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Year 2010, Volume 44, Issue 4
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Estimation of the biological age in taiga tick females (Ixodes persulcatus: Ixodidae) by the fat reserves in organism. P. 289-296.
The method of estimation of the biological age in non-feeding tick females by the level of adipose inclusions in the cells of the midgut and fat body is developed. In order to estimate the fat reserves in non-feeding females, alive ticks were dissected and fragments of their internal were vitally stained with the pregnant solution of sudan III in 70% ethanol. Three age-specific groups were established: I, young females whose intestines and fat body were filled with fat in elusions; II, mature females whose fat reserves were partially expended; III, old females having isolated fat inclusions in their midgut and fat body.
in Russian
Characteristics of zonal distribution of the gamasid mites connected with small mammals and their nests in Western Siberia. P. 297-309.
Analysis of long-term data on the fauna, landscape distribution, and structure of communities of the gamasid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) connected with small mammals and their nests in the plain part of Western Siberia is carried out. By now, presence of 249 gamasid mite species is established in the territory under study, includinf 193 free-living and 56 parasitic species. Gamasid mites are represented by the maximal number of species on small mammals and in thers nests in northern forest-steppe (102 and 105 species respectively). Nine parasitic species from two ecological groups (epizoic and nidicolous) were found in all landscape zones of the West Siberian Plain, namely: 1) epizoic species Laelaps clethrionomydis Lange, 1955, Laelaps hilaris C.L. Koch, 1836, and Hyperlaelaps arvalis Zachvatkin, 1948 (obligatory non-exclusive hematophagous); 2) nidicolous species Androlaelaps casalis Berlese, 1887 (obligatory non-exclusive hematophagous), Eulaelaps stabularis C.L. Koch, 1836, Haemogamasus nidiformes Bregetova, 1955 (facultative hematophagous), Haemogamasus ambulans Thorell, 1872 (obligatory non-exclusive hematophagous), Hirstionyssus isabellinus Oudemans, 1913, and Hirstionyssus eusoricis Bregetova, 1956 (obligatory exclusive hematophagous). Last three species demonstrate the mixed type of parasitism. The population of gamasid mites on small mammals is most specific in tundra, southern forest-steppe and steppe; the fauna of gamasid mites in nests is most specific in southern forest-steppe and steppe.
in Russian
Expression of genes encoding defense factors in the snail Planorbarius corneus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) infested with trematodes. P. 310-325.
Because many species of gastropods are intermediate hosts for trematodes, these molluscs are often used as model-organisms in the studies of invertebrate immune system. Revealing of the ways in which the defense factors functioning( became possible due to the use of the methods of molecular biology. Contemporary molecular methods allow analyzing the defense factors allocations and levels of their expression. We investigated the expression of genes encoding defense factors in gastropods by the example of the snail Planorbarius corneus from water bodies of the Leningrad Oblast under infestation with trematods. The snails naturally infested with the parthenites of trema-tode species belonging to the families Strigeidae, Notocotylidae, Plagiorchiidae, and Schistosomatida were used as the experimental sample. Uninvested snails were used as a control sample. Several genes encoding the factors, which have been recently found involved in the anti-trematode defense reactions in pulmonates, were chosen, namely fibrinogen-related protein, C-lectin, calcium-binding protein, and cystatin-like protein. The genes' expression was analyzed on total mRNA samples by the reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction. It was shown than expression levels of the genes under consideration are different in uninfested snails and in the snails infested with different trematode species. Thus, in the mollusks infested with the parthenites of Cotylurus sp. and Bilharziella polonica, the expression levels of the genes of all factors under study were increased, while in the infested Notocotylus sp. и Plagiorchis sp., only expression levels of C-lectin and cystatin-like protein were increased. Results of the expression analysis confirm the role of hemocytes and cells of hepatopancreas in the production of humoral defense factors. In the snails infested with trematodes, the expression levels of C-lectin and calcium-binding protein genes are increased in haemocytes, while the genes of fibrinogen-related and cystatin-like proteins are activated in the hepatopancreas. Our data also confirm the role of the factors examined in the anti-trematode defense reactions in pulmonates.
in Russian
Seasonal dynamics of the trematode fauna in herring gull (Larus argentatus Pontopp.) of Kola Bay. P. 326-335.
Trematode fauna of the herring gulls from Kola Bay (Barents Sea) was investigated in March, May, June, and September 2005. The data on the trematode species composition and indices of the invasion of gulls with trematodes are given for each season. It was established, that trematode species composition is increased from spring to summer, and intensity of the gulls' invasion with some trematode species is increased from summer to autumn. Ecological factors causing seasonal differences of the trematode fauna in gulls are discussed.
in Russian
Parasites of underyearling Kamchatka mykiss Parasalmo mykiss mykiss (Osteichthyes: Salmonidae) in the Utkholok River (North-Western Kamchatka). P. 336-342.
