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Alexey Sukhotin
Ph.D., Director
White Sea Biological Station
Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences
Universitetskaya nab., 1
199034, St.-Petersburg, Russia
Tel: +7(812) 7140097
Fax: +7(812) 7140444
E-mail: Alexey.Sukhotin@zin.ru
Research interests:  Ecophysiology of aquatic animals (energetics, metabolic adaptations to stress, physiological changes in the course of ageing), structure and production in animal populations.
Education:
1979-1984 Leningrad (St.Petersburg) State University (Diploma of the higher education)
1984-1987 Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (Doctorate)
Teaching experience:
  • 2006-2008 - University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, U.S.A. (BIOL 3144L – Ecology Lab; BIOL 3144 – Ecology; BIOL 4000/5000 – Topics in Ecophysiology)
  • St.Petersburg State University, Biological Faculty. (Lecture course "Ecophysiology of aquatic animals".
  • I supervised five M.S. theses and two PhD theses.

    Other activities:

    Member of the Organising Committee
  • Organised the 31st European Marine Biology Symposium, St.-Petersburg, 1996 as a Vice-Chairman of the organising committee;
  • Organised International Conference “Ecological Studies of the White Sea Organisms” (Karelia) as a member of the organising committee;
  • Organised Russian-German Scientific Workshop "Adaptations of Marine Organisms and Problems of Global Climate Changes”, St. Petersburg, Russia, 2006, as a Chairman of the organising committee;
  • Organised the XI All-Russia Conference “The White Sea: Biological Resources, Their Protection and Sustainable Use” held in the Zoological Institute RAS, St.-Petersburg, 9-11 November, 2010, as a Vice-Chairman of the organising committee;
  • Organised the 49th European Marine Biology Symposium, St.-Petersburg, 2014 as a Vice-Chairman of the organising committee.

    Member of the Editorial Board of the Polar Biology.
    Review Editor for the Inter-Research journal Aquaculture Environment Interactions.

    Reviewer for Marine Ecology Progress Series, Aquaculture, Polar Biology, Journal of Molluscan Studies, Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Scientia Marina, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Marine Biology, Journal of Economic Entomology, Marine Biology Research, Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, Proceedings of the Zoologica Institute, Experimental Gerontology, Gerontology, Marine Environmental Research.

  • Main research areas:
    The main fields of my research interests cover ecological energetics, physiology biochemistry and genetics of marine invertebrates and their populations in geographical (macro) and habitat (micro) scales. The overarching theme of my research is understanding of the mechanisms limiting species distribution, determining maximal lifespan and allowing animal populations to withstand environmental stress A special focus was given to growth, reproduction and energy flows in natural and cultured populations of bivalve mollusks. My research topics and achievements can be divided in three following parts:

    1. Energetics and production in bivalve populations. This topic was a part of a program on creation of the scientific background and rationale for Mytilus aquaculture in the White Sea (1984-1991). Specific goals: (a) to study seasonal variations of growth, metabolic and feeding rates in mussels in suspended culture conditions; comparison with natural populations; (b) to determine population structure, dynamics, recruitment, mortality and energy flows in cultured mussels; (c) to evaluate the impact of developing mussel culture on the environment, to elaborate simple and practical tools for the estimation of optimal loads of mussel cultures on coastal ecosystems in the White Sea. Output: This research formed a theoretical basis and provided multiple practical applications in a newly establishing branch of fisheries in the region – mussel aquaculture. The data are summarised in my PhD thesis (1990), the book on mussel aquaculture in the White Sea (1993), papers in peer reviewed journals (e.g. Kulakowski et al., 1986; Kulakowski, Sukhotin, 1986; Sukhotin, 1988; Sukhotin, Kulakowski, 1992; Sukhotin, 1992; Maximovich et al., 1996; Primakov et al., 2008). I use specific methods of ecological energetics also in other than aquaculture studies. We studied the effect of parasites on the metabolic rate in periwinkles (Lysen et al., 1992). In 1999-2004 I supervised a Ph.D. thesis of D.M. Martynova (defended in November 2004) on feeding of boreal plankton crustaceans and their role in the White Sea pelagic ecosystems.

