Ultrastructural study of protective envelopes in Dioecocestus asper (Cestoda: Dioecocestidae) megalocercus. P. 89-96.
The megalocercus of Dioecocestus asper (Mehlis 1831) from the haemocoele of dragonfly larvae possesses two envelopes: outer (exocyst) and inner (endocyst) ones. The exocyst contains the large endocyst and larval strobila with scolex attached to the latter. Outer and inner surfaces of these envelopes are organized as the tegument and have some structural differences. The exocyst is covered with slender microvilli. Its outer tegument contains numerous mitochondria; the inner one is filled with lipid droplets released into the exocyst's cavity. The well-developed protonephridial (excretory) system consisting of flame cells, collecting ducts and canals is the unique feature of the exocyst, noted for the first time. Thick (more, then 50 (µm) distal cytoplasm of the outer tegument of the endocyst is the place of accumulation of uniform globules looking like a hyaloid layer. This outer layer together with underlying fibrous layer (up to 20 µm), apparently, protect the scolex and larval strobila during the transfer through feather clump in the stomach of grebes, definitive hosts of D. asper. Muscle cells of both envelopes retain their synthetic activity even in the fully developed metacestode. Probably, they are the main structural element, which produces fibers of the extracellular matrix and maintains the integrity of protective envelopes of the megalocercus.
Fleas of small mammals from the northeastern Russian Far East. P. 97-109.
Results of the study of fleas (Siphonaptera) collected from small mammals (insectivores and rodents) in the Russian Far East (Magadan Province, and Khabarovsk and Kamchatka Territories) are represented. Fourteen flea species were revealed in 17 species of small mammals.
Co-adaptation mechanisms in plant-nematode systems. P. 110-130.
The review is aimed to analyze the biochemical and immune-breaking adaptive mechanisms established in evolution of plant parasitic nematodes. Plant parasitic nematodes are obligate, biotrophic pathogens of numerous plant species. These organisms cause dramatic changes in the morphology and physiology of their hosts. The group of sedentary nematodes which are among the most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes cause the formation of special organs called nematode feeding sites in the root tissue called syncytium (cyst nematodes, CN; Heterodera and Globodera spp.) or giant cells (root-knot nematodes, RKN; Meloidogyne spp.). The most pronounced morphological adaptations of nematodes for plant parasitism include a hollow, protrusible stylet (feeding spear) connected to three esophageal gland cells that express products secreted into plant tissues through the stylet. Several gene products secreted by the nematode during parasitism have been identified. The current battery of candidate parasitism proteins secreted by nematodes to modify plant tissues for parasitism includes cell-wall-modifying enzymes, multiple regulators of host cell cycle and metabolism, proteins that can localize near the plant cell nucleus, potential suppressors of host defense, and mimics of plant molecules. Plants are usually able to recognize and react to parasites by activating various defense responses. When the response of the plant is too weak or too late, a successful infection (compatible interaction) will result. A rapid and strong defense response (e. g. due to the presence of a resistance gene) will result in the resistant (incompatible) reaction. Defense responses include the production of toxic oxygen radicals and systemic signaling compounds as well as the activation of defense genes that lead to the production of structural barriers or other toxins.
Genetic diversity of the tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes persulcatus in northeastern European Russia. P. 131-149.
The genetic diversity of the tick-borne encephalitis vims (TBEV) in the PCR-positive Taiga ticks collected in the Republic of Komi in 2010 was evaluated. The analyses of nucleotide sequences of the 5'-NCR fragments of viral genome from ticks had shown that 13 isolates of TBEV from 16 sequencing variants were represented by the highly pathogenic Far Eastern genotype of the TBEV and only 3 isolates were identified as the Siberian genotype of TBEV. The nucleotide sequences of 5'-NCR of viral genome strongly varied variable in individual ticks. Variability for the A1 element has been observed in all the tested samples, and for elements CI, B2, CS В — in more than 50%. A2 element and ATG codon of the 5'-NCR remained completely conservative. Computer simulation of conformations of the 5'-NCR of TBEV genome demonstrated the possibility of significant changes of the spatial structure of the 5'-NCR of viral genome in individual taiga ticks. The obtained data confirm the hypothesis that the variability in the 5'-NCR of TBEV genome can be crucial for efficient replication of TBEV in different hosts.
Contribution to the black fly fauna of the subfamily Prosimuliinae (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Sakha Republic (Yakutia). P. 150-164.
Examination of river basins of Yakutia and the study of the previously collected material resulted in revealing of 34 species of the subfamily Prosimuliinae belonging to 8 genera (Gymnopais, Prosimulium, Helodon, Stegopterna, Greniera, Cnephia, Metacnephia, and Sulcicnephia). The fauna of Yakutia was supplemented with two black fly species Cnephia angarensis Rubzov, 1956 and Gymnopais frontatus Yankovsky, 1982. The distribution of the species Prosimulium tridentatum, Helodon alpestris, H. irkutensis, H. rubicundus, Stegopterna asema, and Cnephia lyra was clarified. The combined table of species distribution with GPS coordinates of collecting sites has been composed.
Helminth infestation of the Siberian tree frog Rana amurensis Boulenger, 1886 in the western boundary of the range. P. 165-169.
Helminth species composition and infection rates of the Siberian tree frog Rana amurensis in Western Siberia were studied. Four species of helminthes — nematodes Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and the trematode Haplometra cylindracea were found. Prevalence of helminths in the Siberian tree frog is 100%, and mean abundance is 27.5 ± 4.8. Helminth species richness in the Siberian tree frog in the western periphery of their distribution area is lower than in the center of the range, in Yakutia and Transbaikalia, and is approximately equal to that in the northeastern boundary of the range, in Magadan Province. R. bufonis, a highly pathogenic nematode species, dominates in prevalence and abundance in the Siberian tree frog in Western Siberia as well as in other parts of the geographical range of this species.