Eight species of parasites, Apiosoma piscicolum piscicolum, Apatemon sp., Diplostomum sp., Bunoderidae gen. sp., Crepidostomum metoecus, Hysterothylacium gadi aduncum, Salvelinema salmonicola, and Cucullanus truttae had been found in underyearling Kamchatka mykiss (with fork length 28—41 mm) from the Utkholok River, North-Western Kamchatka. Infestation rate of the fishes with each parasite species was rather low. Presence of C. truttae in underyearling Kamchatka mykiss could not be explained by the conceptual model of its life cycle proposed by Moravec (1979). Spatial and temporal isolation of underyearling Kamchatka mykiss and ammocoetes, as the elements of a local food web, suggest that the lamprey larvae do not participate in the transmission of C. truttae to underyearling Kamchatka mykiss.
in Russian
Data on intestinal parasites of lower monkeys in the Adler apery. P. 343-350.
Under captive conditions, a parasite fauna connected with the changes in ecological conditions, feeding, and mode of life is usually formed in monkeys. Species composition of the intestinal parasites has been investigated in six species of the monkeys (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. nemestrina, Ceropithecus aethiops, Papio hamadryas, and P. anubis), which were born in the Adler apery and live there for a long time. A comparison with similar investigations carried out in the Sukhumi apery, where the climatic and keeping conditions are practically identical with those in the Adler apery, was conducted. Parasite fauna of monkeys in the Adler apery was found to include three species of Nematoda (Ascaris sp., Trichocephalus sp., and Strongyloides sp.) and two species of Protozoa (Balantidium coli and Lamblia intestinalis). In our material, Trichocephalus sp. is the dominant parasite species among helminthes, and Balantidium coli is the most frequent species of Protozoa. The commonness in the transmission of these parasites and similarity in their life cycles contribute to the forming of polyinvasions in monkeys.
in Russian
A new microsporidium species Glugea mesocotti sp. nov. (Microsporidia: Glugeidae) from Mesocottus haitej (Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae). P. 351-355.
A new microsporidian parasite of a freshwater fish Mesocottus haitej from the Amur River basin of Russia is described using light microscopy. The numerous whitish xenomas, round or oval, up to 3.0 mm large were found to be located in subcutaneous tissue of the body and mouth cavity, in the intestine and other internal organs. The formol fixed spores are elongate oval, measuring 4.8 (4.5—5.0)X2.3 (2.2—2.5) µm in a wet smears. Posterior vacuole occupies about half of the spores. Sporophorous vesicles measuring up to 13 µm contain a great number of spores.
in Russian
An example of anthropogenous succession in the ecosystem of the Verkhnetulomsky water reservoir (the Tuloma river basin, Kola region). P. 356-363.
The destruction of initial biocenoses in the ecosystem of the Verkhnetulomsky Water Reservoir caused deep succession processes. As a result of the loss of the amphipod group in the benthos, replacement of the trophic links in fishes took place in the biocenosis of the reservoir. Benthos feeders changed over to the feeding on zooplankton and, as a result, became the constituent of the predators'diet. The structure of parasitic systems has changed. The parasites using amphipods as intermediate hosts have been and, on the contrary, the abundance of parasites infesting fishes through feeding of the latter on zooplankton has increased. Among the parasites, Triaenophorus crassus Forel became the cause of the appearance of stable triaenophorosis focus.
in Russian
Effect of some harmacological substances on the motility of the Cryptocotyle lingua cercaria Heterophyidae). P. 364-370.
he effect of some biologically active substances (acetylcholine, serotonin, octopami-ne, sodium nitroprussid and FMRF-amide) on the motility of the Cryptocotyle lingua cercariae was studied. Solutions of FMRF-amide, octopamine, and sodium nitroprussid have no statistically significant influence on the motility of C. lingua. Acetylcholine and serotonin in solutions affected the motility through the prolongation of the active phase of swimming. Further research is required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the cercarial motility.
in Russian
All-Russian conference with foreign participants "Actual problems of the natural nidality of diseases" (to 7th anniversary of the E. N. Pavlovsky's theory on the natural nidality of diseases), November 2009, Omsk. P. 371-373.
Summary is absent.
in Russian
In memory of Jane Walker (1925—2009). P. 374.
Summary is absent.
in Russian