The taxonomic pattern of the polytypic species Hyalomma asiaticum (Ixodidae). First experience of morphometric data bases application. P. 65-82.
Taxonomic structure of species of Hyalomma asiaticum Sch. et Schl., 1929 throughout the entire distribution range has been reinvestigated. Morphological relationships and differential characters of intraspecies taxa have been elucidated on the basis of all active phases of ontogenesis. The distribution range of H. asiaticum stretches in the latitudinal direction and includes Asia Minor, Middle and Central Asia (fig. 1). The species has high abundance and extensive compass of arid habitats — from deserts situated slightly above sea level to alpine deserts in Nan-Shan and Tibet. H. asiaticum has paste type of parazitism and three-host life cycle. Adults parasitize cattle and wild ungulates, all phases — tolai-hare and hedgehogs. Immature phases parasitize also carnivora, gerbils, gofers, jerboas, seldom — reptiles and birds. Spontaneus transfer of viruses of Crimean hemorrhagic fever and others, rickettsiae and some pathogen bacteria. Four subspecies were described in the literature, basically from the male. Intraspecific variability of immature phases had been unknown. The faunistic literature data on subspecies were not supported by morphological characters of the taxa. 1485 females, 2960 males, 816 nymphs and 822 larvae have been studied. These specimens belong to 17 populations (or groups of populations). The populations were separated on the basis of presence great natural barriers. A total of 126 samples have been studied, of them 52 were studied by means of the package of software programs [A—С (in Russian) — the populations]; the numbers or samples, investigated by means of software programms printed in bold-type. For each phase of ontogenesis 18 characters were studied. Investigated material of 3 subspecies: H. asiaticum asiaticum Sch. et Schl., 1929, H. asiaticum caucasicum Pom., 1940, H. asiaticum kozlovi Ol., 1931, included females and males from typical series (fig. 2), as well as larvae and nymphs from typical localities. Only ratios of sizes of the structures have been used in connection with a great range of variability of sizes in adults. Using of absolute sizes permitted to obtain more precise results for differentiation of subspecies on immature phases. Apart from sizes a punctation of caudal field was estimated in male on the basis of 4 grade scale, and ratio of length of pulvila and claws of tarsus I on the basis of 3 grade scale. A primary initial statistical analysis was conducted using original program written by A.L. Lobanov (fig. 4—7, 0.05 was taken as the level of significance of confidence intervals). Method of multidementional scaling with the help of software package SYSTAT was used for final estimation of relationships between the populations (fig. 8). The three above mentioned, subspecies of species H. asiaticum were considered. Complicated morphological and territorial relations between these subspecies were revealed. All characters on all phases of all subspecies overlap. All 3 subspecies, to which 3 groups of populations conform, differ from each other in male only (fig. 8, 2): H. asiaticum caucasicum (A), H. asiaticum kozlovi (P), H. asiaticum asiaticum (the others). Subspecies H. asiaticum caucasicum only differs from two others in female (fig. 8, 1). H. asiaticum kozlovi only differs from two others in immature phases (fig. 8, 3, 4). No specific host or habitat relationships of the subspecies have been established.
Lysosomal enzymes in the life cycle of horse flies of the genus Hybomitra. P. 83-89.
The activity of acid phosphotase, RNAase and DNAase in ovum, larvae and imago phases of horse flies of the genus Hybomitra was studied. The rate of the total activity of lysosomal enzymes is a subject of considerable fluctuation during the onthogenesis of these insects. Maximal values of activity of acid nucleases were observed in ovum at the moment of larva hatching, in non-feeding larvae of younger ages, and in elder ones before the pupation. The acid phosphotase in ovum had lesser activity than in larvae and adult horse flies. The seasonal variability of the enzymatic activity was recovered. The participation of lysosomes in adaptive reconstructions of metabolism is shown.
A new genus of feather mite of the family Avenzoariidae (Acariformes: Analgoidea) from lapwings. P. 90-100.
The new genus Ovofreyana gen. n. is established. This genus resembles by general appearance the genus Hemifreyana Gaud et Mouchet, 1959 but differs from it by characters as follows. In both sexes: prodorsal shield wide triangular, lateral membranes of hysterosoma are relatively narrow and parallel in general to the lateral controur of the proper hysterosoma, lateral setae e2 and f2 are lanceolate in shape; in males: true opisthosomal lobes are obliterated and represented by a pair of rectangular membranose processes earring the setae ps1 only. It is suggested that similarity of Ovofreyana to Hemifreyana is a result of convergence and the genus Ovofreyana is really most closely related in origin to the genus Bychovskiata Dubinin, 1951 but highly specialized. The genus includes 3 species associated exclusively with lapwings (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae: Vanellinae). The type species Ovofreyana leclerci (Trouessart, 1886) comb. n. is redescribed. The redescription is based on type materials. Hemifreyana kurbanovae Mironov, 1987 is synonymized to O. leclerci. Two new species are described: Ovofreyana africana sp. n. from lapwings Vanellus senegallus (type host), V. melanopterus, V. lugubrisy, V. coronatus, and O. gladifera sp. n. from V. duvaucelli (type host) and V. miles. The main characters, that differ O. gladifera from other species, are the simple lanceolate setae e2 in both sexes and long needle-like setae hi in females. In O. leclerci and O. africana the setae e2 are bifurcate on apex and setae h1 are small hair-like. These two species differ from one another by humeral shields fused with hysteronotal shield in both sexes of O. leclerci and free humeral shields in both sexes of O. africana.