    2. Population biology of mussels. Since 1991 I study population biology and genetics in natural mussel populations in geographical scale (White Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, North Sea, Sea of Okhotsk) and in local scale (in different habitats) aiming to find out whole-animal and population mechanisms of maintaining of genetic composition in mussel populations and the factors limiting Mytilus populations’ persistence at the edge of the area of distribution. Output: an original classification system of phenetic characters (shell and foot colour polymorphism) and their genetic interpretation has been developed (Sergievsky, Sukhotin, 1993). It has been used in analysis of Mytilus population systems in both wide geographical scale (foot colour polymorphism) (Strelkov et al., 1995) and inter-habitat variation (shell colour morphs) (Sukhotin, Sergievsky, 1995). It has been shown that growth performance and stress sensitivity in bivalves are mostly determined by local habitat variation than by climatic factors (Sukhotin, Maximovich, 1994; Regoli et al., 1998; Amiard-Triquet et al., 1998; Bufalova et al., 2005; Sukhotin et al., 2007). Reduced abilities of metabolic depression during environmental anaerobiosis (reflected by enhanced ATP turnover rate) have been found to cause different abilities to withstand air exposure in mussels from intertidal habitats compared to cultured ones (Sukhotin, Portner, 1999). We have also found that molluscs from the Arctic populations have higher metabolic rate than their boreal conspecifics (Sukhotin et al., 2006), which suggests the possibility of metabolic compensation in eurythermal species. Currently I study the population structure (Sukhotin et al., 2008), growth, sexual cycle and seasonal changes in biochemical composition (lipids, proteins and glycogen content) of mussels Mytilus as potential food objects of marine waterfowl birds.

    3. Biochemical and physiological mechanisms of ageing in animals with infinite growth. Since 1996 my research interests also encompass the study of molecular and physiological mechanisms of ageing in infinitely growing animals (most of aquatic invertebrates and vertebrate ectotherms), and its relation to population survival and dynamics. The existing ageing models and theories were elaborated mainly for homeotherms, insects and nematodes. However, the applicability of these theories to continuously growing species is unclear since most physiological rates are size-dependent and age differences are therefore masked by allometric effects. The problem have been discussed (e.g. Medvedev, 1990) of whether the infinitely growing species do have ageing at all, because most tissues of these animals are continuously proliferating and reproduction is not ceased until death. Size effects are especially important taking into account the interpopulational differences in growth and mortality rates in invertebrate species due to environmental differences over wide (geographical) or narrow (habitat) scales. Output: I have developed a new methodological approach to separate the effects of ageing and growth in infinitely growing species. On the model species (bivalve Mytilus edulis) it has been shown that metabolic rate as well as feeding rate depends on both size and age and decrease in aged specimens (Sukhotin et al., 2003; 2006). Metabolic reduction is accompanied by rapid decrease of growth rate and net growth efficiency, lowering of ATP and phosphagens levels in tissues, decline of some metabolic enzymes (citrate synthase) activity, intracellular pH and expressions of chaperones as well as an exponential increase in oxidative damage and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (Sukhotin, Portner, 2001; Sukhotin et al., 2002; Ivanina et al., 2008). Currently I study age-related changes in cellular metabolism in bivalve molluscs.
