To the 100th anniversary of Vadim Evgen’evich Garutt (October 12, 1917 – March 28, 2002)

V.S. Baygusheva, I.V. Foronova and S.V. Semenova

Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS, 2018, 322(3): 205–214  ·

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The article contains a biography of the famous Russian paleontologist V.E. Garutt (1917–2002), the oldest research worker of the Zoological institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, who studied the Pleistocene elephants of Northern Eurasia. He published more than 70 scientific papers on the origin and evolution of elephants of mammoth line, the morphology, changeability and features of the development of ancient proboscides. V.E. Garutt suggested two subfamilies Primelephantinae and Loxodontinae. He is the author of several taxa of fossil elephants of the generic, specific and subspecific levels. On his initiative, the skeleton of the Taimyr mammoth was adopted as the neotype of the woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius. He actively defended the independence of the genus Archidiskodon. A number of famous and important for the science paleontological specimens (skulls and skeletons of southern elephants, trogontherine and woolly mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses and elasmotherium) were restored and mounted by V.E. Garutt. They adorn a number of museums and institutes in Russia (St. Petersburg, Stavropol, Pyatigorsk, Azov, Rostov-on-Don) and abroad (Tbilisi, Vilnius, Edersleben, Sangerhausen). In addition, V.E. Garutt was an active popularizer of paleontological science. He collected a scientific archive on the remains of elephants from many regions of the former Soviet Union and some countries of Western Europe, which is now stored in the Azov museum-reserve (Azov). Several grateful pupils began their way in paleontology under the leader ship of V.E. Garutt. And they continue active work nowadays.

Key words

biography, Garutt Vadim Evgenievich, ancient elephants, museum’s exhibits, scientific papers, paleontology, centenary

Submitted January 25, 2018  ·  Accepted August 31, 2018  ·  Published September 26, 2018


Alexeeva L.I. and Garutt V.E. 1965. New data on the evolution of elephants of the genus Archidiskodon. Byulleten Kommissii po Izucheniyu Chetvertichnogo Perioda, 30: 161–166. [In Russian].

Averianov A.O., Vartanyan S.L. and Garutt V.E. 1995. Small mammoth Mammuthus primigenius vrangeliensis Garutt, Averianov et Vartanyan, 1993 from the Vrangel Island (North-Eastern Siberia). Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR, 263: 184–199. [In Russian].

Baygusheva V.S. 2017. To centenary from the birthday of Vadim Evgenievic Garutt (12.10.1917–28.03.2002). Materials of 63 Session of Paleontological society of RAS: Integrative paleontology: development prospects for geological purposes. (3–7 April 2017, Saint Petersburg). VSEGEI, Saint Petersburg: 233–234. [In Russian].

Baygusheva V.S. and Garutt V.E. 1987. The skele­ton of steppe elephant Archidiskodon trogontherii (Pohlig, 1885) from North-Eastern Sea of Azov region. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR168: 21–37. [In Russian].

Foronova I.V. and Zudin A.N. 1986. A new approach to the study of north Eurasian fossil elephants of the Archidiskodon-Mammuthus lineage. In: S.A. Arkhipov (Ed.). Biostratigraphy and Paleoclimates of the Pleistocene in Siberia. Nauka, Novosibirsk: 6–31. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. 1952. Comparative-anatomical study of proboscideans’ (Proboscidea) manus in connection with the solution of these animals evolution. Abstract of the Candidate of Biological Sciences thesis. Zoological institute of AS of the USSR, Leningrad, 13 p. [In Russian].

Garutt N.V. 2018. Fascinated by the elephant. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, этот сборник. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. 1954. Southern elephant Archidiskodon meridionalis (Nesti) from Pliocene of the Northern coast of the Sea of Azov. Trudy Kommissii po Izucheniyu Chetvertichnogo Perioda, 10(2): 1–76. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. 1958. Phanagorian elephant (Phanagoroloxodon mammontoides, gen. n. et sp. n.) and ways of phylogeny in the family Elephantidae. Zoologicheskij zhurnal, 37(10): 1541–1554. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. 1964. Das Mammut. Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach). A. Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg–Lu­ther­stadt. 140 p.

