Contents of Proceedings of the Zoological Institute

Volume 321 (4), 2017

Date of publication — December 25, 2017

A new species of Allophrys Forster, 1869 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tersilochinae) with large propodeal spiracles from Indonesia

A new species of Allophrys Forster, 1869 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tersilochinae) with large propodeal spiracles from Indonesia Allophrys Forster, 1869 is a moderately large tersilochine genus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tersilochinae) distributed mainly through the world tropics. Three species of Allophrys were known from the Oriental region hitherto: A. bruneiensis Khalaim, 2011 (Brunei), A. occipitata Khalaim, 2011 (Vietnam and East India) and A. cantonensis Reshchikov et Yue, 2017 (South China). In this paper, a new species of Allophrys, A. meggoleuca sp. nov. from Sulawesi Island in Indonesia, is described and illustrated. It differs from other Oriental species of the genus by its large propodeal spiracles, similar to those in the genus Meggoleus Townes, 1971. Allophrys meggoleuca sp. nov. is similar to the Afrotropical A. townesi (Khalaim, 2007), which also possesses enlarged propodeal spiracles, but differs from this species by its slender antennal flagellum (robust with shortened flagellomeres in A. townesi), propodeum with basal area (basal keel in A. townesi) and longer metacarpus in the fore wing (short and not reaching tip of the wing in A. townesi). Additionally, propodeal spiracles in A. townesi are much larger than those in A. meggoleuca. The small genus Meggoleus comprises three Neotropical species occurring from Guatemala to Peru and South Brazil, and a single Afrotropical species, M. townesi Khalaim, 2007 known only from Gabon. The Afrotropical species M. townesi Khalaim, 2007 is transferred to the genus Allophrys (comb. nov.). Colour illustrations of this species are provided for the first time.

Tersilochinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of Vietnam, Part 2: genus Barychemis Forster, 1869

The genus Barycnemis Forster, 1869 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tersilochinae) is most abundant and species rich in the Holarctic region where about 35 species are known, i.e. 15 species in the Nearctic region and 26 in the Palaearctic region. Beyond the Holarctic region, one species occurs in Central America, two in the Oriental region and one in Australia. Only two species of Barycnemis were recorded from the Oriental region till now: B. dissimilis (Gravenhorst, 1829) from Nepal and B. sanctijohanni (Rao et Kurian, 1951) from North India. Nothing was known about the occurrence of the genus Barycnemis in Vietnam until present day. In this paper, two species of Barycnemis, B. dissimilis and B. liliputana sp. nov., are found to occur in Vietnam. Barycnemis liliputana sp. nov., with body length 1.6 mm and fore wing length 1.4 mm, is the smallest known tersilochine species. The new species may easily be recognized by its extremely small size, very slender antennal flagellum with only 14–16 flagellomeres and highly polished head and mesosoma. It resembles B. gracillima (Thomson, 1889) occurring in Europe, Caucasus and Kazakhstan as both have a similar head and slightly depressed ovipositor, but B. liliputana differs from this species, in addition to the characters listed above, by its slender first metasomal segment with small glymma (similar to those in B. dissimilis and B. tobiasi Khalaim, 2004) and slender legs. Barycnemis dissimilis is also recorded from Taiwan and North India. The genus Barycnemis is recorded from Vietnam and Taiwan for the first time. An identification key to the two Barycnemis species occurring in Vietnam is provided.

Palpares turcicus Kocak, 1976 – new name for Iranian fauna and its place in the P. libelluloides species group (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)

We have determined in the Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection collection of two closely related species: Palpares libelluloides (Linnaeus, 1764) and P. turcicus Kocak, 1976 from Iranian provinces of Azarbayjan Sharghi, Kermanshah, Fars, Tehran, Kordestan, Markazi, Zanjan, and Lorestan, which are never recorded together in the same biotopes. New records of P. turcicus and other species of P. libelluloides species group from the countries of Transcaucasia, Asia, and Africa are presented based on the collection of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ZIN). In the P. libelluloides species group, P. libelluloides is characterized by yellow abdomen with brown longitudinal lines. Abdominal pattern of P. hispanus Hagen, 1860, P. aeshnoides (Illiger, 1807) and P. turcicus is represented by brown rings on each segment, but these species can be easily differentiated from each other by size. The widely-allopatric species P. geniculatus Navas, 1912 and P. speciosus (Linnaeus, 1758) are characterized by entirely yellow abdomen without brownish pattern. The latter two species have mainly Afro-subtropical distribution, whereas other species of the group are West Palaearctic, mostly Ancient-Mediterranean species. The traditional name Palpares libelluloides (Linnaeus, 1764) is proposed to include into the List of Available Names in Zoology in accordance with the Article 79 of ICZN. This species is considered as P. libelluloides sensu stricto; its confirmed synonyms are Myrmeleon nordmanni Kolenati, 1846 (an immature form), and var. nigriventris A. Costa, 1855 and var. nigripes Navas, 1912 (melanistic specimens), which do not form natural populations. The neotype of Myrmeleon aeshnoides Illiger in Rossi, 1807 (Jerusalem, Romanov’s collection, ZIN), and the neotype of Hemerobius speciosus Linnaeus, 1758 (the collection of the Linnaean Society of London, № 2352) are designated.