    Publications
    • Sukhotin A., Fokina N., Ruokolainen T., Bock C., Pörtner H.-O., Lannig G. 2017. Does the membrane pacemaker theory of metabolism explain the size dependence of metabolic rate in marine mussels? Journal of Experimental Biology, 220: 1423-1434.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Basova L., Strahl J., Philipp E.E.R., Brey T., Sukhotin A., Abele D. 2017. Lipofuscin ac-cumulation in tissues of Arctica islandica indicates faster ageing in populations from brackish environments. Mar. Biol., 164: 72.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Mathiesen S.S., Thyrring J., Hemmer-Hansen J., Berge J., Sukhotin A., Leopold P., Bekaert M., Sejr M.K., Nielsen E.E. 2017. Genetic diversity and connectivity within Mytilus spp. in the subarctic and Arctic. Evolutionary Applications, 10: 39-55.  Abstract  Download
    • !! Exploration, sustainable use and protection of natural resources of the White Sea. Proceedings of the XIII conference, Saint Petersburg, Zoological Institute RAS, 2017, 290 p. (In Russian).  Download
    • Berger V. Ya., Mityaev M. V., Sukhotin A. A. 2016. Practical wet oxidation experiment to determine concentrations of particulate organic matter in seawater. Oceanology, 56, 2: 307-310.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • A. Sukhotin, M. Frost, H. Hummel, D. Martynova, A. Naumov (Editors) 2015. Special Section: European Marine Biology Symposium Papers 2014, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, v 95, Issue 8.   Abstract
    • Yershov P.N., Sukhotin A.A. 2015. Age and growth of marine three-spined stickleback in the White Sea 50 years after a population collapse. Polar Biology. Vol.38, N 11. p.1813-1823.   Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Galaktionov, K. V., Bustnes, J. O., Bårdsen B. –J., Wilson, J. G., Nikolaev, K. E., Sukhotin, A. A., Skirnisson, K., Saville, D. H., Ivanov, M. V., Regel, K.V. 2015. Factors influencing the distribution of trematode larvae in blue mussels Mytilus edulis in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. Marine Biology 162: 193-206.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Sukhotin A., Frost M., Hummel H. 2015. Introduction to the Proceedings of the 49th European Marine Biology Symposium. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 95: 1517.   Abstract  Download
    • Sukhotin A.A., Berger V.Ja., Naumov A.D. 2014. A rare encounter of a walrus in the White Sea. Priroda, 3: 71-73. (In Russian).  Download
    • Krasnov Yu.V., Shklyarevich G.A., Sukhotin A.A. 2014. Feeding habits of common eiders Somateria mollissima on the west coast of Vaygach island. Doklady Biological Sciences, 459: 341–343.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • A variety of interactions in the marine environment. Abstracts volume from the 49 European Marine Biology Symposium, St.-Petersburg, 2014, 116 p.  Download
    • Wilson, J.G., Galaktionov, K.V., Sukhotin, A.A., Skirnisson, K., Nikolaev, K.E., Ivanov, M.I., Bustnes, J.O., Saville, D.H., Regel, K.V. 2013. Factors influencing trematode parasite burdens in mussels (Mytilus spp) from the North Atlantic Ocean across to the North Pacific. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 132: 87-93.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Sukhotin A.A. (Editor). 2013. Long-term research on marine ecosystems in the White Sea, Russia. Hydrobiologia, v. 706, issue 1.  Abstract
    • Sukhotin A., Berger V. 2013. Long-term monitoring studies as a powerful tool in marine ecosystem research. Hydrobiologia, 706: 1-9.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Berger V.Ja., Naumov A.D., Sukhotin A.A. 2012. Conclusion. In: V.Ja. Berger (Ed.) Biological Resources of the White Sea: Investigation and Exploitation. Zoological Institute RAS, Saint-Petersburg: 320-331. (In Russian).