Photoperiodic control of development and diapause in nymphs of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus (Ixodidae). P. 101-104.
Development and diapause in nymphs of Ixodes persulcatus at the age of 12 months are regulated at 18°C by day-length according to the long-day photoperiodic reaction, and regimens of engorged nymphs are of main importance. Long-day photoperiods (LD 20 : 4) have stimulated non-diapause development in 97—100% specimens (moulting of 50% nymphs in 67—69 days after feeding), but short-day photoperiods (LD 12 : 12) have induced diapause (a delay of development over than 6 months) in 75% specimens.
Hostal and geographical distribution of Piroplasmida. P. 105-111.
The most rich fauna of the Piroplasmida among the Craniata is observed in Mammalia — 142 species. Within the class Mammalia the greatest number of species is recorded in Artiodactyla (42 species), Rodentia (37) and Carnivora (35). The most rich fauna of Piroplasmida among invertebrates is observed in ticks of the genara Rhipicephalus (21), Hyalomma (13), Haemophysalis (13) and Dermacentor (13), the lesser number of species is recorded in tick genera Amblyomma (6) and Ixodes (5). The analysis of the geographical distribution of Piroplasmida shows the most rich fauna in the Holarctic (111 species) and in the Ethiopian (58) regions, the lesser number of species is discovered in the Indo-Malaean (21), in the Neotropical (9) and in the Australian (8) regions. The descriptions of the Piroplasmida from the Antarctic are absent. The data of the distribution of Piroplasmida in the territory of the former USSR are given.
The effect of different concentrations of the sulphate nickel on the horn snail (Mollusca: Bulinidae) infected with the trematode Cotylurus cornutus (Strigeidae). P. 112-116.
The effect of different concentrations (200, 500, 800 mg/l) of the sulphate nickel on the horn snail Planorbarius corneus non-infected and infected with sporocysts and metacercariae of Cotylurus cornutus was investigated. In solutions of this salt there were established statistically reliable differences in the contents of haemoglobin, active reaction of haemolymph and security of the total weight and soft weight by haemoglobin. In molluscs infected with trematodes and in those free of infection, exposed for 48 hours to sulphate nickel solutions, the symptom-implex of intoxication is analogous. However, adaptive and protective properties of infected molluscs are rather weakened. If concentrations of toxic matter are the same, the corresponding symptoms of intoxication are displayed in these animals earlier and stronger than in molluscs non-infected with trematodes.
A new species of parasitic copepods of the genus Haemobaphes (Crustacea: Copepoda: Pennelidae) from fishes of the genus Liparis (Cottoidei: Liparidae) of Pacific Ocean. P. 117-126.
Haemobaphes cresseyi sp. n. is described from the gill arches of the fishes of the genus Liparis in the north part of Pacific. The new species is most close in some characters to H. pannosus Kabata, 1979.
Topographical peculiarities of monogenean nervous system. P. 127-139.
Topographic anatomy of the nervous system of the Monogenea is analysed. The discussion on the structure of the nervous system is based on the functional and anatomical peculiarities of the worms belonging to different monogenean taxa. Monogeneans have 3 variants of the orthogonal nervous system. The euorthogon with 3 pairs of trunks and several commissures is considered as the most primitive and typical for the monogenean ancestors (protomonogeneans). Two main distinguishing features characterize the monogenean nervouse system: "the back brain" and the frontal hemiring. «The back brain» is formed at the base of the last body commissure and all trunks. It is also reinforced by the numerous fibrils of the surrounded nervous cells. The frontal hemiring is formed by the anterior branches of the lateral trunks and innervated the head end of monogeneans. Unlike to trematodes and cestodes monogeneans have numerous nervous cells; their number is comparable to ones of the free-life turbellarians. The nervous system of Udonella is discussed in regards to the monogenean nervous system.
A new record of the cestode Cryptocotylepis globosoides from the water shrew Neomys fodiens in Central Siberia. P. 140-142.
Cryptocotylepis globosoides originally described by Soltys (1954) from Neomys fodiens in Poland was repeatedly recorded for different shrew species over Western and Central Europe (Prokopic, 1957; Vaucher, 1971; Sans-Coma, 1979; Robinson, 1981 and others). However, all of the morphological descriptions of this species were incomplete, which led to confusions. Thus, in some publications two other unarmed hymenolepidid species of shrews, Pseudobothriolepis fodiens and P. mathevossianae, were described under the name of C. globosoides (Vaucher, 1971; Karpenko and Guljaev, 1990). Being similar with C. globosoides in size and morphology of the strobila these species differ from the latter by very specific structure of the scolex — there are two deep slits, bearing a pair of suckers faced each other. Moreover, in contrast to C. globosoides, the testes of P. mathevossianae are disposed in transverse row, and P. fodiens is characterized by smaller size of the scolex and the eggs, compact testes disposal, and shorter length of the cirrus sac. In our material collected in 1991—1993 in Central Siberia (62° N, 89° W) several specimens of C. globosoides were found from the small intestine of N. fodiens. Intensity of the infection ranged from one to six worms per host. This is the first record of C. globosoides from Siberia. The detailed morphological description of the species is given.