A new deep-sea mysid, Stellamblyops vassilenkoae gen. nov., sp. nov., from the Northwest Pacific (Crustacea: Mysida)

A new mysid genus and species, Stellamblyops vassilenkoae gen. nov., sp. nov., is described. It is the seventh genus of the tribe Amblyopsini. Stellamblyops gen. nov. is characterized by the form of eyes, which are flattened laterally, tear-shaped plates with very long, pointed frontal processus, the uropodal endopod without spines in the statocyst region and the form of the telson, which is elongated, linguiform with minimal width on the distal third, the telson apex with small cleft, whose margins have small spines, distal three-quarters of the lateral margins of the telson with larger spines. All specimens of this species were collected with help of a camera-epibenthic sledge during two deep-sea Russian-German expeditions in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent waters: KuramBio expedition (Kurile Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) and SokhoBio expedition (Sea of Okhotsk Biodiversity Studies): holotype: 1>, length 13.2 mm, 23.08.2012, RV Sonne, KuramBio expedition, st. 09-9, depth: 5399–5408 m, 40°35.48?N; 150°59.92?E – 40°34.25?N; 150°59.91?E; non-type specimens: 1+, length approximately 9.1 mm, 17.08.2012, RV Sonne, KuramBio expedition, st. 07-9, depth: 5216–5223 m, 43°02.84?N; 152°59.43?E – 43°01.49?N; 152°58.36?E; 1juv., length 6.0 mm, 30.07.2012, RV Sonne, KuramBio expedition, st. 01-10, depth: 5418–5429 m, 43°58.26?N; 157°19.67?E – 43°58.33?N; 157°17.97?E; and 1>, length approximately 18.5 mm, 26.07.2015, RV Akademik M.A. Lavrentiev, SokhoBio expedition, st. 09-7, depth: 3371–3377 m, 46°16.16?N; 152°03.10?E – 46°16.07?N; 152°03.32?E.

New genus and species of flower mantids (Insecta: Mantodea: Hymenopodidae) from Vietnam

A peculiar new genus and species of the flower mantids (Mantodea, Hymenopodidae) from South-Eastern Vietnam, Parapsychomantis vietnamensis gen. et sp. nov., is described. The new genus belongs to Acromantinae, Acromantini, as indicated by the diagnostic characters of the tribe and its similarity to Rhomantis Giglio-Tos, 1915, Psychomantis Giglio-Tos, 1915 and Oligomantis Giglio-Tos, 1915. It differs from all of the abovementioned genera by the combination of small vertex process, small medial lobes on mesofemora and by dense, irregular cross-veins network on the forewings. The distribution of the morphological characters directly related to crypsis (leg lobes) among members of the tribe is reviewed and illustrated. The genitalia of the new genus are illustrated and described. Comparison with other species of Acromantini with known genitalia shows noticeable differences in shape of structures and level of sclerotization indicating an understudied diversity of this complex in the tribe. The finding presents an interesting biogeographical problem because all morphologically similar genera are restricted to the south of Sundaland area. Possible explanations include insufficiently dense sampling of the adjacent areas, misleading morphology and past biogeographical factors related to the distribution of Sundaland plant communities. A comprehensive revision of the subfamily is necessary to explain the evolution of crypsis characters and biogeographic distribution. We also present a modified key to the genera and species of Acromantini.

A new species of Raricirrus (Polychaeta, Ctenodrilidae) from the continental slope of the Laptev Sea near the Gakkel Ridge

Raricirrus arcticus sp. nov. is described with specimens collected near the Gakkel Ridge, Laptev Sea, from one station in the hydrothermal area, at nearly 2000 m. The new species differs from the other species of the genus in the presence of long serrate chaetae with thin straight tips in neuropodia of the middle part of the body, and in the position of the heart body, which first appears much more anteriorly than in all previously described species of both genera comprising the subfamily Raphidrilinae Hartmann-Schroder, 1971. Raricirrus arcticus sp. nov. is likely most closely related to the geographically nearest R. beryli Petersen et George, 1991 sharing the absence of a modified region with enlarged spines and the presence of distinct ventral ciliary fields in the area of the mouth and the neural ciliary band on a few anterior segments. Asexual and sexual reproduction is noted for the new species. The hypothesis of Petersen and George (1991) about the role of the heart body in the head regeneration process is supported by revealed correlation of the anteriormost occurrence of the heart body with the number of segments in anterior regenerates in R. arcticus sp. nov., as in other Raricirrus species. Systematic position of the family Ctenodrilidae and taxonomic differences between the genera Raricirrus Hartman, 1961 and Raphidrilus Monticelli, 1910 are discussed. Morphological characters useful in distinguishing species within the genus Raricirrus are defined. A key to identify the known species of Raricirrus is given.