    • Basova L., Begum S., Strahl J., Sukhotin A., Brey T., Philipp E., Abele D. 2012. Age dependent patterns of antioxidants in Arctica islandica from six regionally separate populations with different life spans. Aquatic Biology 14: 141-152.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Khalaman V.V., Sukhotin A.A. 2012. Mariculture. In: V.Ja. Berger (Ed.) Biological Resources of the White Sea: Investigation and Exploitation. Zoological Institute RAS, Saint-Petersburg, Chapter 9: 294-319. (In Russian).  Request for a reprint
    • Sokolova I.M., Frederich M., Bagwe R., Lannig G., Sukhotin A.A. 2012. Energy homeostasis as an integrative tool for assessing limits of environmental stress tolerance in aquatic invertebrates. Marine Environmental Research 79: 1-15.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Philipp E.E.R., Strahl J., Sukhotin A.A. 2011. Ageing in marine animals. In: D. Abele, J.P. Vázquez-Medina, T. Zenteno-Savin (Eds.). Oxidative Stress in Aquatic Ecosystems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. Chapter 14. P. 193-207.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Martynova D.M., Kazus’ N.A., Bathmann U.V., Graeve M., Sukhotin A.A. 2011. Seasonal abundance and feeding patterns of copepods Temora longicornis, Centropages hamatus and Acartia spp. in the White Sea (66ºN). Polar Biology, 34: 1175-1195.   Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Sokolova I.M., Sukhotin A.A., Lannig G. 2011. Stress effects on metabolism and energy budgets in mollusks. In: D. Abele, J.P. Vázquez-Medina, T. Zenteno-Savin (Eds.). Oxidative Stress in Aquatic Ecosystems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. Chapter 19. P. 263-280.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Alekseev A.P., Sukhotin A.A. 2011. Problems of exploration, rational exploitation, and conservation of the White Sea natural resources. Rybnoye Khoziaystvo (“Fisheries”), 2: 64-68 (In Russian).  Request for a reprint
    • A.D. Naumov, A.P. Alekseev, A.A. Sukhotin (Editors). 2010. The White Sea: Biological Resources, Their Protection and Sustainable Use. Proceedings of the XI All-Russia Conference held in the Zoological Institute RAS, St.Petersburg, 9-11 November, 2010. (In Russian).  Download
    • Berger V.Ja., Sukhotin A.A. 2010. Biological resources of the White Sea, their production potential and rational exploitation. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 80, 11: 968-973. (In Russian).  Request for a reprint
    • Sukhotin A.A., Flyachinskaya L.P. 2009. Aging reduces reproductive success in mussels Mytilus edulis. Mech. Ageing Dev., 130: 754-761.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Begum S., Basova L., Strahl J., Sukhotin A., Heilmayer O., Philipp E., Brey T., Abele D. 2009. A Metabolic Model for the Ocean Quahog Arctica islandica—Effects of Animal Mass and Age, Temperature, Salinity, and Geography on Respiration Rate. J. Shellfish Res., 28, 3: 533-539.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Ivanina A.V., Sokolova I.M., Sukhotin A.A. 2008. Oxidative stress and expression of chaperones in aging mollusks. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 150: 53-61.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Primakov I.M., Ivanov M.V., Lezin P.A., Kulakowski E.E., Sukhotin A.A. 2008. The Effect of Mussel Aquaculture on Benthic and Plankton Communities in the White Sea. Okeanologia, 48(2), pp. 249-253. (In Russian)  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Sukhotin A.A., Krasnov Yu.V., Galaktionov K.V. 2008. Subtidal populations of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis as key determinants of waterfowl flocks in the southeastern Barents Sea. Polar Biology 31: 1357-1363.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Sukhotin A.A., Strelkov P.P., Maximovich N.V., Hummel H. 2007. Growth and longevity of Mytilus edulis (L.) from northeast Europe. Marine Biology Research 3: 155-167.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Nikolaev K.E., Sukhotin A.A., Galaktionov K.V. 2006. Infection patterns in White Sea blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. of different age and size with metacercariae of Himasthla elongate (Mehlis, 1831) (Echinostomatidae) and Cercaria parvicaudata Stunkard & Shaw, 1931 (Renicolidae). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 71: 51-58.  Abstract  Download