Garutt V.E. 1965. Fossil elephant from Siberia. Trudy nauchno-issledovatelskogo instituta geologii Arktiki, 143: 106–130. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. 1971. History of distinguishing of intermediate elements in the lineage Archidiskodon – Mammuthus. In: V.A. Zubakov and V.V. Kocheruga (Eds). Chronology of the Glacial Age. Geographicheskoye obshchestvo SSSR, Leningrad: 78–88. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. 1972a. About the find of palaeoloxodont elephant in Cisural region. In: V.L. Yakhimovich (Ed.). Questions of stratigraphy and correlation of Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits of Northern and Southern parts of Cisural, Vol. 2. Geological institute of Bashkirian branch AS USSR, Ufa: 19–26. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. 1972b. The skeleton of Khazarian mammoth Mammuthus cf. chosaricus Dubrovo from Middle Pleistocene deposits of Orya River (Kama River basin). In: V.L. Yakhimovich (Ed.). Questions of stratigraphy and correlation of Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits of Northern and southern parts of Cisural. Vol. 2. Geological institute of Bashkirian branch AS USSR, Ufa: 35–55. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. 1977. Dental system of elephants in individual and phylogenetic development. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR, 72: 58–67. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. 1986. The origin of elephants and ways of their phylogeny. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR, 149: 15–32. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. 1989. On the need to separate the mammoth Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799) neotype. Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR, 307(5): 1232–1234. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. 1992. The skeleton of mammoth Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799) from the surroundings of Kozlovo village of Chermeskiy district of Perm’ Region. In: I.S. Muravyov and M.G. Solodukho (Eds). The Volga fauna of Pleistocene mammals in the Geological and Mineralogical Museum of Kazan University. Kazan’ university publishers, Kazan’: 31–54. [In Russian].

Garutt W.E. 1995. The phanagorian elephant Phanagoroloxodon mammontoides Garutt, 1957 from the Pliocene of the North-Western Caucasus. Cranium, 12(2): 87–92.

Garutt W.E. 1998. A skeleton of the southern elephant, Archidiskodon meridionalis (Nesti, 1825), from a sand pit near Georgievsk, Northern Caucasus, Russia. Cranium, 15(1): 33–38.

Garutt V.E. 1998a. Is there a genus Archidiskodon Pohlig, 1885, of the family Elephantidae Gray, 1821? Cranium, 15(1): 15–20.

Garutt V.E. 1998b. On the validity of elephants of the genus Archidiskodon. Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR, 361(4): 564–565. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. and Alexeeva L.I. 1964. New data about the evolution of elephants of the genus Archidiskodon. Abstracts of All-Russian meeting at the Quaternary research (3–24 September 1964, Novosibirsk). Novosibirsk: 7–8. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E., Alexeeva L.I. and Baygusheva V.S. 1977. On the oldest Archidiskodon elephant from the Anthropogene of the USSR. Journal of the Paleontological Society of India, 20: 4–9.

Garutt V.E., Averianov A.O. and Vartanyan S.L. 1993. About systematic of Holocene population of mammoth Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbash, 1799) of Wrangel Island, North-East Siberia. Doklady of Biological sciences, 332(6): 799–801. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. and Bajguševa V.S. 1981. Archidiskodon gromovi Garutt et Alexeeva – der älteste Elefant der Mammutlinie in Eurasien. Quart ärpaläontologie, 4: 7–18.

Garutt V.E. and Foronova I.V. 1976. The study of teeth of extinct elephants: methodical recommendations. Institute of geology and geophysics SB AN SSSR, Novosibirsk, 36 p. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E., Gentry A. and Lister A.M. 1990. Mammuthus Brookes, 1828 (Mammalia, Proboscidea): proposed conservation, and Elephas primigenius Blumenbach, 1799 (currently Mammuthus primigenius): proposed designation as the type species of Mammuthus, and designation of a neotype. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 47(1): 38–44.

Garutt V.E. and Nikol’skaya V.N. 1988. Über das Skelett vom Steppenelefanten aus Edersleben. Spengler-Museum. Beitrage zur Heimatforschung, 9: 3–13.

Garutt V.E. and Safronov I.N. 1965. A find of a skeleton of the southern elephant Archidiskodon meridionalis (Nesti) near the town of Georgievsk (Northern Caucasus). Byulleten Kommissii po Izucheniyu Chetvertichnogo Perioda, 30: 79–88. [In Russian].

Garutt V.E. and Tikhonov A.N. 2001. The origin and taxonomy of the elephantine family Elephantidae Gray, 1821, with a special overview of the tribe Mammuthi­ni Brookes, 1828 structure. In: A.Yu. Rozanov (Ed.). Mammoth and its environment: 200 years of investigation. GEOS, Moscow: 47–70. [In Russian].

Semyonova S.V. 2016. Dialogue in length of life. Donskoy vremennik, 2017, 25. Don state public library, Rostov-on-Don: 58–62. [In Russian]. URL:

Sher A.V. and Garutt V.E. 1985. On the technique for the identification of molar generations in extinct elephants. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR, 131: 93–103. [In Russian].

Tikhonov A.N., Baryshnikov G.F. and Saunders J.J. 2002. Vadim Evgenievich Garutt. Russian Journal of Theriology, 1(2): 151–152.

Vartanyan S.L., Garutt V.E. and Sher A.V. 1993. Holocene dwarf mammoths from Wrangel Island in the Siberian Arctic. Nature, 362(6418): 337–340.


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