Therian postcranial bones from the Upper Cretaceous Bissekty Formation of Uzbekistan

The Upper Cretaceous (upper Turonian) Bissekty Formation of Uzbekistan produces the most diverse Cretaceous therian fauna including one stem marsupial and eleven stem placental taxa known from cranial and dental elements. Some isolated postcranial elements from the Bissekty Formation can be confidently attributed to some of these taxa based on morphology and size. The humeral fragments, astragalus, and calcanei attributed to the deltatheroidan Sulestes karakshi Nessov, 1985 are similar to these bones in other stem marsupials. Postcranial bones referred to Zhelestidae Nessov, 1985 and Asioryctitheria Novacek et al., 1997 possess plesiomorphic therian morphologies, which are also present in some stem marsupials. All fragments of scapula from the Bissekty Formation show a plesiomorphic morphology with a trough-like infraspinous fossa placed medially to the supraspinous fossa. Bones attributed to the stem placental Paranyctoides quadrans (Nessov, 1982) and to the zalambdalestid Kulbeckia kulbecke Nessov, 1993 indicate arboreal and cursorial specializations, respectively. In particular, Kulbeckia Nessov, 1993 is similar to Zalambdalestes Gregory et Simpson, 1926 in having long and distally fused tibia and fibula and a long calcaneal tuber. Its distal humerus has a deep trochlea, large medial trochlear keel, and large capitular tail separated from a cylindrical capitulum by a shallow groove. The upper ankle joint of Kulbeckia has the complete separation of medial and lateral astragalotibial articulations.

A revision of fossil turtles from the Kiev clays (Ukraine, middle Eocene) with comments on the history of the collection of fossil vertebrates of A.S. Rogovich

The paper revises material of fossil turtles from the Kiev clays (Vyshgorod and Tripolye localities, Kiev Province, Ukraine; Kiev Formation, upper Lutetian – lower Bartonian, middle Eocene) from the 19th century collection of fossil vertebrates of the Russian naturalist A.S. Rogovich. In the course of more than a century this collection was divided into parts several times and stored in different institutions of Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Kiev. The turtle material from Rogovich’s collection includes a partial skeleton and isolated shell fragments from Vyshgorod locality referred here to a pancheloniid sea turtle Argillochelys antiqua (Konig, 1825), a species formerly known only from the Paleogene of Western Europe, partial dentaries from Vyshgorod locality, belonging to “Dollochelys” rogovichi Averianov, 2002, a pancheloniid with unclear generic attribution, and sculptured shell fragments of Pan-Cheloniidae indet. from Tripolye locality, erroneously assigned to a crocodile by Rogovich. The material of A. antiqua unites some specimens previously described as Puppigerus sp. and Dollochelys rogovichi, as well as newly revealed specimens. According to our interpretation, parts of the skeleton of A. antiqua from Vyshgorod locality were stored in different institutions for a long time, sharing the fate of the whole Rogovich’s collection of fossil vertebrates. The attribution of the Vyshgorod material to A. antiqua is supported by phylogenetic analysis of pancheloniids. This analysis also demonstrates an Argillochelys clade (A. antiqua + A. cuneiceps [Owen, 1849]), and removes “A.” africana Tong et Hirayama, 2008 from this clade. Analysis of the geographic and stratigraphic distribution of the genus Argillochelys shows that it is restricted to the ?Thanetian – Priabonian of the Peri-Tethyan area (Western and Eastern Europe and Kazakhstan) and possibly also to eastern North America. In addition, our study shows that sculptured pancheloniids of unknown affinities are quite common in the middle Eocene of Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

Volume 321 (3), 2017

Date of publication — September 25, 2017

Species of freshwater gastropods described by Ya.I. Starobogatov: Pulmonata (Acroloxidae), Heterobranchia (Valvatidae) and Caenogastropoda (Viviparoidea, Truncatelloidea and Cerithioidea)

Professor Yaroslav Igorevich Starobogatov was a famous Russian biologist, zoologist and malacologist of wide knowledge in different fields of invertebrate zoology. Ya.I. Starobogatov travelled all over the former Soviet Union and collected numerous samples of mollusks and other invertebrates. As a result, he studied and described many new species, genera and families of different invertebrates, including mollusks. More than one thousand names of Mollusca were introduced by Ya.I. Starobogatov. This paper is a continuation of publishing the photographs of extant type specimens or topotypes of freshwater gastropods described by Ya.I. Starobogatov (1932–2004) with his disciples and coauthors. Photographs are given for 83 of 84 considered species belonging to Acroloxidae (Pulmonata), Valvatidae (Heterobranchia), and Viviparidae, Amnicolidae, Baicaliidae, Bithyniidae, Hydrobiidae, Lithoglyphidae, Melanopsidae and Thiaridae (Caenogastropoda). The data presentation includes detailed information about types; the “Additional records” section lists only the Zoological Institute (ZIN) catalog-based data because ZIN is the place of storage of the type specimens and the whole material studied by Ya.I. Starobogatov. Published data on subsequent records of the species are cited in the section “History of the name application”. The references are provided with brief information about their content. The synonymy, if exists, includes the references to authors of synonymization. The ecology information is based on publications and label data.