    • Sukhotin A.A., Abele D., Poertner H.-O. 2006. Ageing and metabolism of Mytilus edulis: populations from various climate regimes. Journal of Shellfish Res 25: 893-899.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Maximovich N.V., Sukhotin A.A. 2005. Results and prospects of mussel mariculture in the White Sea. Proc. Of the 9th International Conference, Oct 11-14 2004. Petrozavodsk, Russia. Petrozavodsk, Ed: Alimov A.F., Berger V.Ja., Ieshko E.P., Nemova N.N.: 211-214. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
    • Bufalova E.N, Strelkov P.P, Katolikova M.V, Sukhotin A.A, Kozin M.B. 2005. Mussels Mytulis of the TiuvaInlet (Kola Bay, the Barents Sea). Vestnil SPBGU. 3: 99-105. (In Russian)  Download
    • Sukhotin A.A., Lajus D.L., Lesin P.A. 2003. Influence of age and size on pumping activity and stress resistance in the marine bivalve Mytilus edulis L. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 284: 129-144  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Sukhotin A.A., Abele D., Poertner H.-O. 2002. Growth, metabolism and lipid peroxidation in Mytilus edulis L.: age and size effects. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 226: 223-234.  Abstract  Download
    • Sukhotin A.A., Poertner H.-O. 2001. Age-dependence of metabolism in mussels Mytilus edulis (L.) from the White Sea. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 257: 53-72.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Maximovich N.V., Sukhotin A.A., 2000. Structure and dynamics of cultured mussel populations in the White Sea. In: Yu.S.Minichev and N.V.Maximovich (Eds.) The experience of commercial mussel cultivation in the White Sea. St.Petersburg University, St.Petersburg: 109-123. (In Russian)  Download
    • Sukhotin À.À., H.-O. Poertner. 1999. Habitat as a factor involved in the physiological response to environmental anaerobiosis of White Sea Mytilus edulis. Mar.Ecol.Progr. Ser. 184: 149-160.  Abstract  Download
    • Lajus D.L., Sukhotin A.A. 1998. A new approach for the assessment of stochastic variation: analysis of behavioural response in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.). Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen 52: 141-45.  Request for a reprint
    • Regoli F., Hummel H., Amiard-Triquet C., Larroux C., Sukhotin A. 1998. Trace metals and variations of antioxidant enzymes in Arctic bivalve populations. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.35: 594-601.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Hummel H., Bogaards R., Bek T., Polishchuk L., Amiard-Triquet C., Bachelet G., Desprez M., Strelkov P., Sukhotin A., Naumov A., Dahle S., Denisenko S., Gantsevich M., Sokolov K., L. de Wolf 1997. Sensitivity to stress in the bivalve Macoma balthica from the most northern (Arctic) to the most southern (French) populations: low sensitivity in Arctic populations because of genetic adaptations? In: A.D. Naumov, H. Hummel, A.A. Sukhotin & J.S. Ryland (eds) INTERACTIONS AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES OF MARINE ORGANISMS, Hydrobiologia 355: 127-138.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Maximovich N.V., Sukhotin A.A., Minichev Yu.S. 1996. Long-term dynamics of blue mussel culture settlements (the White Sea). Aquaculture, 147: 191-204.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Berger V.Ja., Naumov A. D., Sukhotin A.A. 1995. Concluding remarks. Chapter 14. The White Sea. Biological resources and problems of their rational exploitations. Part 2. St. Petersburg: 207-214. (In Russian).  Request for a reprint
    • Strelkov P.P., Sergievsky S.O., Sukhotin A.A. 1995. Phenogeographic analysis of populations of Mytilus edulis in the seas of North-West Russia. In: S.O. Sergievsky (Editor), Population Studies of White Sea Molluscs. Proc.Zool.Inst., St.Petersburg, 264: 174-192. (In Russian with English summary)  Request for a reprint
    • Kulakowski E.E., Sukhotin A.A. 1995. Mussel aquaculture. In: V.Ja.Berger (Editor), White Sea. Biological Resources and Problems of Their Exploitation. Part II. Zoological Institute St.Petersburg: 185-199. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
