N., Shavrina I.I., Gudkova I.J., Solnzeva M.P., Kozminsky E.V., Anakina R.P. 1997. Plant life of Nevsky avenue Life and safety, Saint-Petersburg.2-3: 406-424. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
  • Kozminsky E.V., Granovitch A.I., Sergievsky S.O. 1995. Inheritance of shell colour morphs of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi) Populational studies of the White Sea molluscs. Saint-Petersburg: .19-34. (In Russian with English summary)  Request for a reprint
  • Sergievsky S.O., Granovitch A.I., Kozminsky E.V. 1995. Shell colour polymorphism of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi): classification principles Population studies of the White Sea molluscs. Saint-Petersburg: 3-18. (In Russian with English summary)  Request for a reprint