Systematics of the American katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Communication 7

The genera Parascudderia Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1891 and Caroliniella Cadena-Castaneda, 2015 from the tribe Scudderiini of the subfamily Phaneropterinae as well as Championica Saussure et Pictet, 1898 and Diacanthodis Walker, 1870 from the subfamily Pleminiinae are considered. The first genus is divided into two subgenera (Parascudderia s. str. and Negativeria subgen. nov.) on the base of differences in the colouration of hind wings and hind tibiae as well as in the shape of last abdominal tergite in male; Parascudderia s. str. contains P. dohrni BrunnerWattenwyl, 1891 from Brazil, P. setrina Grant, 1960 from Ecuador, P. strigilis Grant, 1960 from Brazil, and P. positiva sp. nov. from Ecuador; Negativeria subgen. nov. includes P. secula Grant, 1960 from Peru, P. astylata sp. nov. from Peru, and P. negativa sp. nov. from Ecuador. Four smaller new taxa are additionally described from South America: P. secula santacruzi subsp. nov. from Bolivia; C. pichincha sp. nov. from Ecuador; Ch. poeciloptera sp. nov. from Peru; D. cristulata sp. nov. from Ecuador. These new taxa are distinguished from all the previously described species and subspecies of the same genera by the characters of general appearance as well as some features of the copulatory apparatus or pronotal tubercles. New data on some other species of these subfamilies are also given.

A new species of the Genus Adenissus (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Caliscelidae) from United Arab Emirates

Adenissus fuscus sp. nov. is described from Wadi Wurayah National Park in Fujairah Emirate of United Arab Emirates where it was collected on light during the night. Thus currently the genus Adenissus Linnavuori, 1973 is known after three species in Arabian Peninsula and A. fuscus sp. nov. is second species of the genus recorded from UAE. According to elongate coryphe A. fuscus sp. nov. is closely related to A. isinus Dlabola, 1980 described after a female from Hormozgan Province of Iran. A. fuscus sp. nov. well differs from A. isinus by smaller body size (female – 4.6 mm), brown general coloration, and longer fore wings reaching hind margin of abdominal tergite IV. Both A. isinus Dlabola and A. fuscus sp. nov. represent a distinct group within the Adenissus differs from other species of the genus by elongate coryphe and long rostrum reaching hind margin of abdominal sternum VII (other species of the genus have rostrum reaching just hind coxae). Male of A. fuscus sp. nov. (holotype) is characterized by wide phallobase, with denticated lateral margins and many denticles on ventral side, pygofer with spine-shaped process in its upper part which arises on inner side, and suspensorium with large horn-shaped process, pointed apically. A key to distinguish A. isinus Dlabola from A. fuscus sp. nov. is given.

A primer of correction of quantitative data of extinct shrews Crocidosoricinae (Lipotyphla: Soricidae) using statistic tests

This article presents an example of using the parametrics (Shapiro-Wilk and Jarque-Bera) and non-parametrics (Anderson-Darling) criteria for exploratory analysis on a sample homogeneity hypothesis, and estimate the suitability of metric features for interspecific comparisons. Grubbs and Tukey tests were used for detecting of the outliers of metric features. The analyzed fossil material is represented by bone fragments and isolated teeth (n = 218) of an unknown crocidosoricine shrew †Crocidosoricinae indet. (Lipotyphla: Soricidae) from the middle Miocene Sharga 2 locality (Mongolia), and. Based on the results of the study, three measurements (MRWc, HC and W(m3)) are not recommended for interspecies comparisons while working with Crocidosoricinae indet. In addition, a homogeneity analysis of 25 metric characters of Crocidosoricinae indet. from Sharga 2 locality showed that all remains are likely to belong to a single general sample (local population), remains of which accumulated during relatively short period.

Review of type specimens of the rock lizards of Darevskia (rudis) complex (Sauria: Lacertidae)

The paper provides data on the current location of the type specimens of Darevskia (rudis) complex as of July 2017: Podarcis depressa Camerano, 1878 (syntypes – MZUT R2737.1-3, NHM 1946.9.1.31-32), Lacerta depressa var. rudis Bedriaga, 1886 (lectotype – MZUT 2737.1, paralectotypes – MZUT 2737.2-3, NHM 1946.9.1.32), Lacerta depressa var. modesta Bedriaga, 1886 (syntype – NHM 1946.9.1.31), Lacerta saxicola Subsp. bithynica Mehely, 1909 (lectotype [here designated] – ZISP 17128, paralectotype – NMW 11685), Lacerta saxicola tristis Lantz et Cyren, 1936 (lectotype – GNM 2481, paralectotypes – GNM 2482-2485, 2487 and GNM one unnumbered specimen), Lacerta saxicola obscura Lantz et Cyren, 1936 (lectotype [here designated] – ZISP ZISP 17171.1, paralectotypes – NHM 1966.769.773, ZISP 14435, 14436, 14437, 14438, 14439, 14440, 14442, 15402, 16290, 17057.13, 17058, 17059.1-3, 17171.2-26, 17172.1-15), Lacerta rudis macromaculata Darevsky, 1967 (holotype – ZISP 17940.6, paratypes – ZISP 17440.1-18, the location of three paratypes is unknown), Lacerta rudis bischoffi Bohme et Budak, 1977 (holotype – ZDEU 183/977, paratypes – ZDEU 222/976:1, 3-6, 8-9, ZDEU 183/977.2-10, ZFMK 22062.63), Lacerta rudis svanetica Darevsky et Eiselt, 1980 (holotype – ZISP 17875.1, paratypes – ZISP 17875.2-8, 17814.1-18, NMW 24138.1-6), Lacerta rudis chechenica Eiselt et Darevsky, 1991 (holotype – NMW 33504.1, paratypes – ZISP 17878.1-13, 17882.2-4, ZISP 18374.1-5, 18781.1-6, 19545.1-13, ZFMK 16448.52, 29262, 38037.45, 40431-33, NMW 32619.1,2, 33504.2,4,5), Darevskia rudis mirabilis Arribas, Ilgaz, Kumlutas, Durmus, Avci et Uzum, 2013 (holotype – ZDEU 145/2002.9, paratypes – ZDEU 145/2002.1-8, 10-18, O. Arribas private collection (1-6)), Darevskia rudis bolkardaghica Arribas, Ilgaz, Kumlutas, Durmus, Avci et Uzum, 2013 (holotype – ZDEU 144/2009.6, paratypes – ZDEU 144/2009.1-5, 7-8, O. Arribas private collection (1-4)). Strictly following the ICZN the name Lacerta depressa var. rudis Bedriaga, 1886 should not be considered as the replacement name (nomen novum) for Podarcis depressa Camerano, 1878, but the only available name. The history of description of all known forms of the complex is given. Localities, collectors and dates of collection of the type specimens are clarified.