    • Sukhotin A.A., Sergievsky S.O. 1995. Colour polymorphism and growth peculiarities in blue mussels cultured in the White Sea. In: S.O. Sergievsky (Editor), Population Studies of White Sea Molluscs. Proc.Zool.Inst., St.Petersburg, 264: 141-158. (In Russian with English summary)  Request for a reprint
    • Sukhotin A.A., Maximovich N.V. 1994. Variability of growth rate in Mytilus edulis L. from Chupa Inlet (the White Sea). J.Exp.Mar.Biol.Ecol. 176: 15-26.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Kulakowski E.E., Sukhotin A.A. , Khalaman V.V. 1993. The Formation of cultured mussel populations in different points of Chupa Inlet (Kandalaksha Bay). In: A.A. Sukhotin (Editor), The Investigations of Mussel Mariculture in the White Sea. Proc.Zool.Inst., St.Petersburg, 253: 24-41. (In Russian with English summary).  Download
    • Maximovich N.V., Minichev Yu.S., Kulakowski E.E., Sukhotin A.A. , Chemodanov A.V. 1993. The dynamics of structural and functional characteristics of cultured mussel settlements in the White Sea. In: A.A. Sukhotin (Editor), The Investigations of Mussel Mariculture in the White Sea. Proc.Zool.Inst., St.Petersburg, 253: 61-82. (In Russian with English summary).  Download
    • Babkov A.I., Kulakowski E.E., Sukhotin A.A. 1993. The influence of hydrological regime on cultured mussel population's development in the White Sea. In: A.A. Sukhotin (Editor), The Investigations of Mussel Mariculture in the White Sea. Proc.Zool.Inst., St.Petersburg, 253: 16-23. (In Russian with English summary)  Download
    • Sergievsky S.O., Sukhotin A.A. 1993. Demographic and phenetical structure of cultured mussel population (Kandalaksha Bay, the White Sea). In: A.A. Sukhotin (Editor), The Investigations of Mussel Mariculture in the White Sea. Proc.Zool.Inst., St.Petersburg, 253: 42-60. (In Russian with English summary).  Download
    • Sukhotin A.A. 1992. Respiration and energetics in mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured in the White Sea. Aquaculture 101: 41-57.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Sukhotin A.A., Kulakowski E.E. 1992. Growth and population dynamics in mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured in the White Sea. Aquaculture 101: 59-73.  Abstract  Request for a reprint
    • Lyzen I.M., Sukhotin A.A., Sergievsky S.O. 1992. The influence of trematode invasion on the aquatic respiration rate of the intertidal mollusc Littorina obtusata. Parazitologiya, 26: 521-523. (In Russian).  Download
    • Sukhotin A.A., Kulakowski E.E., Maximovich N.V. 1992. Length growth of the White Sea mussels under changed environmental conditions. Ekologiya, Sverdlovsk, 5: 71-77. (In Russian)  Download
    • Sukhotin A.A. 1990. Ecological and Physiological Investigations on Mytilus edulis L. Under the Aquaculture Conditions in the White Sea. PhD Thesis. (In Russian)  Request for a reprint
    • Sukhotin A.A. 1989. Length-weight characteristics and tissue-shell ratios in mussels Mytilus edulis L. from suspended culture and natural populations in the White Sea. In: A.V.Ereskowski and V.V.Khlebovich (Editors), Proc. of the Zoological Institute, 192: 45-55. (In Russian with English summary).  Request for a reprint
    • Kulakowski E.E., Kunin B.L., Sukhotin A.A. 1988. The analysis of mussel development in the experimental-commercial mussel aquaculture in Chupa Inlet of the White Sea during three growth seasons. In: E.E.Kulakowski (Editor), Exploration of the fauna of the seas, 39(47): 89-96. (In Russian with English summary).  Request for a reprint
    • Kulakowski EE, Sukhotin AA 1988. Mussel populations in the White Sea. Rybnoe Khoziaystvo 9: 46-47 (In Russian).  Download
    • Sukhotin A.A. 1988. Respiration of the White Sea mussels under cultivation conditions. Ekologiya, Sverdlovsk, 2: 55 -60. (In Russian).  Download
    • Kulakowski E.E., Kunin B.L., Sukhotin A.A. 1986. Characteristics of the mussel Mytilus edulis population in the experimental- commercial mussel farm in the White Sea. Biologiya Morya, 4: 35-40. (In Russian with English summary).  Request for a reprint
    • Kulakowski E.E., Sukhotin A.A. 1986. Growth of common mussels in the White Sea in the wild and cultured populations. Ecologija, 2: 35-42 (In Russian).