Volume 321 (2), 2017

Date of publication — June 26, 2017

Review of the genera Smicroplectrus Thomson, 1883 and Exyston Schiodte, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae) of South Korea

Two closely related genera, Smicroplectrus Thomson and Exyston Schiodte of the tribe Exenterini (Ichneumonidae, Tryphoninae) of South Korea are considered from collection of the Yeungnam University (YNU), Gyeongsan, Two species of Smicroplectrus were recorded before from Korea – Smicroplectrus erosus (Holmgren, 1857), and S. quinquecinctus (Gravenhorst, 1820) (Cha and Lee 1988). This material really includes 5 species of two genera of Exenterini: Smicroplectrus pedicellatus sp. nov., S. melanocerus sp. nov., S. actenon Kasparyan, 1976, Exyston clementi (Kerrich, 1952) and E. sibiricus (Kerrich, 1952). Three latter species are recorded for Korea for the first time. A new species, S. pedicellatus seems to be closely related to S. irroratus Kasparyan, 1990 from South of Russian Far East; both have pterostigma pale (brownish-yellow), and tergite 2 and 3 mainly smooth, with distinct punctures and without extensive scabrous sculpture typical of other species; by combination of two these characters both species can be distinguished from most other congeners. Unlike S. irroratus and S. melanocerus sp nov., in S. pedicellatus pedicel yellow ventrally and areolation of propodeum different. S. melanocerus is related to S. modestus Kasparyan, 1976 from Russia (Kunashir Island), but unlike to S. modestus has red coxae and apical half of antenna entirely blackish. Keys to species for both these genera occurring in South Korea are given. Smicroplectrus erosus (Holmgren, 1857) and S. quinquecinctus (Gravenhorst, 1820) are excluded from the South Korean fauna.

Autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter in trophic chain of lake ecosystems.

This work presents analysis of mass–balance model simulating biotic flows of energy in pelagial of the large lakes of Russia (Ladoga, Onego, and Baikal) and small lake in northern part of the Karelia. The model had been developed on the basis of software package Stella and intended to predict an annual production of phytoplankton, bacterio plankton and consumers (non predatory and predatory zooplankton, planktivorous and piscivorous fishes). The input (independent) abiotic parameters of the model were latitude, mean lake depth, total phosphorus content and water color. The model analyzed an involvement of the autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter in the total energy flow through trophic chain. It was underlined that bacteria are important component of the planktonic community linking the dissolved organic matter (DOM) with organisms of the trophic chain. In high humic and oligotrophic boreal lakes the plankton respiration exceeds the primary production, therefore allochthonous DOM transformed to bacterial production replaces photosynthetic production in consumer feeding. The efficiency of bacterial growth (the ratio of bacterial production to consumed energy) depends on the ratio between autochthonous and allochthonous DOM. It had been shown that efficiency of bacterial growth in lakes with high primary production was higher than in oligotrophic waters with dominated allochthonous DOM. The author discussed different–type organic matter contribution to hydrobiont production depending on total phosphorus and humic matter content. Bacterioplankton consuming allochthonous DOM is additional energy source for zooplankton. For prediction of the total biological productivity it was recommended to take into account also production of heterotrophic bacterioplankton which is involved in utilization of allochthonous DOM.

A new subspecies of the Halys pit viper Gloydius halys (Pallas, 1776) (Viperidae, Crotalinae) from Tuva and western Mongolia

Description of a new subspecies of the Halys pit viper, or Pallas pit viper, occurring on the territory of southern Tuva, western and southern Mongolia, is given in this paper. The Ubsunur pit viper, Gloydius halys ubsunurensis ssp. nov. differs from other taxa of the complex by a combination of the following morphological features: (1) a large number of ventral scales (V+PreV): 171–188; (2) a large number of subcaudal scales: 47–53 in males and 42–46 in females; (3) a large number of light bands around the body: 35–41; (4) a large number of light bands around the body and tail: 47–63; (5) a light background “desert” coloration of the body dorsal surface. Also, the new subspecies differs by its range and preferred bioclimatic habitat conditions. Populations constituting the new subspecies, on the one hand, manifest themselves as a unified totality, but, on the other hand, they are well separated from other valid taxa of the complex, that is well confirmed by the analysis of the morphological data by the methods of multivariate statistics. In the result of modeling and prediction of the potential distribution of the Ubsunur pit viper in Maxent program zones of optimum were revealed, as well as key bioclimatic factors influencing the pattern of the range. Average annual temperature makes the largest percent contribution (72.4%). The second most important index is precipitation of the wettest quarter of the year (11.1%). Average temperature of the driest quarter of the year and precipitation of the warmest quarter of the year are 7.4% and 6.6%, respectively. Identification key for the taxa of the genus Gloydius distributed on the territory of the former USSR are also given in the paper.

Late Pleistocene horse  Equus (Equus) ferus (Perissodactyla, Equidae) from the Cis-Baikal and Transbaikalia

The paper presents morphological examination of caballoid horse remains (Equus (Equus)) from the Baikal region. The study area stretches from Angara river basin up to western Transbaikalia. Fossil material was dated to the second half of the Late Pleistocene, from Kargin Interstadial to the Late Glacial. In all 18 upper and lower jaws, 34 isolated teeth, 37 metacarpal and 56 metatarsal bones were measured. Comparative analysis of horse remains from the Cis-Baikal area, Transbaikalia, and contemporaneous material from the south of Eastern Europe, the Ural Mountains, Western and North-Eastern Siberia revealed marked intraspecific variation in the Late Pleistocene horses. Observed size variation in skeletal elements reflects temporal and regional variation in horse body size. Multivariate analysis showed that despite the significant size variation between local populations, fossil horses were homogeneous in their morphology. Relative proportions of metacarpal and metatarsal bones remained constant through the Late Pleistocene. Horse remains from the Cis-Baikal area and Transbaikalia were attributed to Equus ferus – a circumpolar species in the Late Pleistocene. Przewalski’s horse (Equus przewalskii) differs from fossil horses by the relative proportions of the limb bones. Based on morphometric analysis we can conclude that E. przewalskii did not inhabit the Baikal region during the Late Pleistocene.

Craniological variability of sables from Far East

Sable is a valuable game species with modern area from Urals to Kamchatka Peninsula. There is a hypothesis of the Far East origin of the species and existing of the Pleistocene refugia wherefrom sables dispersed on the territory of Eurasia. We studied the intraspecies diversity of sable populations from different regions of the Far East. Previous studies have found high level of variability for skulls size and fur color of Far East populations of the sable. We analysed 22 non-metric traits of the skull of 826 animals from 14 geographic samples. Mean measure of divergence between 14 samples varied from 0.001 to 0.238. Among studied isolated populations, the sables from Sakhalin Island do not demonstrate differences from the continental sample in small aberrations of the skull, whereas the sample from the Kamchatka Peninsula is somewhat different from other samples in craniological characters. There are some population differences in sexual dimorphism: some samples (Amgun, Kamchatka, V. Kolyma, Pilda, Uda) shows similarity between males and females in frequencies of non-metric characters; other samples (Sakhalin, Zeya, Okhota, Nyukzha) have a population level of phenetic distances between sex groups. Populations of the sables from the Far East demonstrate spatial heterogeneity in variability of non-metric traits of the skull, which is also characteristic of other morphological and genetic characters studied by previous researches.

Behavior of Arvalis and Obscurus chromosomal forms of common vole (Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1779) males in the Partition test

To compare the social and individual behaviors of common vole (Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1779) chromosomal forms («arvalis» and «obscurus») the Partition test was performed using different compositions of opponents (conspecific or heterospecific). Tests were performed in «arvalis» and «obscurus» males kept in animal facilities of the Zoological Institute (St. Petersburg, Russia). Laboratory populations originate from animals caught in the hybrid zone of these chromosome forms of voles (Vladimir region). Independent groups of animals were used for test with conspecific (N=28 for «arvalis» form; N=32 for «obscurus» form) and/or heterospecific (N=31 for both chromosomal forms) opponent. Test duration – 10 min. The behavior of animals (consequence and duration of behavioral elements) was registered by video films with special computer program «Ethograph» (ver. 2.07, RITEC, Russia). It was established that locomotor activity was greater in «obscurus» males. The level of anxiety estimated by amount of fecal boluses was higher in «arvalis» males. There were no differences in aggressive behavior of vole’s chromosomal forms, though both «arvalis» and «obscurus» were more aggressive towards individuals of heterospecific chromosomal form. The results of the present study confirm our previously published assumption about different behavioral strategies of common vole’s chromosomal forms: active-offensive for «obscurus» and passive avoidance (hiding behavior) for «arvalis».

The role of European smelt Osmerus eperlanus in fish fauna structure of the Imandra Lake Basin (Murmansk Province)

The current trends of the fish community transformation processes in the Imandra Lake Basin (Murmansk Province) under processes of climate and hydrological regime changes, intensification of water eutrophication and pollution were studied. The continuing anthropogenic pollution load on the lake together with the uncontrolled fishery and the lack of favorable conditions for fish reproduction led to a decrease of quantity and share of long-cycle stenobiont fall-spawning salmonid and coregonid species in fish fauna structure. At the same time the amount of eurybiont spring-spawning low commercial value species, such as a European smelt Osmerus eperlanus (Linnaeus) was seriously increased. It was found that the smelt population growth is accompanied by an increase in its size and weight parameters. The highest size values of this species now are comparable to smelt of the Onega and Ladoga lakes. It was also mentioned that smelt demonstrates quite an intense self-dispersion within the Imandra Lake Basin. Smelt expands rapidly within the subordinate lake and river system of Bolshaya Imandra Lake. One of the most interesting phenomena now is a process of fish self-dispersion along the Bolshaya Belaya River. It was found that the smelt shows a very active expansion of habitat, despite of the intense impact of apatite-nepheline production and strong eutrophication of water. It is shown that European smelt have good opportunity to naturalize and form an isolated self-reproducing population in a typical mountain reservoir – Bolshoi Voodyavr Lake, influenced by intensive mining industry. The observed expansive strategy of low commercial value species could be consider as invasion of alien species, reducing resistance and resource potential of the freshwater ecosystems of the North.

Volume 321 (1), 2017

Date of publication — March 24, 2017

Late Miocene Indarctos (Carnivora: Ursidae) from Kalmakpai Locality in Kazakhstan

The big bear from the genus Indarctos is studied for the Neogene fauna of Kazakhstan for the first time. Material is represented by the isolated М1 found at the Late Miocene deposits (MN13) of the Karabulak Formation of the Kalmakpai River (Zaisan Depression, Eastern Kazakhstan). Tooth size and its morphology suggest this finding to be referred to I. punjabiensis, which was widely distributed in Eurasia.

The Features of Production Processes in the Lakes of the Valaam Archipelago

The paper reports the characteristics of primary production and destruction processes in small lakes of the Valaam archipelago. The study was carried out on 11 small lakes where the natural regime of functioning is preserved. Studied lakes have different origins, morphometric and hydrochemical parameters. Investigated lakes were characterized by high concentrations of nutrients, especially in the bottom layers. Structure of phytoplankton community differed between lakes. In total, 306 species of phytoplankton had been found in the lakes of the Valaam archipelago. The highest species richness was registered for green algae, diatoms, euglenids and cyanoprokaryota. The lakes of the Valaam archipelago differed in species composition, ratio of taxonomic groups, phytoplankton abundance and biomass. Abundance of phytoplankton and biomass varied from 0.1 to 676.6 million cells/l and from 0.1 to 105.2 mg/ l, accordingly. A wide range of photosynthetic rate (from 0.0 to 4.3 mgO2/ l day and destruction (from 0.0 to 4.2 mgO2/l day) had been shown for all studied lakes. High values of the maximum primary production (Amax) were typical for Igumenskoe, Leschevoe, Krestovoe and Vitalevskoe Lakes, low values were recorded in lakes Simnyahovskoe, Antonievskoe and Nikonovskoe. Mean values Amax (1.14 ± 0.08 mgO2/l day) and maximum destruction Rmax (1.19 ± 0.07 mgO2/l day) were high in all the lakes. In most cases (90%), the maximum photosynthesis rate was registered in the water layer from a surface down to a lower border of the Secchi depth. Data on chlorophyll α content in small lakes of the Valaam archipelago are provided for the first time. It was shown that most of the lakes are mesotrophic with signs of eutrophia (TSI 50–68).

On the taxonomic position of the genera Paralusanda Synave, Paramangola Synave, Chondroptera Bergroth, and Neolollius Muir (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoroidea: Nogodinidae)

Previously treated as members of the family Issidae and currently without clear status, four genera are transferred to the family Nogodinidae: genus Paralusanda Synave, 1956 is transferred to the tribe Mithymnini Fennah, genera Chondroptera Bergroth, 1910 and Neolollius Muir, 1921 – to the tribe Tongini Kirkaldy, and genus Paramangola Synave, 1956 – to the tribe Epacriini Fennah. Male and female genitalia of Paralusanda sinuatipennis Synave, 1956 and fore and hind wings of Paramangola schmitti Synave, 1956 are illustrated for the first time. Notes on ecology of P. sinuatipennis are made.

Clypeosmilus centrodasus gen et sp. nov., a new genus and species of the family Issidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) from Northern Vietnam

Clypeosmilus centrodasus gen. et sp. nov. is described from Northern Vietnam. The genus is closely related to Eusudasina Yang, 1994 and Tapirissus Gnezdilov, 2014 according to fore wing reticulate venation and flattened laterally postclypeus.

New taxa of the subfamily Meconematinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from Africa and adjacent islands

History of the taxonomic study of Afrotropical and Madagascan Meconematinae is briefly discussed. The subtribe Acilacridina subtrib. nov. is established for a few African genera of Meconematini. Twenty six smaller new taxa of Meconematini [Kamerula korupi gen. et sp. nov., K. kameruni sp. nov., Parakamerula irisovi gen. et sp. nov., Brachyamytta rapidoaestima speculifera subsp. nov., Naskreckia gen. nov., Xiphidiola (Deinodiola) adunca subgen. et sp. nov., X. (D.) lobulata sp. nov., X. (D.) dja sp. nov., X. (D.) quadrimaculata immaculata subsp. nov., X. (Hemidiola) emarginata subgen. et sp. nov., X. (H.) minuta sp. nov., Paracilacris (Neacilacris) latiexcisa subgen. et sp. nov., Anaroegas subgen. nov.] and Phisidini [Afrophisis (Jinkevania) parva subgen. et sp. nov., Mirabiphisis subgen. nov., Longiphisis gracilis gen. et sp. nov., L. media sp. nov., Breviphisis robusta gen. et sp. nov.] are described from Cameroon, South Africa and Madagascar. Amyttosa mutillata bubiana (Bolivar, 1906), stat. nov. and Xiphidiola aliquantula nigrospinosa Bolivar, 1906, stat. nov. are restored from synonymy to A. mutillata (Karsch, 1890) and X. aliquantula (Karsch, 1893) as subspecies of these species; one former genus is considered as the subgenus Paradecolya Jin, 1992, stat. nov. within the genus Brachyphisis Chopard, 1957; several morphological, taxonomical and geographical remarks on A. mutillata and some other taxa are given.

Mexican species of Cylloceria Schiødte (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Cylloceriinae)

Seven species of the genus Cylloceria are found to occur in Mexico. Of them, C. morelia Humala et Khalaim sp. nov. is described as new, and two species, C. alvaradoi Gauld and C. rubrica Dasch, are recorded from Mexico for the first time. New data on distribution of four other species in Mexico are provided. Cylloceria alvaradoi is also recorded for the first time from Panama. An identification key to seven Mexican species of Cylloceria is given.

Long-term Monitoring of Breeding and Transient Bird Populations on the Courish Spit of the Baltic Sea

Since 1957, Biological Station Rybachy performs long-term monitoring of timing of spring and autumn migrations, timing of breeding and postfledging movements, dynamics of numbers of breeding and transient bird populations by standardized trapping in Rybachy-type funnel traps on the Courish Spit on Baltic coast. The results of monitoring strongly suggest that take place the long-term fluctuations of the timing migrations and numbers of local and transient populations. Current climate warming leads to earlier spring arrival not only in species that spend their winter within Europe, but also in long-distance African migrants. Colder weather, conversely, delays spring passage on 15–30 days. There are reasons to believe that climate change has influenced not only the timing of arrival to breeding grounds but also to the time of migratory departure from the winter quarters, both European and African ones. Climate change exerts a much smaller direct influence on the timing of autumn migration; the latter is more dependent on the timing of breeding. Earlier spring arrival usually leads to earlier breeding in the Baltic bird populations, which in its turn enhances breeding performance and leads to production of more young birds and thus to populations growth. Long-term monitoring of bird populations by Rybachy-type stationary traps is a powerful tool of studying the impact of climate on avian phenology and numbers.

Identification Key to the Intracontinental Species of the Genus Diaptonema (Nematoda: Monhysterida: Xyalidae) with a Description of New Species D. borkini sp. nov

Until recently, the system of the family Xyalidae was extremely complicated. The characters of the genera Theristus, Cylindrotheristus, Mesotheristus, Pseudotheristus, Mongolotheristus, and others were mixed up. Many species changed their generic assignment more than once. The most recent revision (Venekey et al. 2014) resulted in the fact that in intracontinental water bodies two species only preserved their independence: Daptonema and Sacrimarinema. Genera Cylindrotheristus, Mesotheristus, Mongolotheristus, Penzancia were partially reduced to synonyms of Daptonema. The basic character in taxonomy of genera is terminal setae. This cannot be used in some cases as some individuals in some populations lack terminal setae. Development of the system of the family Xyalidae and genus Daptonema, in particular, is possible under consideration of such characteristic as spicule form and presence of tail papillae. The hermaphrodite specimen of D. borkini sp. n. is discussed separately. The article provides an identification key to intracontinental species of the genus Daptonema. The key shows the species to be found in intracontinental water bodies. The species recorded in rivers (as a rule, in estuaries and lower parts of rivers) are not taken into account, as they seem to be the marine species which are capable to survive in significantly desalinated water. The article provides the description of new species D. borkini sp. n., which is similar in morphology to D. salinae Gagarin et Gusacov, 2014 and D. limnobia Wu et Liang, 2000. The key is supplemented with the Table of the main characteristics of all intracontinental species (males) of the genus Daptonema.

From Issidae to Tettigonometridae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoroidea): on the Taxonomic Position of Issuspallipes Lucas, 1853

Originally described and previously treated as member of the family Issidae, Issus pallipes Lucas, 1853, is transferred to the family Tettigometridae, genus Tettigometra Latreille, 1804.



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